桂図書館

How to Write Reports and Papers

We introduce library services useful for learning and research at university, such as how to find books effectively, tools useful for document management.

1. Learn how to write reports and papers

Kyoto University libraries have a lot of books for writing reports and papers. As a first step, learn how to write and structure academic reports and papers from these books.

Kyoto University libraries hold regular workshops on writing reports and papers. Please join us!

Search for books

To search for books, use Kyoto University library online catalogue KULINE . Following tags are attached to books and e-books that are recommended to read before writing reports and papers. Find books you need by searching these tags.

  • Guide to Paper and Report
  • Paper and Report(Writing)
  • Paper and Report(Reading)
  • Paper and Report(Searching)

Also, you can find books about academic writing by using subject search. Select advanced search on KULINE and enter "academic writing" in subject field.

  • academic writing

Refining by holding library, you can easily find the books which are at your frequently-used library or meet your needs.

For more information on how to use KULINE, please click here .

Join workshops

Kyoto University libraries have a variety of workshops and events through the year. Check Workshops for the latest information and past materials.

Lectures about academic writing and information retrieval

  • An Introduction to Academic Information Literacy - Library & Web Usage [Japanese] (-2021)
  • University Students and the Use of Information: An Introduction to Information Search, edited by Yoshitaka Kawasaki. Kyoto Institute for Library and Information Science Study Group, 2001. [Japanese] https://kuline.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/opac/opac_link/bibid/BB00685060

2. Search for the literature about your topic

It is important to collect previous studies which will give you an overview of the research field in order to write good reports and papers. The previous studies will show you what to do. After learning a basic structure of reports and papers, search for items which help you understand your topic.

Learn how to choose items

  • Search for the literature to which your professor referred in your class.
  • In addition, see the bibliography list in it.
  • Search on the KULINE by your research topic and related keywords.

For a more advanced search, see  The Basics of Collecting Documents .

Searching on databases

You can search on databases for electronic information and statistics as well as printed books. For example, past articles in newspaper retrieved from a newspaper database may be useful for your research.

  • Kyoto University Library Network > Databases
  • Kyoto University Library Network > Databases > Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
  • Kyoto University Library Network > Databases > News and Newspaper

3. Make a reference list

At the end of your reports and papers, you MUST give information about references on which you based your reports and papers. The aim at a reference list is the followings.

  • To distinguish your own ideas and findings from those you have drawn from the work of others
  • To pay tribute to previous researches
  • To clarify citation
  • To enable readers to find your sources

Learn how to write a reference

There are many different referencing conventions. You should follow the directions given by your professor, or the style specified according to your major or target journal. You can refer to the following style when a style guide is not specified.

Style for Japanese journals

  • Rules and methods of reference: applying the Standards for Information of Science and Technology (SIST) [Japanese] This is a guidebook explaining how to write a list of references.

Styles for overseas journals

  • The ACS Style Guide, 3rd ed. (2006) https://kuline.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/opac/opac_link/bibid/BB02250265
  • ACS Style Guide  [University of Wisconsin-Madison]
  • The ACS style guide: a manual for authors and editors. Janet S. Dodd (ed.), Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, c1997. https://kuline.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/opac/opac_link/bibid/BB01132970
  • Authoring Tools and Templates This includes templates for writing papers in Transaction, Word, LaTex, etc.
  • IEEE Editorial Style Manual for Authors
  • Featured Resources for Researchers
  • Physical Review Style and Notation Guide
  • The Basics of Sixth Edition APA Style
  • Laurie Rozakis. Schaum's quick guide to writing great research papers. 2nd ed, McGraw-Hill, 2007 https://kuline.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/opac/opac_link/bibid/EB03065424
  • The Chicago manual of style Online
  • Purdue Online Writing Lab [Purdue University] Style guide for APA, MLA, Chicago.
  • Citation Guide [Florida State University Libraries] Style guide for APA, MLA, Chicago, and citation tools.

Citation tools

Citation tools store a large number of style templates and can be used to easily standardize and change the reference style throughout your document.

  • Using citation tool (EndNote Online) [Japanese] This is an introduction to citation management.
  • Abha Agrawal. EndNote 1 - 2 - 3 Easy! : Reference Management for the Professional. Springer-Verlag US, 2009. https://kuline.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/opac/opac_link/bibid/EB03620926
  • EndNote (CD-ROM ver.) [Japanese] About EndNote (CD-ROM ver.) at Kyoto University Medical Library website. *It is not provided by the library.
  • Mendeley It is a free multifunctional citation tool. *It is not provided by the library.

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Writing reports the Japanese want to read

Businesspeople working for or with Japanese firms often complain that Japanese take too long to make decisions.   The various organizational and cultural reasons behind this phenomena are extremely complicated, but there is one key factor that is often overlooked:   The way that non-Japanese present written information can contribute to the holdup in the decision-making process.   According to one Japanese manager who is a key decision-maker in his company’s operations in Japan, “The information we get from our American colleagues isn’t enough to make us comfortable going forward.   Even though they send us reports, the information isn’t convincing enough for us.   This causes us to delay further.”

What is it that Japanese are looking for in written communications, and how is it different from how non-Japanese are used to communicating?   Some of Japanese’ written communication preferences are due to their challenges in using English as a second language, and some of them are due to cultural differences in how information is analyzed and presented.

Use more structure, fewer words

Many Japanese feel overwhelmed by the sheer volume of words in the written communication they receive from non-Japanese colleagues. “The Americans I work with tend to put together big thick reports.   It takes them a lot of time and effort, but it’s really hard for me to wade through something like that.   What I really need is a two-page overview.” laments one Japanese businessman.

It’s not that Japanese are unwilling or unable to read English, it’s that it just takes so darn long!   No matter how proficient one becomes in a second language, it will always take longer and require more concentration to read in one’s second language.

The following tips can help make it easier for Japanese to sort through your writing for the key information they are looking for.

·          “Less is more” When it comes to writing style, most Japanese would agree with this famous quote by architect Mies van der Rohe.   Make sure to boil down what you want to say to the essentials.   Be your own editor: read over what you have written to be sure that you are as succinct as possible.

·          Simple and clear.   Don’t forget the essentials of communicating with non-native speakers of English:   Keep your sentence structure simple, avoiding complicated grammar.   Avoid slang and idioms.   Include a definition for technical terms, jargon, or other words that may not be familiar to your readers.   Try to be consistent in the words you use to describe things (e.g. don’t use ‘speech” and “presentation” interchangeably in your document, pick one and stick with it throughout).

·          Headings and bullet points.   Use of section headings, bullet points, numbered lists, and even outline form to organize your writing.   This will make it easier for Japanese to visually see the structure of what you are trying to convey.

·          Underlining.   Underlining key points or facts is another way to help a non-native speaker pick out the key ideas in your communication.  

·          Executive summary.   In a longer report, create a short (two pages at most) executive summary which presents your key points and conclusions.   (For a shorter report, a one-paragraph summary is good.)  

Describe the environment and trends

Japanese want to have a holistic understanding of the entire environmental context before deciding on a direction to move forward.    Thus, a key to effectively persuading Japanese is to give them a lot of background information so that they can understand the overall context.   This includes describing trends and history.   For example, as one Japanese puts it, “When American colleagues describe to us something that is happening, and how they want us to respond to it, we want to know if it is a long term trend, or just a temporary anomaly or fad.   We want to see it put in a historical perspective.”

In describing the environment to Japanese colleagues, you may need to include things that would seem to be common knowledge among people in your industry.   Don’t worry that this may seem insulting to Japanese – it’s a common practice for Japanese to start a communication by summarizing information that everyone agrees upon.   Also, what may seem obvious to you may not be so to your Japanese colleagues.   Don’t forget that your Japanese colleagues generally aren’t reading the same newspapers, magazines, and trade journals as you are – again, due to the reading time issue mentioned above.

In helping Japanese understand the environment in your location, one helpful technique is to include as attachments to your report key articles that have appeared in newspapers, magazines, or trade journals.   Such articles are extremely helpful, because they are authoritative and there is no need to reinvent the wheel when a journalist has already summed up the situation well. may feel grade-schoolish to be cutting out clippings from newspapers and magazines, but it doesn’t seem that way to Japanese, who are habitual article clippers.  

Provide authoritative backup

When writing persuasive communications to Japanese, think of yourself as a journalist.   Rather than saying “sales of widgets are going up,” quote a specific statistic.   Rather than saying “customers have been asking for more colors of widgets,” give specific quotes from customers or copies of letters or call reports.   Such concrete backup will go a long way toward convincing Japanese.

Anticipate questions

People working with Japanese often complain about endless rounds of questions.   One way to avoid this is to anticipate what questions might be asked.   Try to think of what the person you are dealing with might want to know, or what they are likely to be asked by their superiors (a frequent reason for Japanese asking questions is to prepare themselves for being grilled by the boss).   Include as much of this information as possible in the form of attachments to your communication.  

Stress consistent themes

Anyone who reads a lot of documents produced in Japan (newspaper articles, annual reports, company documents) will notice that key themes and catchphrases seem to crop up again and again.   For example, a few years ago “internationalization” and “borderless” were popular; then “global standard” was used a lot, and now the current favorite is “globalization.”

This constant reference to the same touchstones can seem unoriginal and repetitive.   However, what Japanese are trying to accomplish by doing this is to achieve a sense of consensus about what is happening in the environment.   By using a catchphrase which sums up a generally-agreed upon view, the person writing is using a kind of shorthand.

I recommend that people dealing with Japanese create their own touchstones that can be used in communications.   For example, you might decide that “variety,” “customer responsiveness,” and “connectivity” are the key themes that you want to emphasize about trends in the market.   You could write a report for your Japanese colleagues that describes in detail these trends and how you define them.   Then, in future communications you could refer to these themes as a kind of shorthand.   You could also use these themes as a way to organize future communications (e.g. as topic headings).  

While you can do this on your own, it also could be extremely effective to reach a consensus among your colleagues about a set of themes and encourage everyone to use those themes in their communications with Japanese colleagues.   This can help impart a sense of consistency to your firm’s communications, which will help to more effectively convince Japanese.

In any business setting, reports are a crucial tool.   This is even more so in international business, where the time difference can make phone conversation difficult, and where non-native speakers of English have special challenges.   Adopting the above strategies when writing reports for your Japanese colleagues can decrease frustrations and help you meet your objectives.

