How to Write a Report: A Guide

Matt Ellis

A report is a nonfiction account that presents and/or summarizes the facts about a particular event, topic, or issue. The idea is that people who are unfamiliar with the subject can find everything they need to know from a good report. 

Reports make it easy to catch someone up to speed on a subject, but actually writing a report is anything but easy. So to help you understand what to do, below we present a little report of our own, all about report writing. 

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What is a report? 

In technical terms, the definition of a report is pretty vague: any account, spoken or written, of the matters concerning a particular topic. This could refer to anything from a courtroom testimony to a grade schooler’s book report. 

Really, when people talk about “reports,” they’re usually referring to official documents outlining the facts of a topic, typically written by an expert on the subject or someone assigned to investigate it. There are different types of reports, explained in the next section, but they mostly fit this description. 

What kind of information is shared in reports? Although all facts are welcome, reports, in particular, tend to feature these types of content: 

Reports are closely related to essay writing , although there are some clear distinctions. While both rely on facts, essays add the personal opinions and arguments of the authors. Reports typically stick only to the facts, although they may include some of the author’s interpretation of these facts, most likely in the conclusion. 

Moreover, reports are heavily organized, commonly with tables of contents and copious headings and subheadings. This makes it easier for readers to scan reports for the information they’re looking for. Essays, on the other hand, are meant to be read start to finish, not browsed for specific insights. 

Types of reports

There are a few different types of reports, depending on the purpose and to whom you present your report. Here’s a quick list of the common types of reports:

Reports can be further divided into categories based on how they are written. For example, a report could be formal or informal, short or long, and internal or external. In business, a vertical report shares information with people on different levels of the hierarchy (i.e., people who work above you and below you), while a lateral report is for people on the author’s same level, but in different departments. 

There are as many types of reports as there are writing styles, but in this guide, we focus on academic reports, which tend to be formal and informational. 

>>Read More: What Is Academic Writing?

What is the structure of a report?

The structure of a report depends on the type of report and the requirements of the assignment. While reports can use their own unique structure, most follow this basic template:

If you’re familiar with how to write a research paper , you’ll notice that report writing follows the same introduction-body-conclusion structure, sometimes adding an executive summary. Reports usually have their own additional requirements as well, such as title pages and tables of content, which we explain in the next section. 

What should be included in a report?

There are no firm requirements for what’s included in a report. Every school, company, laboratory, task manager, and teacher can make their own format, depending on their unique needs. In general, though, be on the lookout for these particular requirements—they tend to crop up a lot: 

As always, refer to the assignment for the specific guidelines on each of these. The people who read the report should tell you which style guides or formatting they require. 

How to write a report in 7 steps

Now let’s get into the specifics of how to write a report. Follow the seven steps on report writing below to take you from an idea to a completed paper. 

1 Choose a topic based on the assignment

Before you start writing, you need to pick the topic of your report. Often, the topic is assigned for you, as with most business reports, or predetermined by the nature of your work, as with scientific reports. If that’s the case, you can ignore this step and move on. 

If you’re in charge of choosing your own topic, as with a lot of academic reports, then this is one of the most important steps in the whole writing process. Try to pick a topic that fits these two criteria: 

Of course, don’t forget the instructions of the assignment, including length, so keep those in the back of your head when deciding. 

2 Conduct research

With business and scientific reports, the research is usually your own or provided by the company—although there’s still plenty of digging for external sources in both. 

For academic papers, you’re largely on your own for research, unless you’re required to use class materials. That’s one of the reasons why choosing the right topic is so crucial; you won’t go far if the topic you picked doesn’t have enough available research. 

The key is to search only for reputable sources: official documents, other reports, research papers, case studies, books from respected authors, etc. Feel free to use research cited in other similar reports. You can often find a lot of information online through search engines, but a quick trip to the library can also help in a pinch. 

3 Write a thesis statement

Before you go any further, write a thesis statement to help you conceptualize the main theme of your report. Just like the topic sentence of a paragraph, the thesis statement summarizes the main point of your writing, in this case, the report. 

Once you’ve collected enough research, you should notice some trends and patterns in the information. If these patterns all infer or lead up to a bigger, overarching point, that’s your thesis statement. 