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how to write in japanese

How To Write In Japanese – A Beginner’s Guide

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Do you want to learn how to write in Japanese , but feel confused or intimidated by the script?

This post will break it all down for you, in a step-by-step guide to reading and writing skills this beautiful language.

I remember when I first started learning Japanese and how daunting the writing system seemed. I even wondered whether I could get away without learning the script altogether and just sticking with romaji (writing Japanese with the roman letters).

I’m glad I didn’t.

If you’re serious about learning Japanese, you have to get to grips with the script sooner or later. If you don’t, you won’t be able to read or write anything useful, and that’s no way to learn a language.

The good news is that it isn’t as hard as you think. And I’ve teamed up with my friend Luca Toma (who’s also a Japanese coach ) to bring you this comprehensive guide to reading and writing Japanese.

By the way, if you want to learn Japanese fast and have fun while doing it, my top recommendation is  Japanese Uncovered  which teaches you through StoryLearning®. 

With  Japanese Uncovered  you’ll use my unique StoryLearning® method to learn Japanese naturally through story… not rules. It’s as fun as it is effective.

If you’re ready to get started,  click here for a 7-day FREE trial.

If you have a friend who’s learning Japanese, you might like to share it with them. Now, let’s get stuck in…

One Language, Two Systems, Three Scripts

If you are a complete beginner, Japanese writing may appear just like Chinese.

But if you look at it more carefully you'll notice that it doesn’t just contain complex Chinese characters… there are lots of simpler ones too.

Take a look.

それでも、 日本人 の 食生活 も 急速 に 変化 してきています 。 ハンバーグ や カレーライス は 子供に人気 がありますし 、都会 では 、 イタリア 料理、東南 アジア 料理、多国籍料理 などを 出 す エスニック 料理店 がどんどん 増 えています 。

Nevertheless, the eating habits of Japanese people are also rapid ly chang ing . Hamburgers and curry rice are popular with children . In cities , ethnic   restaurants serv ing Italian cuisine , Southeast Asian cuisine and multi-national cuisine keep increas ing more and more .

(Source: “Japan: Then and Now”, 2001, p. 62-63)

As you can see from this sample, within one Japanese text there are actually three different scripts intertwined. We’ve colour coded them to help you tell them apart.

(What’s really interesting is the different types of words – parts of speech – represented by each colour – it tells you a lot about what you use each of the three scripts for.)

Can you see the contrast between complex characters (orange) and simpler ones (blue and green)?

The complex characters are called kanji (漢字 lit. Chinese characters) and were borrowed from Chinese. They are what’s called a ‘logographic system' in which each symbol corresponds to a block of meaning (食 ‘to eat', 南 ‘south', 国 ‘country').

Each kanji also has its own pronunciation, which has to be learnt – you can’t “read” an unknown kanji like you could an unknown word in English.

Luckily, the other two sets of characters are simpler!

Those in blue above are called hiragana and those in green are called katakana . Katakana and hiragana are both examples of ‘syllabic systems', and unlike the kanji , each character corresponds to single sound. For example, そ= so, れ= re; イ= i, タ = ta.

Hiragana and katakana are a godsend for Japanese learners because the pronunciation isn’t a problem. If you see it, you can say it!

So, at this point, you’re probably wondering:

“What’s the point of using three different types of script? How could that have come about?”

In fact, all these scripts have a very specific role to play in a piece of Japanese writing, and you’ll find that they all work together in harmony in representing the Japanese language in a written form.

So let’s check them out in more detail.

First up, the two syllabic systems: hiragana and katakana (known collectively as kana ).

The ‘Kana' – One Symbol, One Sound

Both hiragana and katakana have a fixed number of symbols: 46 characters in each, to be precise.

Each of these corresponds to a combination of the 5 Japanese vowels (a, i, u, e o) and the 9 consonants (k, s, t, n, h, m, y, r, w).

hiragana katakana comparison chart

(Source: Wikipedia Commons )

Hiragana  (the blue characters in our sample text) are recognizable for their roundish shape and you’ll find them being used for three functions in Japanese writing:

1. Particles (used to indicate the grammatical function of a word)

は     wa     topic marker

が     ga      subject marker

を     wo      direct object marker

2. To change the meaning of verbs, adverbs or adjectives, which generally have a root written in kanji. (“Inflectional endings”)

急速 に     kyuusoku ni        rapid ly

増 えています       fu ete imasu     are increas ing

3. Native Japanese words not covered by the other two scripts

それでも     soredemo     nevertheless

どんどん     dondon     more and more

Katakana  (the green characters in our sample text) are recognisable for their straight lines and sharp corners. They are generally reserved for:

1. Loanwords from other languages. See what you can spot!

ハンバーグ     hanbaagu     hamburger

カレーライス     karee raisu     curry rice

エスニック     esunikku     ethnic

2. Transcribing foreign names

イタリア     itaria     Italy

アジア     ajia     Asia

They are also used for emphasis (the equivalent of italics or underlining in English), and for scientific terms (plants, animals, minerals, etc.).

So where did hiragana and katakana come from?

In fact, they were both derived from kanji which had a particular pronunciation; Hiragana took from the Chinese cursive script  (安 an →あ a), whereas katakana developed from single components of the regular Chinese script (阿 a →ア a ).

japanese kana development chart

So that covers the origins the two kana scripts in Japanese, and how we use them.

Now let’s get on to the fun stuff… kanji !

The Kanji – One Symbol, One Meaning

Kanji  – the most formidable hurdle for learners of Japanese!

We said earlier that kanji is a logographic system, in which each symbol corresponds to a “block of meaning”.

食     eating

生     life, birth

活     vivid, lively

“Block of meaning” is the best phrase, because one kanji is not necessarily a “word” on its own.

You might have to combine one kanji with another in order to make an actual word, and also to express more complex concepts:

生 + 活   =   生活     lifestyle

食 + 生活   =  食生活     eating habits

If that sounds complicated, remember that you see the same principle in other languages.

Think about the word ‘telephone' in English – you can break it down into two main components derived from Greek:

‘tele' (far)  +  ‘phone' (sound)  = telephone

Neither of them are words in their own right.

So there are lots and lots of kanji , but in order to make more sense of them we can start by categorising them.

There are several categories of kanji , starting with the ‘pictographs' (象形文字 sh ōkei moji), which look like the objects they represent:

the origin of kanji

(Source: Wikipedia Commons )

In fact, there aren’t too many of these pictographs.

Around 90% of the kanji in fact come from six other categories, in which several basic elements (called ‘radicals') are combined to form new concepts.

For example:

人 (‘man' as a radical)   +   木 (‘tree')    =  休 (‘to rest')

These are known as 形声文字 keisei moji or ‘radical-phonetic compounds'.

You can think of these characters as being made up of two parts:

  • A radical that tells you what category of word it is: animals, plants, metals, etc.)
  • A second component that completes the character and give it its pronunciation (a sort of Japanese approximation from Chinese).

So that’s the story behind the kanji , but what are they used for in Japanese writing?

Typically, they are used to represent concrete concepts.

When you look at a piece of Japanese writing, you’ll see kanji being used for nouns, and in the stem of verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

Here are some of them from our sample text at the start of the article:

日本人     Japanese people 多国籍料理     multinational cuisine 東南     Southeast

Now, here’s the big question!

Once you’ve learnt to read or write a kanji , how do you pronounce it?

If you took the character from the original Chinese, it would usually only have one pronunciation.

However, by the time these characters leave China and reach Japan, they usually have two or sometimes even more pronunciations.

How or why does this happen?

Let's look at an example.

To say ‘mountain', the Chinese use the pictograph 山 which depicts a mountain with three peaks. The pronunciation of this character in Chinese is sh ā n (in the first tone).

yama kanji mountain

Now, in Japanese the word for ‘mountain' is ‘yama'.

So in this case, the Japanese decided to borrow the character山from Chinese, but to pronounce it differently: yama .

However, this isn’t the end of the story!

The Japanese did decide to borrow the pronunciation from the original Chinese, but only to use it when that character is used in compound words.

So, in this case, when the character 山 is part of a compound word, it is pronounced as san/zan – clearly an approximation to the original Chinese pronunciation.

Here’s the kanji on its own:

山は…      Yama wa…     The mountain….

And here’s the kanji when it appears in compound words:

火山は…     Ka zan wa     The volcano…

富士山は…     Fuji san wa…     Mount Fuji….

To recap, every kanji has at least two pronunciations.

The first one (the so-called訓読み kun'yomi or ‘meaning reading') has an original Japanese pronunciation, and is used with one kanji on it’s own.

The second one (called音読み  on'yomi or ‘sound-based reading') is used in compound words, and comes from the original Chinese.

Makes sense, right? 😉

In Japan, there’s an official number of kanji that are classified for “daily use” (常用漢字 joy ō kanji ) by the Japanese Ministry of Education – currently 2,136.

(Although remember that the number of actual words that you can form using these characters is much higher.)

So now… if you wanted to actually learn all these kanji , how should you go about it?

To answer this question, Luca’s going to give us an insight into how he did it.  

How I Learnt Kanji

I started to learn kanji more than 10 years ago at a time when you couldn't find all the great resources that are available nowadays. I only had paper kanji dictionary and simple lists from my textbook.

What I did have, however, was the memory of a fantastic teacher.

I studied Chinese for two years in college, and this teacher taught us characters in two helpful ways:

  • He would analyse them in terms of their radicals and other components
  • He kept us motivated and interested in the process by using fascinating stories based on etymology (the origin of the characters)

Once I’d learnt to recognise the 214 radicals which make up all characters – the building blocks of Chinese characters – it was then much easier to go on and learn the characters and the words themselves.

It’s back to the earlier analogy of dividing the word ‘telephone' into tele and phone .

But here’s the thing – knowing the characters alone isn’t enough. There are too many, and they’re all very similar to one another.

If you want to get really good at the language, and really know how to read and how to write in Japanese, you need a higher-order strategy.

The number one strategy that I used to reach a near-native ability in reading and writing in Japanese was to learn the kanji within the context of dialogues or other texts .

I never studied them as individual characters or words.

Now, I could give you a few dozen ninja tricks for how to learn Japanese kanji. B ut the one secret that blows everything else out of the water and guarantees real success in the long-term, is extensive reading and massive exposure.

This is the foundation of the StoryLearning® method , where you immerse yourself in language through story.

In the meantime, there are a lot of resources both online and offline to learn kanji , each of which is based on a particular method or approach (from flashcards to mnemonic and so on).

The decision of which approach to use can be made easier by understanding the way you learn best.

Do you have a photographic memory or prefer working with images? Do you prefer to listen to audio? Or perhaps you prefer to write things by hands?

You can and should try more than one method, in order to figure out which works best for you.

( Note : You should get a copy of this excellent guide by John Fotheringham, which has all the resources you’ll ever need to learn kanji )

Summary Of How To Write In Japanese

So you’ve made it to the end!

See – I told you it wasn’t that bad! Let’s recap what we’ve covered.

Ordinary written Japanese employs a mixture of three scripts:

  • Kanji, or Chinese characters, of which there are officially 2,136 in daily use (more in practice)
  • 2 syllabic alphabets called hiragana and katakana, containing 42 symbols each

In special cases, such as children’s books or simplified materials for language learners, you might find everything written using only hiragana or katakana .

But apart from those materials, everything in Japanese is written by employing the three scripts together. And it’s the kanji which represent the cultural and linguistic challenge in the Japanese language.

If you want to become proficient in Japanese you have to learn all three!

Although it seems like a daunting task, remember that there are many people before you who have found themselves right at the beginning of their journey in learning Japanese.

And every journey begins with a single step.

So what are you waiting for?

The best place to start is to enrol in  Japanese Uncovered . The course includes a series of lessons that teach you hiragana, katakana and kanji. It also includes an exciting Japanese story which comes in different formats (romaji, hiragana, kana and kanji) so you can practice reading Japanese, no matter what level you're at right now.

– – –

It’s been a pleasure for me to work on this article with Luca Toma, and I’ve learnt a lot in the process.

Now he didn’t ask me to write this, but if you’re serious about learning Japanese, you should consider hiring Luca as a coach. The reasons are many, and you can find out more on his website: JapaneseCoaching.it

Do you know anyone learning Japanese? Why not send them this article, or click here to send a tweet .

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Home » Articles » How to Write in Japanese — A Beginner’s Guide to Japanese Writing

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Full disclosure: This post contains affiliate links. ?

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written by Caitlin Sacasas

Language: Japanese

Reading time: 13 minutes

Published: Apr 2, 2021

Updated: Oct 18, 2021

How to Write in Japanese — A Beginner’s Guide to Japanese Writing

Does the Japanese writing system intimidate you?

For most people, this seems like the hardest part of learning Japanese. How to write in Japanese is a bit more complex than some other languages. But there are ways to make it easier so you can master it!

Here at Fluent in 3 Months , we encourage actually speaking over intensive studying, reading, and listening. But writing is an active form of learning too, and crucial for Japanese. Japanese culture is deeply ingrained in its writing systems. If you can’t read or write it, you’ll struggle as you go along in your studies.

Some of the best Japanese textbooks expect you to master these writing systems… fast . For instance, the popular college textbook Genki , published by the Japan Times, expects you to master the basics in as little as a week. After that, they start to phase out the romanized versions of the word.

It’s also easy to mispronounce words when they’re romanized into English instead of the original writing system. If you have any experience learning how to write in Korean , then you know that romanization can vary and the way it reads isn’t often how it’s spoken.

Despite having three writing systems, there are benefits to it. Kanji, the “most difficult,” actually makes memorizing vocabulary easier!

So, learning to write in Japanese will go a long way in your language studies and help you to speak Japanese fast .

Why Does Japanese Have Three Writing Systems? A Brief Explainer

Japanese has three writing systems: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. The first two are collectively called kana and are the basics of writing in Japanese.

Writing Kana

If you think about English, we have two writing systems — print and cursive. Both print and cursive write out the same letters, but they look “sharp” and “curvy.” The same is true for kana. Hiragana is “curvy” and katakana is “sharp,” but they both represent the same Japanese alphabet (which is actually called a syllabary). They both represent sounds, or syllables, rather than single letters (except for vowels and “n”, hiragana ん or katakana ン). Hiragana and katakana serve two different purposes.

Hiragana is the most common, and the first taught to Japanese children. If this is all you learn, you would be understood (although you’d come across child-like). Hiragana is used for grammar functions, like changing conjugation or marking the subject of a sentence. Because of this, hiragana helps break up a sentence when combined with kanji. It makes it easier to tell where a word begins and ends, especially since Japanese doesn’t use spaces. It’s also used for furigana, which are small hiragana written next to kanji to help with the reading. You see furigana often in manga , Japanese comics, for younger audiences who haven’t yet learned to read all the kanji. (Or learners like us!)

Katakana serves to mark foreign words. When words from other languages are imported into Japanese, they’re often written in Japanese as close as possible to the original word. (Like how you can romanize Japanese into English, called romaji). For example, パン ( pan ) comes from Spanish, and means “bread.” Or from English, “smartphone” is スマートフォン ( suma-tofon ) or shortened, slang form スマホ ( sumaho ). Katakana can also be used to stylistically write a Japanese name, to write your own foreign name in Japanese, or to add emphasis to a word when writing.

Writing Kanji

Then there’s kanji. Kanji was imported from Chinese, and each character means a word, instead of a syllable or letter. 犬, read inu , means “dog.” And 食, read ta or shoku , means “food” or “to eat.” They combine with hiragana or other kanji to complete their meaning and define how you pronounce them.

So if you wanted to say “I’m eating,” you would say 食べます ( tabemasu ), where -bemasu completes the verb and puts it in grammatical tense using hiragana. If you wanted to say “Japanese food,” it would be 日本食 ( nipponshoku ), where it’s connected to other kanji.

If you didn’t have these three forms, it would make reading Japanese very difficult. The sentences would run together and it would be confusing. Like in this famous Japanese tongue twister: にわにはにわにわとりがいる, or romanized niwa ni wa niwa niwatori ga iru . But in kanji, it looks like 庭には二羽鶏がいる. The meaning? “There are chickens in the garden.” Thanks to the different writing systems, we know that the first niwa means garden, the second ni wa are the grammatical particles, the third niwa is to say there are at least two, and niwatori is “chickens.”

Japanese Pronunciation

Japanese has fewer sounds than English, and except for “r,” most of them are in the English language. So you should find most of the sounds easy to pick up!

Japanese has the same 5 vowels, but only 16 consonants. For the most part, all syllables consist of only a vowel, or a consonant plus a vowel. But there is the single “n,” and “sh,” “ts,” and “ch” sounds, as well as consonant + -ya/-yu/-yo sounds. I’ll explain this more in a minute.

Although Japanese has the same 5 vowel sounds, they only have one sound . Unlike English, there is no “long A” and “short A” sound. This makes it easy when reading kana because the sound never changes . So, once you learn how to write kana, you will always know how to pronounce it.

Here’s how the 5 vowels sound in Japanese:

  • あ / ア: “ah” as in “latte”
  • い / イ: “ee” as in “bee”
  • う / ウ: “oo” as in “tooth”
  • え / エ: “eh” as in “echo”
  • お / オ: “oh” as in “open”

Even when combined with consonants, the sound of the vowel stays the same. Look at these examples:

  • か / カ: “kah” as in “copy”
  • ち / チ: “chi” as in “cheap”
  • む / ム: “mu” as in “move”
  • せ / セ: “se” as in “set”
  • の / ノ: “no” as in “note”

Take a look at the entire syllabary chart:

Based on learning how to pronounce the vowels, can you pronounce the rest of the syllables? The hardest ones will be the R-row of sounds, “tsu,” “fu,” and “n.”

For “r” it sounds between an “r” and an “l” sound in English. Almost like the Spanish, actually. First, try saying “la, la, la.” Your tongue should push off of the back of your teeth to make this sound. Now say “rah, rah, rah.” Notice how your tongue pulls back to touch your back teeth. Now, say “dah, dah, dah.” That placement of your tongue to make the “d” sound is actually where you make the Japanese “r” sound. You gently push off of this spot on the roof of your mouth as you pull back your tongue like an English “r.”

“Tsu” blends together “t” and “s” in a way we don’t quite have in English. You push off the “t” sound, and should almost sound like the “s” is drawn out. The sound “fu” is so soft, and like a breath of air coming out. Think like a sigh, “phew.” It doesn’t sound like “who,” but a soft “f.” As for our lone consonant, “n” can sound like “n” or “m,” depending on the word.

Special Japanese Character Readings and How to Write Them

There are a few Japanese characters that combine with others to create more sounds. You’ll often see dakuten , which are double accent marks above the character on the right side ( ゙), and handakuten , which is a small circle on the right side ( ゚).

Here’s how dakuten affect the characters:

And handakuten are only used with the H-row characters, changing it from “h” to “p.” So か ( ka ) becomes が ( ga ), and ひ ( hi ) becomes either び ( bi ) or ぴ ( pi ).

A sokuon adds a small っ between two characters to double the consonant that follows it and make a “stop” in the word. In the saying いらっしゃいませ ( irasshaimase , “Welcome!”), the “rahs-shai” has a slight glottal pause where the “tsu” emphasizes the double “s.”

One of the special readings that tend to be mispronounced are the yoon characters. These characters add a small “y” row character to the other rows to blend the sounds together. These look like ちゃ ( cha ), きょ ( kyo ), and しゅ ( shu ). They’re added to the “i” column of kana characters.

An example of a common mispronunciation is “Tokyo.” It’s often said “Toh-key-yo,” but it’s actually only two syllables: “Toh-kyo.” The k and y are blended; there is no “ee” sound in the middle.

How to Read, Write, and Pronounce Kanji Characters

Here’s where things get tricky. Kanji, since it represents a whole word or idea, and combines with hiragana… It almost always has more than one way to read and pronounce it. And when it comes to writing them, they have a lot more to them.

Let’s start by breaking down the kanji a bit, shall we?

Most kanji consist of radicals, the basic elements or building blocks. For instance, 日 (“sun” or “day”) is a radical. So is 言 (“words” or “to say”) and 心 (“heart”). So when we see the kanji 曜, we see that “day” has been squished in this complex kanji. This kanji means “day of the week.” It’s in every weekday’s name: 月曜日 ( getsuyoubi , “Monday”), 火曜日 ( kayoubi , “Tuesday”), 水曜日 ( suiyoubi , “Wednesday”), etc.