For example, if you were writing a report on the wages of fast-food employees, your thesis might be something like, “Although wages used to be commensurate with living expenses, after years of stagnation they are no longer adequate.” From there, the rest of your report will elaborate on that thesis, with ample evidence and supporting arguments. 

It’s good to include your thesis statement in both the executive summary and introduction of your report, but you still want to figure it out early so you know which direction to go when you work on your outline next. 

4 Prepare an outline

Writing an outline is recommended for all kinds of writing, but it’s especially useful for reports given their emphasis on organization. Because reports are often separated by headings and subheadings, a solid outline makes sure you stay on track while writing without missing anything. 

Really, you should start thinking about your outline during the research phase, when you start to notice patterns and trends. If you’re stuck, try making a list of all the key points, details, and evidence you want to mention. See if you can fit them into general and specific categories, which you can turn into headings and subheadings respectively. 

5 Write a rough draft

Actually writing the rough draft , or first draft, is usually the most time-consuming step. Here’s where you take all the information from your research and put it into words. To avoid getting overwhelmed, simply follow your outline step by step to make sure you don’t accidentally leave out anything. 

Don’t be afraid to make mistakes; that’s the number one rule for writing a rough draft. Expecting your first draft to be perfect adds a lot of pressure. Instead, write in a natural and relaxed way, and worry about the specific details like word choice and correcting mistakes later. That’s what the last two steps are for, anyway. 

6 Revise and edit your report

Once your rough draft is finished, it’s time to go back and start fixing the mistakes you ignored the first time around. (Before you dive right back in, though, it helps to sleep on it to start editing fresh, or at least take a small break to unwind from writing the rough draft.) 

We recommend first rereading your report for any major issues, such as cutting or moving around entire sentences and paragraphs. Sometimes you’ll find your data doesn’t line up, or that you misinterpreted a key piece of evidence. This is the right time to fix the “big picture” mistakes and rewrite any longer sections as needed. 

If you’re unfamiliar with what to look for when editing, you can read our previous guide with some more advanced self-editing tips . 

7 Proofread and check for mistakes

Last, it pays to go over your report one final time, just to optimize your wording and check for grammatical or spelling mistakes. In the previous step you checked for “big picture” mistakes, but here you’re looking for specific, even nitpicky problems. 

A writing assistant like Grammarly flags those issues for you. Grammarly’s free version points out any spelling and grammatical mistakes while you write, with suggestions to improve your writing that you can apply with just one click. The Premium version offers even more advanced features, such as tone adjustments and word choice recommendations for taking your writing to the next level. 

what is a report type

A Guide To The Top 14 Types Of Reports With Examples Of When To Use Them

Types of reports blog post by datapine

Table of Contents

1) What Is The Report Definition?

2) Top 14 Types Of Reports

3) What Does A Report Look Like?

Businesses have been producing reports since, forever. No matter what role or industry you work in, chances are that you have been faced with the task of generating a tedious report to show your progress or performance.

While reporting has been a common practice for many decades, the business world keeps evolving and, with more competitive industries, the need to generate fast and accurate reports becomes critical. This presents a problem for many modern organizations today as building reports can take from hours to days. In fact, a survey about management reports performed by Deloitte says that 50% of managers are unsatisfied with the speed of delivery and the quality of the reports they receive. 

With this issue in mind, several BI tools have been developed to assist businesses in the generation of interactive reports with just a few clicks, enhancing the way companies make critical decisions and service insights from their most valuable data.

But, with so many types of reports used on a daily basis, how can you know when to use them effectively? How can you push yourself ahead of the pack with the power of information? Here, we’re going to explore the 14 most common types of reports in business and provide some examples of when to use them to your brand-boosting advantage. In addition, we will see how online dashboards have overthrown the static nature of classic reports and given way to a much faster, more interactive way of working with data.

Let’s get started with a brief report definition.

What Is The Report Definition?

A modern reporting example created with a dashboard tool

A report is a document that presents relevant business information in an organized and understandable format. Each report is aimed at a specific audience and business purpose and it summarizes the performance of different activities based on goals and objectives.  