When the kanji for “words” is mixed into another kanji, it usually has something to do with conversation or language. 日本語 ( nihongo ) is the word for “Japanese” and the final kanji 語 includes 言. And as for 心, it’s often in kanji related to expressing emotions and feelings, like 怒る ( okoru , “angry”) and 思う ( omou , “to think”).

In this way, some kanji make a lot of sense when we break them down like this. A good example is 妹 ( imouto ), the kanji for “little sister.” It’s made up of two radicals: 女, “woman,” and 未, “not yet.” She’s “not yet a woman,” because she’s your kid sister.

So why learn radicals? Because radicals make it easier to memorize, read, and write the kanji. By learning radicals, you can break the kanji down using mnemonics (like “not yet a woman” to remember imouto ). If you know each “part,” you’ll remember how to write it. 妹 has 7 strokes to it, but only 2 radicals. So instead of memorizing tons of tiny lines, memorize the parts.

As for pronouncing them, this is largely a memorization game. But here’s a pro-tip. Each kanji has “common” readings — often only one or two. Memorize how to read the kanji with common words that use them, and you’ll know how to read that kanji more often than not.

Japanese Writing: Stroke Order

So, I mentioned stroke order with kanji. But what is that? Stroke order is the proper sequence you use to write Japanese characters.

The rule of stroke order is you go from top to bottom, left to right.

This can still be confusing with some complex kanji, but again, radicals play a part here. You would break down each radical top left-most stroke to bottom right stroke, then move on to the next radical. A helpful resource is Jisho.org , which shows you how to properly write all the characters. Check out how to write the kanji for “kanji” as a perfect example of breaking down radicals.

When it comes to kana, stroke order still matters. Even though they’re simpler, proper stroke order makes your characters easier to read. And some characters rely on stroke order to tell them apart. Take シ and ツ:

[Shi and Tsu example]

If you didn’t use proper stroke order, these two katakana characters would look the same!

How to Memorize Japanese Kanji and Kana

When it comes to Japanese writing, practice makes perfect. Practice writing your sentences down in Japanese, every day. Practice filling in the kana syllabary chart for hiragana and katakana, until there are no blank boxes and you’ve got them all right.

Create mnemonics for both kanji and kana. Heisig’s method is one of the best ways to memorize how to write kanji with mnemonics. Using spaced repetition helps too, like Anki. Then you’re regularly seeing each character, and you can input your mnemonics into the note of the card so you have it as a reminder.

Another great way to practice is to write out words you already know. If you know mizu means “water,” then learn the kanji 水 and write it with the kanji every time from here on out. If you know the phrase おはようございます means “good morning,” practice writing in in kana every morning. That phrase alone gives you practice with 9 characters and two with dakuten! And try looking up loan words to practice katakana.

Tools to Help You with Japanese Writing

There are some fantastic resources out there to help you practice writing in Japanese. Here are a few to help you learn it fast:

  • JapanesePod101 : Yes, JapanesePod101 is a podcast. But they often feature YouTube videos and have helpful PDFs that teach you kanji and kana! Plus, you’ll pick up all kinds of helpful cultural insights and grammar tips.
  • LingQ : LingQ is chock full of reading material in Japanese, giving you plenty of exposure to kana, new kanji, and words. It uses spaced repetition to help you review.
  • Skritter : Skritter is one of the best apps for Japanese writing. You can practice writing kanji on the app, and review them periodically so you don’t forget. It’s an incredible resource to keep up with your Japanese writing practice on the go.
  • Scripts : From the creator of Drops, this app was designed specifically for learning languages with a different script from your own.

How to Type in Japanese

It’s actually quite simple to type in Japanese! On a PC, you can go to “Language Settings” and click “Add a preferred language.” Download Japanese — 日本語 — and make sure to move it below English. (Otherwise, it will change your laptop’s language to Japanese… Which can be an effective study tool , though!)

To start typing in Japanese, you would press the Windows key + space. Your keyboard will now be set to Japanese! You can type the romanized script, and it will show you the suggestions for kanji and kana. To easily change back and forth between Japanese and English, use the alt key + “~” key.

For Mac, you can go to “System Preferences”, then “Keyboard” and then click the “+” button to add and set Japanese. To toggle between languages, use the command key and space bar.

For mobile devices, it’s very similar. You’ll go to your settings, then language and input settings. Add the Japanese keyboard, and then you’ll be able to toggle back and forth when your typing from the keyboard!

Japanese Writing Isn’t Scary!

Japanese writing isn’t that bad. It does take practice, but it’s fun to write! It’s a beautiful script. So, don’t believe the old ideology that “three different writing systems will take thousands of hours to learn!” A different writing system shouldn’t scare you off. Each writing system has a purpose and makes sense once you start learning. They build on each other, so learning it gets easier as you go. Realistically, you could read a Japanese newspaper after only about two months of consistent studying and practice with kanji!

write a report in japanese

Caitlin Sacasas

Content Writer, Fluent in 3 Months

Caitlin is a copywriter, content strategist, and language learner. Besides languages, her passions are fitness, books, and Star Wars. Connect with her: Twitter | LinkedIn

Speaks: English, Japanese, Korean, Spanish

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How To Write Letters In Japanese: An Introduction Pen Pal Besties for Life

June 4, 2013 • words written by Koichi • Art by Aya Francisco

Writing a letter in Japanese is quite the epic topic. It's sadly not as easy as writing something, stuffing it in an envelope, stamping it, and sending it. Japanese letters require you to think about certain formalities, set expressions, styles of writing, and even relationships between you and the person you're writing to. It's so complicated and convoluted that even Japanese people will buy books on the subject so that they can "read up on" and study the latest letter writing rules. Don't feel bad if you feel lost.

The goal of this article is to help you to understand Japanese letters. It will take a little more research and studying to be able to write a letter in Japanese, but I think I'll be covering the difficult part. After reading this article, I want you to understand things like the relationship between you and the person you're writing to, the format of a Japanese letter (both vertical and horizontal), how to write the address on the envelope, as well as the concept of "set expressions." This will give you the tools to write a letter, make things less confusing, and eventually get you to the point where you should be able to piece together a Japanese letter on your own (resources included in the last section of this article).

Let's get straight into the first thing you must think about even before you pick up that pen and paper. Wait, I mean, go to your keyboard and monitor, relationships .

Relationships: AKA Who Are You Writing To?

how to write letters in japanese conversation between people

In Japanese, hierarchy is much more important than in many other countries. You have the senpai-kohai relationship. Then you have teacher vs. student, boss vs. minion, older people vs. younger people, and the list goes on and on. On top of this, relationship statuses change when you're asking for a request, but this (and many other things) will depend on how close you are to the other person. Relationships, your closeness, and where you stand in the hierarchy of said relationship dictate how you act and speak with that other person. Of course, this carries over to letters as well.

I am going to simplify it a bit for you though. In general, there's going to be three types of letters. They are:

Informal: Friends, Senpai, People below you

Neutral: Teachers, Friends you are requesting something of, Superiors

Formal: People you don't know, Superiors you are requesting something of

You may have noticed some patterns here. Informal relationships are people of a similar age, aka people who are on the same hierarchy level as you. Then, there's neutral (which is really just regular-polite level) which has teachers and other superiors whom you have at least a moderately close relationship with, though friends that you are requesting something of get bumped up to this rung (because you have to be nice if you're asking for something). Lastly, there's formal, which includes people you don't have a close relationship with (people you don't know), as well as superiors that you're asking something of. Asking something of someone automatically bumps them up to the next rung, as a rule of thumb.

Of course, as long as you stay in the Neutral or Formal levels, you'll probably always be okay, so that's what I'll be sticking with in these articles as well. Informal is informal, and doesn't really need to follow so many of the rules that I'll be laying out here during this series.

The Materials

how to write letters in japanese stack of

Now that you know who you're writing to, it's time to figure out what materials you need to use. I think a lot of this is just common sense, but just in case it isn't, I've summarized and simplified a list provided by the (excellent) textbook, Writing Letters In Japanese .

  • In general, white stationary without any pictures is most preferred.
  • Business letters are usually written horizontally via a word processor.
  • Personal letters to superiors should be written vertically on white stationary (hand written).
  • For superiors, use a white envelope.
  • Write in pen, using black or blue ink.
  • Don't write with pencils or markers.
  • Postcards should only be used in informal occasions, or occasions in that call for postcards (like New Years).

Once you've figured out your materials (based on who you're writing to), it's time to learn how to use these materials. Sadly, not all of it is as simple as you might think. There are rules, Smokey!

Japanese Letter Formatting Rules

I will cover two types of letter: Vertical and Horizontal. This refers to how you're writing your text. Does it go up to down or does it go right to left? Depending on which one you choose, there are a few differences you need to take note of.

Vertical Letters

These are the most personal. I suppose you're putting a lot more work into this kind, because in general you're writing them out by hand. Horizontal rule letters feel a little colder and less personal, though I think that's changing. Usually, though, you can't go wrong with a vertical letter, as it's the standard style for letter writing in Japan.

how to write letter in japanese vertical

As you can see there are various parts, and the positioning of each is important.

Opening: The opening word consists of a set word, kind of like the word "Dear…" that goes at the beginning of English letters. In Japanese, this would be haikei 拝啓 ( はいけい ) or zenryaku 前略 ( ぜんりゃく ) . These actually pair with the closing section, so be careful!

Set Expression #1: Right at the beginning of the letter there should be a set expression. This could be one of many predetermined topics or phrases, which are usually about weather, the season, health of the addressee, and so on and so forth. Certain topics will have certain opening set expressions as well, but we'll go more into that later.

Content: This is where you actually write your letter and say the things you want to say. Notice how this is the only non-predetermined section out of so many? It's weird.

Set Expression #2: After you finish saying what you want to say, it's time for another set expression. This will usually be about the addressee's health or good wishes for them.

Closing: This is like "sincerely…" in English letters. Unlike that, however, it is paired with the opening. 拝啓 goes with the closing greeting keigu 敬具 ( けいぐ ) . 前略 goes with the closing sousou 草々 ( そうそう ) . No mixing and matching.

Date: This is written a little lower than the text to its right. Use the Japanese numeral system for vertical letters.

Your Name: This is where you write your name. Put it down to the bottom of the column.

Addressee's Name: This goes to the left of the date and your name, but higher than the date, and lower than all the text to the right.

PostScript (Optional): This is the P.S. portion of the letter. In Japanese, this is tsuishin 追伸 ( ついしん ) or nishin 二伸 ( にしん ) , and is written to the left of the addressee's name, lined up with the main text. This is a little informal, though, so don't use it if you can help yourself.