That said, there are various types of reports that can be used for different purposes, rather you want to track the progress of your strategies or stay compliant with financial laws, there is a different report for each task. To help you identify when to use them we will cover the top 14 most common report formats used for businesses today. 

What Are The Different Types Of Reports?

Top 14 types of reports overview graphic

1. Informational Reports 

The first in our list of reporting types is informational reports. As their name suggests, this report type aims to give factual insights about a specific topic. This can include performance reports, expense reports, and justification reports, among others. A differentiating characteristic of these reports is their objectivity, they are only meant to inform but not propose solutions or hypotheses. Common informational reports examples are for performance tracking such as annual, monthly, or weekly reports . 

2. Analytical Reports 

This report type contains a mix of useful information to facilitate the decision-making process through a mix of qualitative and quantitative insights as well as real-time and historical data. Unlike informational reports that purely inform users about a topic, this report type also aims to provide recommendations about the next steps and help with problem-solving. With this information in hand, businesses can build strategies based on analytical evidence and not simple intuition. With the use of the right BI reporting tool businesses can generate various types of analytical reports that include accurate forecasts via predictive analytics technologies. Let's look at it with an analytical report example.

Analytical report example of a sales pipeline dashboard

**click to enlarge**

The example above is the perfect representation of how analytical reports can boost a business’s performance. By getting detailed information such as sales opportunities, a probability rate, as well as an accurate pipeline value forecast based on historical data, sales teams can prepare their strategies in advance, tackle any inefficiencies, and make informed decisions for increased efficiency. 

3. Operational Reports 

These reports track every pertinent detail of the company's operational tasks, such as its production processes. They are typically short-term reports as they aim to paint a picture of the present. Businesses use this type of report to spot any issues and define their solutions, or to identify improvement opportunities to optimize their operational efficiency. Operational reports are commonly used in manufacturing, logistics, and retail as they help keep track of inventory, production, and costs, among others. 

4. Product Reports

As its name suggests, this report type is used to monitor several aspects related to product performance and development. Businesses often use them to track which of their products or subscriptions are selling the most within a given time period, calculate inventories, or see what kind of product the client values the most. Another common use case of these reports is to research the implementation of new products or develop existing ones. Let’s see it more in detail with a visual example. 

Type of report examples: a report on product innovation, useful for product development and pricing decisions

The image above is a product report that shows valuable insights regarding usage intention, purchase intention, willingness to pay, and more. In this case, the report is based on the answers from a survey that aimed to understand how the target customer would receive a new product. Getting this level of insights through this report type is very useful for businesses as it allows them to make smart investments when it comes to new products as well as set realistic pricing based on their client’s willingness to pay. 

5. Industry Reports 

Next in our list of the most common types of reports we have industry-specific reports. Typically, these reports provide an overview of a particular industry, market, or sector with definitions, key trends, leading companies, and industry size, among others. They are particularly useful for businesses that want to enter a specific industry and want to learn how competitive it is or for companies who are looking to set performance benchmarks based on average industry values. 

6. Department Reports

These reports are specific to each department or business function. They serve as a communication tool between managers and team members that need to stay connected and work together for common goals. Rather is the sales department, customer service, logistics, or finances, this specific report type help track and optimize performance on a deeper level. Let’s look at it with an example of a team performance report. 

A department report type example of a customer support team performance

The image above is a department report created with an online data analysis tool and it is tracking the performance of a support team. This insightful report displays relevant metrics such as the top-performing agents, net promoter score, and first contact resolution rate, among others. Having this information in hand not only helps each member of the team to keep track of their individual performance but also allows managers to understand who needs more training and who is performing at their best. 

7. Progress Reports

From the brunch of informational reports, progress reports provide critical information about the status of a project. These reports can be produced on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis by employees or managers to track performance and fine-tune tasks for the better development of the project. Progress reports are often used as visual materials to support meetings and discussions. A good example is a KPI scorecard . 

8. Internal Reports

A type of report that encompasses many others on this list, internal reports refer to any type of report that is used internally in a company. They convey information between team members and departments to keep communication flowing regarding goals and business objectives. 