As you can see, there's a lot to consider even before you write any content. Luckily, horizontal letters are a lot simpler.

Horizontal Letters

Generally used in business sorts of situations, horizontal letters are mostly typed out and a lot simpler.

how to write a horizontal japanese letter

Date: Goes in the top right. It's written using Arabic numerals since it's being written horizontally. 12月25日, for example.

Addressee's Name: This is where you put the name of the person you're writing to. As with all letters, don't forget their name honorific!

Set Expression #1: Here's where the first set expression will go.

Content: This is where the content of your letter will go.

Set Expression #2: One more set expression for the addressee's well being and health.

Your Name: This is where you sign your name, horizontally. Might be good to sign it with a pen instead of with the word processor, just to be a little more polite.

Horizontal letters are easier, but they can be considered rude if you send them in the wrong situations. Of course, email is a whole other thing (it's all horizontal there), and I think it's causing the mindset to shift a bit on this. Still, though, vertical is the default go-to for writing letters (especially by hand), so be sure learn about it even though this one is easier.

Envelopes And Addresses

The address system in Japan is quite different from America and much of the rest of the world. You'll want to know about that before sending a letter, otherwise it may not get to the desired location (that being said, the Japanese postal system is baller). Once you know the address, though, there are some rules as to where you should be putting the mailing address, return address, and stamp.

Vertical Envelopes

This is the tall type envelope which you will often see in Japan. It's good for vertically written letters, as you can crease your letter parallel to the lines you're writing.

how to write vertical japanese envelope

As you can see there are a few different things compared to the envelopes you might be used to. First off, you'll want to put the postal code in boxes provided. Then, on the front of the envelope, you'll want to put the address on the right side (written vertically) and the addressee's name on the left, written in slightly bigger letters than the address to help differentiate. On the flap side of the envelope you should write the return address. Your name and address should go on the left side in the same format as the addressee's name and address (though size isn't going to matter as much), and your postal code should go in the boxes if they're provided.

Horizontal Envelopes

With horizontal envelopes, there are a couple ways to do it.

  • You can turn the envelope sideways so it's taller, and write the address in the same way you'd write it with a vertical envelope.
  • You can write things horizontally. Just like the vertical envelope, the addressee's address goes on the front, with their address on top and their name written bigger below. If the boxes for the postal code are posted vertically, turn the envelope and write it in the direction they're printed (horizontally). On the back of the envelope (flap side) you can put your address and name at the bottom.

A lot of the rules carry over from vertical envelopes, so this should be a little easier. So what about when you're sending a letter to Japan?

Sending Letters To Japan From Overseas

When you are sending a letter to Japan from outside of Japan, you can write the address in romaji (though Japanese is preferred, if you can), and write it in the format that's normally accepted in your country. Just be sure to write "JAPAN" at the bottom of the addressee's address so they know to send it there!

Opening Set Expressions

This is perhaps the most difficult section of all when it comes to writing letters in Japanese. Luckily, these are set expressions, meaning you can just look them up, use them, and gone on with your life. The tricky part comes when you have to come up with some of your own (in certain specific situations), though we're going to just ignore that for now.

The first set of set expressions is the one that comes before the start of your actual content. It generally has to do with weather, the season, or health of the addressee. There are expressions for each month, season, as well as different opening greetings for various inquisitions on the addressee's health. Here are some examples, though there are many more set expressions worth knowing (or knowing where to find, which I'll go over at the end).

  • 寒 ( さむ ) さひとしお 身 ( み ) にしみる 今日 ( きょう ) このごろ…
  • In this time of piercing cold…
  • 新春 ( しんしゅん ) とは 申 ( も ) しながら、まだまだ 寒 ( さむ ) さが 続 ( つづ ) いておりますが…
  • While it is the New Year, the cold continues.
  • 春 ( はる ) の 日 ( ひ ) うららかな 今日 ( きょう ) このごろ…
  • In this time of beautiful spring days…
  • 日本 ( にほん ) はあたたかくなっているころでしょう…
  • I guess it must be getting warmer in Japan…
  • 厳 ( きび ) しい 残暑 ( ざんしょ ) が 続 ( つづ ) いておりますが…
  • The oppressive heat continues to linger…
  • 今年 ( ことし ) も 押 ( お ) し 迫 ( せま ) りましたが…
  • This year is drawing to a close… (used after Dec 20)

Health Related:

  • いかがお 過 ( す ) ごしていらしゃいますか?
  • How have you been?
  • 私 ( わたし ) もおかげさまで 元気 ( げんき ) にしております…
  • Fortunately I am doing well (thanks to your help)…

Writing A Reply To A Letter

  • お 手紙 ( てがみ ) ありがとうございました…
  • Thank you for your letter…

These set expressions are only a drop in the bucket. There are at least several set expressions for each month, season, and situation, and there are probably more out there. The thing about set expressions is you are expected to write with said set expressions, otherwise your letter isn't going to come off as polite. While creativity is encouraged in Western letters, using some set expression rules is more important in Japanese, which makes things both harder and easier.

Closing Set Expressions

After your main content you have to go back into set expressions. There are fewer of these, but it's still basically the same thing as the opening ones. Here are some examples:

Making A Request

  • どうかよろしくお 願 ( ねが ) い 致 ( いた ) します。
  • Kindly look after this matter for me.

Give My regards

  • 奥様 ( おくさま ) に 宜 ( よろ ) しくお 願 ( ねが ) いします
  • Please give my regards to your wife.

Good Health

  • お 寒 ( さむ ) さの 折 ( おり ) からお 体 ( からだ ) をお 大切 ( たいせつ ) に
  • Please take care of yourself since it's cold.

Request A Reply

  • お 返事 ( へんじ ) を 待 ( ま ) ちしております
  • I look forward to your reply.

I think closing set expressions are a little simpler than the opening ones, but they're all basically the same thing and you'll see the same ones over and over a lot.

Where To Go From Here?

how to write letters in japanese

So as you can see, writing letters in Japanese is a big ordeal, though once you learn all the rules and do a little practice it's not all that bad. In fact, it's very set in stone, meaning that as long as you follow the rules you'll be able to write a great letter in Japanese.

The next step, I think, is to take a look at examples. Writing letters in Japanese definitely takes an intermediate or advanced knowledge of the language, so if you possess said knowledge and want an English textbook, I'd recommend Writing Letters In Japanese . It contains plenty of example letters as well as lessons going over all of them to help you get your letter writing skills up to snuff. Alternatively, if you're fairly advanced in Japanese, the Japanese website Midori-Japan's 手紙の書き方 will do the trick. This site includes many example letters for many different and often specific situations as well as a list of set expressions that you can pull from. Basically, everything you need to template out a proper Japanese letter.

I hope this article and those sources help you to get started writing letters in Japanese! It's a crazy letter writing world over there, but once you get your foot in the proverbial letter-writing door it become easier. I want to write more on this topic soon, including examples for plenty of different letter-writing situations, but we'll see if it's next week or a week in the future to come. Writing letters in Japanese is a huge topic, as I think everyone has come to understand so long as you've read to this point.

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Essential Business Japanese: Learn the Most Useful Phrases

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Now that you’ve been learning Japanese for a while, do you plan on working in Japan or with Japanese speaking clients? Knowing the basic Japanese business phrases will help you communicate smoothly and build better relationships with your colleagues and clients.

Business Japanese is quite different from the casual Japanese used in daily life. It’s important to know particular expressions for work and how to express yourself formally in context of the Japanese business etiquette and culture. Even if you’re not yet fluent, being able to give a courteous greeting in Japanese can make a huge difference, even if it’s just for a business trip to Japan.

In this article, we’ll introduce the most useful Japanese business phrases you need to know for job interviews, meetings, communication with coworkers, handling phone calls and emails, and helpful tips about Japanese business culture.  Bring yourself up a level here at JapanesePod101.com !

  • Japanese Business Culture
  • Nail Your Job Interview
  • Interact with Coworkers
  • Sound Smart in a Meeting
  • Handle Business Phone Calls
  • Handle Business Emails
  • How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

1. Japanese Business Culture

Jobs

Before diving into the Japanese business phrases, let’s cover the basics of Japanese business culture and how it works.

1 – Japanese Business Etiquette

Politeness and respect are the most important values in Japanese culture, and these values are emphasized even more in the business world. 

This is clearly pronounced in the Japanese ritual of greeting and bowing. There are various ways to bow according to the level of politeness and whom you’re greeting:

  • 会釈 ( Eshaku ) – light greeting for colleagues / bow with upper body to fifteen degrees 
  • 敬礼 ( Keirei ) – respectful greeting for clients, gratitude, and apologies / bow with upper body to thirty degrees
  • 最敬礼 ( Saikeirei ) – the most respectful greeting for VIP and deep apologies / bow with upper body to forty-five degrees

Exchanging business cards , called 名刺 ( Meishi ), is another basic formality in business situations. This is typically done when you’re meeting someone for the first time, especially if the person works for another company. Business cards are considered to be one’s “face” in Japan, and therefore must be treated politely.

Here are some tips on Japanese business card usage: When exchanging cards, stand face-to-face and offer your card with both hands, usually with a slight bow. The card must be facing toward the other person so that the receiver can read it. Accept the other person’s card with both hands, and after taking a look at it, you must put it on the table near the receiver’s seat in a neat manner. It’s considered very rude to give/receive a card with just one hand, treat it brusquely, or put the card in a card holder right after receiving it.

Exchanging business cards is one of the most important business etiquette rules in Japan.

2 – Keigo (Honorific Language) is a Must

Being able to use the appropriate Japanese business honorifics is considered good manners in Japan. 

In business settings, people may be regarded as incompetent if they can’t command 敬語 ( Keigo ) , or honorific language, properly .

The Japanese honorific language has three different forms of respectful speech: 

  • 丁寧語 ( Teineigo ) – polite language
  • 尊敬語 ( Sonkeigo ) – respectful language
  • 謙譲語 ( Kenjōgo ) – humble language

There are different ways of saying a given verb depending on whom you’re talking to and whose action you’re referring to. For example:

3 – Finding a Job in Japan

Working in Japan can be difficult for foreigners because of visas, language barriers, limited options, and an unfamiliar working culture. However, there are opportunities for foreigners to find a job in Japan.

Although English is not an official language here, Japan is still one of the strongest countries economically, with a number of international companies in big cities and numerous local companies aiming to go abroad. There is also a big demand for English speakers in Japan’s educational sector.

Depending on what skills and competencies you have, your mother tongue, and how fluent you are in Japanese, finding a job in Japan is within your reach!

Our article about How to Find a Job in Japan provides detailed information for you. Check it out!

4 – Business Japanese Vocabulary

Here’s a list of frequently used vocabulary words for work.

You can find even more words, and their pronunciation, on our Workplace vocabulary list.

2. Nail Your Job Interview

Job Interview

When you get the opportunity to have an interview, make sure you give them the best impression you can!

In conjunction with a relaxed smile, a willing attitude, and confidence, the following business phrases in Japanese can help you stand out and get your dream job.

1 – ___と申します。( ___ to mōshimasu. )

Translation: “My name is ___.”

The first thing you do when entering the interview room is introduce yourself.

申します ( mōshimasu ) is 謙譲語 ( Kenjōgo ), or humble language, for 言う ( iu ), which means “to say.” The phrase is literally translated as: “I say myself as ___,” in a humble way.

In any business setting, using Kenjōgo when referring to yourself gives the interviewer the impression that you’re very polite and decent.

2 – どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。( Dōzo yoroshiku onegai itashimasu. ) 

Translation: “I beg your kindness.” / “It’s a pleasure to meet you.”

Dōzo yoroshiku onegai itashimasu is a more polite version of yoroshiku onegai shimasu , one of the most commonly used phrases in Japanese. In fact, it’s unique to the Japanese language, and not easily translatable into other languages.

This phrase is very useful in any formal situation. It can be used to say something like:

  • “Nice to meet you.” 
  • “Favorably please.” 
  • “Best regards.” 
  • “Please take care of me.”

By saying this, it shows your gratitude and humbleness in hoping to have a good relationship from that point forward.

Say this phrase after giving your name and introducing yourself, and before starting the actual interview. 

3 – 私の 強み / 弱み は___です。( Watashi no tsuyomi / yowami wa ___ desu. )  

Translation: “My strength / weakness is ___.”

強み ( tsuyomi ) is “strength” and 弱み ( yowami )  is “weakness.”

In order to let the interviewer know that you are an ideal candidate for the position, explain your strengths. In addition, it leaves a good impression when you’re able to explain your weaknesses and how you can improve. This shows that you have good analysis skills, problem-solving skills, and a positive attitude.

私の強みはチームをまとめるリーダーシップと決断力です。 Watashi no tsuyomi wa chīmu o matomeru rīdāshippu to ketsudanryoku desu. “My strengths are the leadership to pull a team together and decision-making ability.”

私の弱みは時々楽観的になり過ぎることです。 Watashi no yowami wa tokidoki rakkanteki ni narisugiru koto desu. “My weakness is that I sometimes become too optimistic.”

4 – 私は___の経験があります。( Watashi wa ___ no keiken ga arimasu. ) 

Translation: “I have experience as ___.”

経験 ( keiken ) is “experience.”

Use this phrase when explaining your experience to show that you are a competent candidate.

私は20人のチームマネージャーの経験があります。 Watashi wa 20-nin no chīmu manējā no keiken ga arimasu. “I have experience as a team manager of twenty members.”

5 – もう一度おっしゃっていただけますか。( Mō ichido osshatte itadakemasu ka. )  

Translation: “Could you please say it again?”

おっしゃる ( ossharu ) is 尊敬語 ( Sonkeigo ), or respectful language, for 言う ( iu ), which means “to say.” It respectfully refers to an action the other speaker performed.

This phrase is a very polite way to ask someone to repeat what they said when you couldn’t hear or understand the first time.

You can also use this phrase if you want a little bit more time to think about how to respond. You can earn some extra time by saying this to your interviewer, without an awkward silence!

6 – いくつか質問してもいいですか。( Ikutsu ka shitsumon shite mo ii desu ka. )  

Translation: “Can I ask you some questions?”

If something is unclear during the interview, you can use this phrase to let the interviewer know that you have some questions. This phrase is also very versatile; you can use it anytime and with anyone.

7 – 面接のお時間をいただき、どうもありがとうございました。( Mensetsu no o-jikan o itadaki, dōmo arigatō gozaimashita. )  

Translation: “Thank you very much for making time for the interview.” At the end of the interview, say this phrase with a smile. Make sure you don’t forget a polite bow, or 敬礼 ( Keirei ), before leaving the interview room.

面接を受けます ( Mensetsu o ukemasu ) – “take an interview”

3. Interact with Coworkers

When you talk with colleagues, it’s usually sufficient to use 丁寧語 ( Teineigo ), or polite language, as long as they’re your subordinate, of a similar age, or hold a similar level of job position. 

However, when you’re talking to superiors, bosses, or someone respectable—such as a company president—you should use 尊敬語 ( Sonkeigo ), or respectful language, and 謙譲語 ( Kenjōgo ), or humble language, properly.

Some people use casual language when talking to their subordinates, but it’s recommended that you never use casual language in the workplace, even if you’re close to your colleagues.

1- おはようございます ( Ohayō gozaimasu. )

Translation: “Good morning.”

This is the first word you should say when you show up at your workplace. Most people arrive at work in the morning, but in some industries where work starts later in the day, they still use this phrase as the first greeting upon arrival, even if it’s in the afternoon or evening. 

2 – お疲れ様です/でした ( Otsukare-sama desu/deshita. )

Translation: “Good work today.” / “Goodbye.”

This is another untranslatable Japanese word that is frequently used among colleagues. 

It’s literally translated as “(You must be) tired” (with respect), but it can also mean “hello,” “well done,” “see you,” “goodbye,” etc. Yes, it’s a very useful phrase. Just remember that です ( desu ) is present tense and でした ( deshita ) is past tense. 

When you pass by one of your colleagues in a hallway, for example, you can say this phrase to them as “hi,” which has a nuance of caring and respect. You can also use this to mean “well done” after someone finishes their presentation, and as “goodbye” or “see you” when you leave the office. 

お疲れ様でした。プレゼンとても良かったです。 Otsukare-sama deshita. Purezen totemo yokatta desu. “Well done. The presentation was very good.”

お疲れ様でした。ではまた明日。 Otsukare-sama deshita. Dewa mata ashita. “See you tomorrow, then.”

3 – お先に失礼します ( Osaki ni shitsurei shimasu )

Translation: “Please excuse me leaving before you.”

The literal translation, broken down, is:

  • お先に ( osaki ni ) – “before you”
  • 失礼します ( shitsurei shimasu ) – “I do rude/impolite”

This phrase reflects the Japanese working culture, in which people feel guilty for leaving the office while their colleagues are still working. Traditionally, there is an implicit rule that you should not leave before your boss or team, even if you’ve finished your own work. This is because it’s considered impolite to do so, and it may indicate that you’re not as hard of a worker as those who are still working. 

Such tradition is disappearing nowadays, but by using this phrase, you can leave the office without guilt while still being courteous to your colleagues.

4 – いってきます / いってらっしゃい ( Ittekimasu. / Itterasshai. )

Translation: “I’m leaving now.” / “Take care.”

This is a standard greeting pair for when someone leaves the office to visit clients or even just to have lunch (and intend to come back later). 

It’s polite to announce that you’re leaving by saying: いってきます ( ittekimasu ), meaning “I’m going.” Those who remain in the office should respond with the phrase いってらっしゃい ( itterasshai ), which means: “(You) go” with a respectful nuance. 

If you want to be even more polite, you can also say いってまいります ( Ittemairimasu ), which is  謙譲語 ( Kenjōgo ), or humble language, for “I go.” 

___ へいってきます 。 ___ e ittekimasu. “I’m going to ___.”

いってらっしゃい 。 Itterasshai. “Take care.”

5 – ただいま戻りました / おかえりなさい ( Tadaima modorimashita. / Okaerinasai. )

Translation: “I’ve returned now.” / “Welcome back.”

This is another set of polite Japanese business phrases, used when someone has come back to the office. 

It may sound a bit strange that you should announce when you’re leaving and coming back, but there’s a reason for it. The Japanese work culture places great value on teamwork and the concept of 報告・連絡・相談( Hō-Ren-Sō ), or “Report-Inform-Consult,” for better work efficiency.

By announcing where you are to your colleagues, whether you’re going or coming back, it will make things easier on everyone. For example, if you get a phone call while you’re away or there’s an emergency, your colleagues will know where you are. 

お昼休憩から戻りました。 O-hiru kyūkei kara modorimashita. “I’m back from a lunch break.”

おかえりなさい 。 Okaerinasai. “Welcome back.”

Business Phrases

4. Sound Smart in a Meeting

In most workplaces, meetings are inevitable. 

Use our list of useful Japanese phrases for business meetings to really be present during the conversation and show your colleagues how well you’re performing. 

1 – 会議を始めましょうか。( Kaigi o hajimemashō ka. )  

Translation: “Shall we start the meeting?”

2 – 今日の議題は___です。( Kyō no gidai wa ___ desu. )

Translation: “Today’s agenda is ___.”

3 – ___さん、プレゼンをお願いします。( ___-san, purezen o onegai shimasu. )  

Translation: “Mr./Ms. ___, please start the presentation.”

さん (- san ) is the most common Japanese honorific title to refer to someone politely, including colleagues. It can be used for both males and females, and it’s equivalent to the English titles “Mr.” and “Ms.” On the other hand, when you’re talking to clients or customers, you should use the more respectful 様 (- sama ). 

4 – この事案について、何か意見はありますか。( Kono jian ni tsuite, nani ka iken wa arimasu ka. )

Translation: “Do you have any opinions / questions on this matter?”

You can replace 意見 ( iken ), or “opinion,” with 質問 ( shitsumon ), meaning “question,” to ask: “Do you have any questions on this matter?”

To say it more politely, when talking to a client or customer for example, put the polite particle ご ( go ) in front of 意見 ( iken ) or 質問 ( shitsumon ). Also change ありますか ( arimasu ka ) to ございますか ( gozaimasu ka ). The end result will be:

何かご質問/ご意見はございますか。 Nani ka go-iken / go-shitsumon wa gozaimasu ka.

5 – 私は___さんの意見に賛成です。( Watashi wa ___-san no iken ni sansei desu. )

Translation: “I agree with Mr./Ms. ___’s opinion.”

You can also replace 賛成 ( sansei ), meaning “agree,” with 反対 ( hantai ), meaning “disagree.” 

6 – 次の会議までに報告書を提出してください。( Tsugi no kaigi made ni hōkokusho o teishutsu shite kudasai. )  

Translation: “Please submit a report by the next meeting.”

会議を始めましょうか。( Kaigi o hajimemashō ka. ) – “Shall we start the meeting?”

5. Handle Business Phone Calls

Unlike business customs in other countries, Japanese business etiquette is quite strict and requires delicate attention, especially when it comes to dealing with clients and customers.

There are a lot of detailed rules for handling business phone calls, and these are considered the basics of business. They include: 

Here’s a list of commonly used phrases for business Japanese phone conversations.

1 – はい、もしもし、___でございます。( Hai, moshimoshi, ___ de gozaimasu. )

Translation: “Hello, this is ___.” 

This one is simple. When receiving a phone call, give the person your name or your company’s name.

2 – いつもお世話になっております。( Itsumo o-sewa ni natte orimasu. ) 

Translation: “Thank you for always being a good business partner with us.”

This is another untranslatable Japanese phrase, used as a typical greeting toward clients/customers when answering phone calls, writing emails, and even talking with them in person.

It’s literally translated as “I’m always taken care of,” and it means something along the lines of “Thank you for your always kind cooperation.” This phrase shows gratitude toward clients/customers for their favor, support, or cooperation. 

3 – ___ さんはいらっしゃいますか。( ___-san wa irasshaimasu ka. )

Translation: “Is Mr./Ms. ___ there?”

いらっしゃる ( irassharu ) is 尊敬語 ( Sonkeigo ), or respectful language, for いる ( iru ), which means “be (there).”

4 – 少々お待ちくださいませ。( Shōshō o-machi kudasai mase. )  

Translation: “Please wait for a moment.”

5 – ___ はただいま外出しております。( ___ wa tadaima gaishutsu shite orimasu. )  

Translation: “___ is currently out of the office.”

Remember that you should not use an honorific title when talking about your colleague to a client/customer.

6 – ___ へ折り返しお電話をさしあげるよう申し伝えます。( ___ e orikaeshi o-denwa o sashiageru yō mōshitsutaemasu. )

Translation: “I will tell ___ to call you back,” in a respectful way.

This is a very polite and respectful expression. さしあげる ( sashiageru ) and 申し伝える( mōshitsutaeru ) are 謙譲語 ( Kenjōgo ), or humble language, for “give” and “tell,” respectively.

7 – お電話いただき、どうもありがとうございました。( O-denwa itadaki, dōmo arigatō gozaimashita. )

Translation: “Thank you very much for calling.”

少々お待ちくださいませ。( Shōshō o-machi kudasai mase. ) – “Please wait for a moment.”

6. Handle Business Emails

Like phone call etiquette, Japanese business email etiquette adheres to a number of detailed rules.

Following are the basics of writing professional emails:

Here’s a list of the most useful phrases for writing business emails.

1 – ___ 様 / ___ さん ( ___-sama / ___-san )

Translation: (“Dear Mr. ___ / Ms. ___”)

Use 様 (- sama ) for clients/customers and さん (- san ) for colleagues.

2 – 平素よりお世話になっております。( Heiso yori o-sewa ni natte orimasu. )  

Here, 平素より ( heiso yori ) is a more polite expression than いつも ( itsumo ) for “always/usually.”

3 – ___の件でメールいたしました。( ___ no ken de mēru itashimashita. )  

Translation: “I’m writing regarding ___.”

To break it down, いたす ( itasu ) is 謙譲語 ( Kenjōgo ), or humble language, for する ( suru ), meaning “do.” 

When you combine メール (“[e]mail”) and する (“do”), it becomes: メールする (“write/send email”).

4 – 添付資料をご確認くださいませ。( Tenpu shiryō o go-kakunin kudasai mase. )  

Translation: “Please check the document attached.”

5 – 何かご不明点、ご質問がございましたら、ご遠慮なくお知らせください。( Nani ka go-fumeiten, go-shitsumon ga gozaimashitara, go-enryo naku o-shirase kudasai. ) 

Translation: “Should anything be unclear or if you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to ask.”

7. How JapanesePod101 Can Help You Learn More Japanese

In this article, we introduced the most useful Japanese business phrases and talked about Japanese business etiquette and culture. I hope you enjoyed today’s topic and that you were able to learn more about the Japanese culture and workplace.

If you would like more information about the Japanese language, you’ll find much more helpful content on JapanesePod101.com . We provide a variety of free lessons to help you improve your Japanese language skills. Here are some more pages on our website related to work: 

  • Phrases for Doing Business Successfully
  • Words and Phrases for the Most Useful Skills
  • Jobs / Work

And there’s so much more! 

For example, when you subscribe to our Premium PLUS plan, you’ll get a personal one-on-one coaching service called MyTeacher . Your private teacher will help you practice your pronunciation and give you personalized feedback and advice to help you improve efficiently. 

Learn Japanese in the fastest and most fun way with JapanesePod101.com !

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any business Japanese phrases you still want to know! We’d be glad to help, and we look forward to hearing from you!

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Column : The basics of writing emails in Japanese

write a report in japanese

Hello, I’m Minami, a Japanese language teacher working at a Japanese language school in Shinjuku, Tokyo.

I know it’s a sudden question, but isn’t it difficult to understand Japanese email manners? When I asked my husband, a foreigner, “What do you want to know about Japanese culture? I asked him, “Japanese e-mail manners are troublesome…” He gave me his valuable opinion!

Indeed, as a Japanese person myself, I sometimes wonder how to write an email, and I am often asked for advice by my students. Therefore, in this article, I would like to introduce the basics of how to write emails in Japan.

Check the basic structure of emails.

I’m sure you know this, but let’s go over the general structure of an email.

Subject   Addressee (◯◯様)

Greetings (いつもお世話になっております。△△のAと申します。) Requirements Conclusion (どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。)

Signature  

In often cases, people forget to fill in the subject line, so please be careful. Also, some students add “,” or “;” after the name of addressee, but it is not necessary in Japanese emails.

How do you start an email?

I like to start with a pleasant “おはようございます” (Good morning) or “こんにちは” (Good afternoon) just as I do when greeting people at school, but that is not the case with email.

1) A good safe writing style to keep in mind If you search the web, you’ll probably find various examples, but I dare you! In the beginning, it’s enough to remember the two safe starters!

● いつもお世話になっております。(I’m always grateful for your help.) ● 平素より大変お世話になっております。(I’m very grateful for your continued support.)

You’ve seen the two sentences above, right? We encourage you to try these.

2)How to start an email to a colleague. If you like to learn some more, let me show you how to write to your colleagues. There is just one greeting.

● お疲れ様です。(Thank you for your hard work.)

If you want to be more polite, please write “お疲れ様でございます”.

3)When you received a reply from the recipient There’s only one greeting to start with so hope you remember this!

● ご返信ありがとうございます。(Thank you for your reply.)

What do you think? It’s not that difficult, is it?

Why say “I’m always grateful for your help” even when we have never met …?

write a report in japanese

While living in Japan, have you ever heard someone you met for the first time say, “お世話になっております(I’m always grateful for your help)” ? Some people even write it that way in their emails.

You may think “No, no, I haven’t taken care of her yet…”, but just think of it as a standard Japanese greeting sentence. However, for those who want to use more accurate Japanese, here are some expressions.

Difficulty in sending a request email

The other day, I received an email from a colleague of mine with this sentence.

● アンケート調査にご協力いただけましたら、幸甚(koujin)に存じます。(I would be very grateful if you could cooperate with the survey.)

You may understand that it’s a request to cooperate with the survey, but what do you think “幸甚(koujin)” means?

To be honest, I didn’t know how to read the kanji for “幸甚(koujin)” until I started working. You need to be careful with this word since it is not used every day.

● ~(て)いただければと存じます。(I hope you can…) ● ~(て)いただければ大変幸いです。(I would be very grateful if you could…) ● ~(て)いただければ幸甚(こうじん)です。(I would be grateful if you could…)

You may think that this expression is too complicated, so wouldn’t “~してください” be good enough? I know, but don’t you think it’s rather a good deal to make a better impression just by changing a few expressions?

金曜日17:00までに、〇〇までお知らせ ください。 (Please notify 〇〇 by 17:00 on Friday.) ↓ 金曜日17:00までに、〇〇までお知らせ いただければと存じます。 (I hope you would notify 〇〇 by 17:00 on Friday.)

What do you think? It’s not that hard!

So What does “よろしくお願いいたします(Please take care of me)” Mean?

write a report in japanese

Why is it that Japanese emails always end with the phrase “よろしくお願いいたします” ?

For example・・・

ミナミさん(Ms. Minami)

お疲れ様です。 (Thank you for your hard work.)

本日の授業は、予定通り終わりました。 (Today’s class ended as scheduled.) 問題等も特にありませんでした。 (There were no problems.)

よろしくお願いいたします。

There are times when I wonder what they are asking me to do, but please think of this as another standard Japanese style when closing email.

Of course, if you are confident in your Japanese language skills, I recommend changing around the sentences to match with “よろしくお願いいたします” at the end.

However, since this column is about the basics of Japanese email, please keep in mind to write just these two expressions at the end of an email.

● よろしくお願いいたします。 ● よろしくお願い申し上げます。 (I look forward to working with you.)

As I’m sure many of you know, “どうぞ” and “何卒 (nanitozo)” are often added before “よろしく”. Why don’t you give it a try to use them?

Side Story :The “Addressee” and “Greeting” Issues in Social Media

These days, I think in many cases people use chat tools instead of email to keep in touch. In fact, we have started using Slack in my school.

I think it’s better than email in ways that I can respond with one action and use emoji, but at the same time, I sometimes wonder how much I should be careful with my email manners. For example, we do not start our messages with names of addressee and standard greetings in Social Media. If you’re writing personal messages, just writing “Class is over!” is not a problem. Well, in Japanese communication where people prefer to be safe, I would recommend using email manners in Social Media and chat tools when in doubt.

Last but not Least

What did you think? In this article, I have briefly introduced some particularly important points as “the basics of how to write email in Japanese. I’m sure there are still a lot of areas where you are confused about how to write in Japanese, but I hope that you feel a little more comfortable now when writing Japanese emails. See you next time!

More about TCJ (Article in Expat’s Guide Website)

How to apply for the rewards

1. Access the TCJ website 2. Go to the “CONTACT/INQUILY” page 3. Select the one that first your needs. (Valid for “Japanese for residence in Japan” or “Online lesson”) 4. Input your contact information and the referral code “EXP-001”

Click here to Apply

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How to say report writing in Japanese

Example sentences.

© Based on JMdict , KANJIDIC2 , and JMnedict , property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group , used in conformance with the Group's licence . Example sentences from the Tatoeba project (CC BY 2.0). Kanji stroke order data from the KanjiVG project by Ulrich Apel (CC BY-SA 3.0). See comprehensive list of data sources for more info.

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The list summarizes "what successful JLPT examinees of each level think they can do in Japanese," based on self-evaluation survey results. It is not a syllabus (question outline) of the JLPT, nor does it guarantee the Japanese-language proficiency of successful examinees. For language proficiency measured by the JLPT and question outline, please refer to " Summary of Linguistic Competence Required for Each Level ." The list can be used as a reference to help examinees and others get an idea of "what successful examinees of a particular level can do in Japanese." ※Please use "PDF for printout" when making hard copies, as the line height of tables varies by computer and character display size.

※Percentages of successful examinees of each level who think they "can do" an item are shown in four ranges. When estimating percentages, the responses of only "successful examinees near the passing line" were used. For details, please refer to " 2.List preparation " at the beginning.

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レポートを日本語で書きなさい (repo-towo nihongode kakinasai)

write a report in japanese

レポートを日本語で書きなさい。これは、強い言い方です。優しくいうと、レポートを日本語で書きましょう。 ましょうをつけます。

write a report in japanese

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Translation of report – English–Japanese dictionary

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(Translation of report from the Cambridge English–Japanese Dictionary © Cambridge University Press)

Translation of report | GLOBAL English–Japanese Dictionary

(Translation of report from the GLOBAL English-Japanese Dictionary © 2022 K Dictionaries Ltd)

Examples of report

Translations of report.

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to try to communicate with a person or a group of people, usually in order to help or involve them

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This Japanese Keyboard enables you to easily type Japanese online without installing Japanese keyboard . You can use your computer keyboard or mouse to type Japanese letters (Kanji, Hiragana, and Katakana) with this online keyboard.

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For mobile phones and tablets, touch and hold inside the text area to copy the text. You can then paste the text in any app such as Facebook, Twitter, email, or search app.

Japan successfully launches next-generation H3 rocket after failure last year

An aerial view shows a second test model of H3 rocket lift off from the launching pad at Tanegashima Space Center on the southwestern island of Tanegashima

Reporting by Kantaro Komiya; Editing by Edwina Gibbs

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Kantaro writes about everything from Japan's economic indicators to North Korea's missiles to global regulation on AI companies. His previous stories have been published in the Associated Press, Bloomberg, the Japan Times and Rest of World. A Tokyo native, Kantaro graduated from DePauw University in the United States and was the recipient of the Overseas Press Club Foundation 2020 Scholar Award.

Russian President Putin holds his annual press conference in Moscow

Russia has delayed the launch of its first Internet of Things "Marathon" satellite due to the need for additional software checks, the TASS state news agency quoted Russia's space corporation, Roscosmos, as saying on Friday.

Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov attends a meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi in Moscow

EU privacy watchdogs urged to oppose Meta's paid ad-free service

Europe's privacy enforcers should oppose Meta Platforms' no-ads subscription service launched in Europe last November because it requires users to pay a fee to ensure their privacy, a model likely to be copied by other companies, a group of 28 organisations said on Friday.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write Reports and Papers

    1. Learn how to write reports and papers Kyoto University libraries have a lot of books for writing reports and papers. As a first step, learn how to write and structure academic reports and papers from these books. Kyoto University libraries hold regular workshops on writing reports and papers. Please join us! Search for books

  2. Writing reports the Japanese want to read

    In a longer report, create a short (two pages at most) executive summary which presents your key points and conclusions. (For a shorter report, a one-paragraph summary is good.) Describe the environment and trends. Japanese want to have a holistic understanding of the entire environmental context before deciding on a direction to move forward.

  3. How to Write in Japanese

    I'm glad I didn't. If you're serious about learning Japanese, you have to get to grips with the script sooner or later. If you don't, you won't be able to read or write anything useful, and that's no way to learn a language. The good news is that it isn't as hard as you think.

  4. Definition of 報告

    Definition of 報告 Reading 報 ほう 告 こく ほ う こ く houkoku Meaning noun noun or participle taking the aux. verb する transitive verb report, information How to write Show stroke number Kanji in this word 報 12 strokes report,news,reward,retribution 告 7 strokes revelation,tell,inform,announce Advertisement Extended information Technical Info Example sentences

  5. Japanese Meaning of レポート (repooto)

    レポート - Example Sentences 例文. Each example sentence includes a Japanese furigana reading, the romaji reading, and the English translation. Click the below red button to toggle off and and on all of the hints, and you can click on the buttons individually to show only the ones you want to see.

  6. How to Write in Japanese -- A Beginner's Guide to Japanese Writing

    Japanese has three writing systems: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. The first two are collectively called kana and are the basics of writing in Japanese. Writing Kana If you think about English, we have two writing systems — print and cursive. Both print and cursive write out the same letters, but they look "sharp" and "curvy."

  7. JLPT N4 Japanese(#19/50) I make him write a report.

    Learn Japanese with BondLingo Private LessonsGet $10 point - https://bondlingo.tvFor more detail - https://bondlingo.tv/blog/learn-japanese-with-bondlingo-p...

  8. How To Write Letters In Japanese

    Use the Japanese numeral system for vertical letters. Your Name: This is where you write your name. Put it down to the bottom of the column. Addressee's Name: This goes to the left of the date and your name, but higher than the date, and lower than all the text to the right.

  9. How to Write Reports and Papers

    1. Learn how to write reports and papers. Kyoto University libraries have a fortune of books for writing reports and papers. As a first step, learn how to write the structure academic reports the papers from these books. Pure apraxic agraphia with abnormal writing stroke sequences: report concerning a Japanese patient with a left superior ...

  10. Business Japanese: Phrases You Need for Workplace Success

    In conjunction with a relaxed smile, a willing attitude, and confidence, the following business phrases in Japanese can help you stand out and get your dream job. 1 - ___と申します。. ( ___ to mōshimasu.) Translation: "My name is ___.". The first thing you do when entering the interview room is introduce yourself.

  11. grammar

    1 Answer Sorted by: 6 Yes, plain form is a standard for writing reports. In fact, 新完全マスター文法N3 has a chapter on this topic, on page 142. Here is what it says: In order to ensure a unified tone, casual and formal language are not used together. You should also adhere to a single register, whether using 丁寧体 (です and ます) or 普通体 (だ or である) verb forms.

  12. JapanDict: Japanese Dictionary

    Japanese Dictionary. Find any Japanese or English word in seconds. Definitions, example sentences, verb conjugations, kanji stroke order graphs, and more! ... report possible bugs or ask any question about the Japanese language. ... Hiragana is the phonetic syllabary used mainly to write Japanese words or grammatical inflections. Our hiragana ...

  13. Column : The basics of writing emails in Japanese

    1. Access the TCJ website. 2. Go to the "CONTACT/INQUILY" page. 3. Select the one that first your needs. (Valid for "Japanese for residence in Japan" or "Online lesson") 4. Input your contact information and the referral code "EXP-001".

  14. How to say report writing in Japanese

    After I had handed in my report to the teacher, I had to start writing another. アン AN は ha ちょうど choudo レポート REPOOTO を wo 書き kaki 終えた oeta ところ tokoro だ da 。 Ann has just finished writing her report .

  15. JLPT Can-do Self-Evaluation List "Writing"

    I can write instructions such as how to make meals and how to use machines. 4: I can write reports on fields I am concerned about. 5: I can write letters and e-mails using basic polite Japanese to senior acquaintances (e.g. teachers, etc.). 6: I can write a short speech for my farewell party, etc. 7: I can write statements of purpose for school ...

  16. How do you say "i write a report in Japanese i write a report in Japan

    i write a report in Japan=日本でレポートを書いた。 Show romaji/hiragana See a translation Recommended Questions Show more How do you say this in Japanese? 我高潮了 How do you say this in Japanese? 私の家族は3人います。 私の家族は3人がいます。 私の家族は3人です。 私は3人家族です。 うちは3人家族です。 私は父、母と私... How do you say this in Japanese? ビジネスメールで「返事が返ってき次第、また連絡いたします」という表現が正しいですか?

  17. Kakimashou

    Get your mouse, finger, or digitizer pen ready and click the button below to begin. Begin Tutorial 辞 Dictionary Look up any word or character and practice writing it. 科 Curricula Quiz yourself with lists of vocabulary and kanji from several popular lesson plans. 設 Settings You can change the character style and definition languge here. 新 What's New

  18. How do you say "Write a report in Japanese" in Japanese?

    Write a report in Japanese. See a translation Report copyright infringement; Answers ...

  19. How to write Report in Japanese for Caregivers #Caregiver Japan #

    How to write Report in Japanese at Care Centers here in Japan

  20. REPORT in Japanese

    B1 to tell someone in authority that something has happened, especially an accident or crime ~を通報する, 報告する He should have reported the accident immediately. (Translation of report from the Cambridge English-Japanese Dictionary © Cambridge University Press) Translation of report | GLOBAL English-Japanese Dictionary report noun [ countable ]

  21. How to say report in Japanese

    How to say report in Japanese Japanese Translation 報告する Hōkoku suru More Japanese words for report 報告 noun Hōkoku reporting, information 通報 noun Tsūhō tip, bulletin 報道 noun Hōdō information 申告 noun Shinkoku notification, statement, filing a return 記事 noun Kiji article, news story, account 届出 noun Todokede notification 答申 noun Tōshin findings, reply

  22. How to write Report in Japanese for Caregivers Part2 # ...

    I will explain to you how to write Kiroku in Japanese at care centers.

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  24. Japanese Keyboard

    To type みんな, press m i n n a. Pressing n ' a produces んあ and pressing n y a produces にゃ. For mobile phones and tablets, touch and hold inside the text area to copy the text. You can then paste the text in any app such as Facebook, Twitter, email, or search app. Write Japanese letters (Kanji, Hiragana, and Katakana) online without ...

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