An internal report example: hospital management dashboard

As mentioned above, internal reports serve as useful communication tools to keep every relevant person in the organization informed and engaged. This healthcare report aims to do just that. By providing insights into the performance of different departments and areas of a hospital such as in and outpatients, average waiting times, treatment costs, and more, healthcare managers can allocate resources and plan the schedule accurately as well as monitor any changes or issues in real-time. 

9. External Reports

Although most of the reports types listed here are used for internal purposes, not all reporting is meant to be used behind closed doors. External reports are created with the aim of sharing information with external stakeholders such as clients or investors for budget or progress accountability as well as to governmental bodies to stay compliant with the law requirements.

External report type example of a client report for an IT project

The image above is the perfect example of an external client report from an IT project. This insightful report provides a visual overview of every relevant aspect regarding the development of the project. From deadlines, budget usage, completion stage, and task breakdown, clients can be fully informed and involved in the project. 

10. Vertical & Lateral Reports 

Next, in our rundown of types of reports, we have vertical and lateral reports. This reporting type refers to the direction in which a report travels. A vertical report is meant to go upward or downward the hierarchy, for example, a management report. While a lateral report assists in organization and communication between groups that are at the same level of the hierarchy, such as the financial and marketing departments.

11. Research Reports

Without a doubt, one of the most vital reporting types for any modern business is centered on research. Being able to collect, collate, and drill down into insights based on key pockets of your customer base or industry will give you the tools to drive innovation while meeting your audience’s needs head-on.

Types of reports: research report for customer demographics

The image above is a market research analytics report example for customer demographics. It serves up a balanced blend of metrics that will empower you to boost engagement as well as retention rates. Here, you can drill down into your audience’s behaviors, interests, gender, educational levels, and tech adoption life cycles with a simple glance.

What’s particularly striking about this dashboard is the fact that you can explore key trends in brand innovation with ease, gaining a working insight into how your audience perceives your business. This invaluable type of report will help you get under the skin of your consumers, driving growth and loyalty in the process.

12. Strategic Reports

Strategy is a vital component of every business, big or small. Strategic analytics tools are perhaps the broadest and most universal of all the different types of business report imaginable.

These particular tools exist to help you understand, meet, and exceed your most pressing company goals consistently by serving up top-level metrics on a variety of initiatives or functions.

By working with strategic-style tools, you will:

13. Project Reports

Projects are key to keeping a business moving in the right direction while keeping innovation and evolution at the forefront of every plan, communication, or campaign. But without the right management tools, a potentially groundbreaking project can turn into a resource-sapping disaster.

A project management report serves as a summary of a particular project's status and its various components. It's a visual tool that you can share with partners, colleagues, clients, and stakeholders to showcase your project's progress at multiple stages. Let’s look at our example and dig a little deeper.

Project controlling dashboard as an example of a project report type

To ensure consistent success across the board, the kinds of reports you need to work with are based on project management. 

Our example is a project management dashboard equipped with a melting pot of metrics designed to improve the decision-making process while keeping every facet of your company’s most important initiatives under control. Here, you can spot pivotal trends based on costs, task statuses, margins, costs, and overall project revenue. With this cohesive visual information at your fingertips, not only can you ensure the smooth end-to-end running of any key project, but you can drive increased operational efficiency as you move through every significant milestone.

14. Statutory Reports

It may not seem exciting or glamorous, but keeping your business's statutory affairs in order is vital to your ongoing commercial health and success.

When it comes to submitting such vital financial and non-financial information to official bodies, one small error can result in serious repercussions. As such, working with statutory types of report formats is a water-tight way of keeping track of your affairs and records while significantly reducing the risk of human error.

Armed with interactive insights and dynamic visuals, you will keep your records clean and compliant while gaining the ability to nip any potential errors or issues in the bud.

What Does A Report Look Like?

Now that we’ve covered the most relevant types of reports, we will answer the question: what does a report look like? 

As mentioned at the beginning of this insightful guide, static reporting is a thing of the past. With the rise of modern technologies like self service BI tools , the use of interactive reports in the shape of business dashboards has become more and more popular among companies.

Unlike static reports that take time to be generated and are difficult to understand, modern reporting tools are intuitive. Their visual nature makes them easy to understand for any type of user, and they provide businesses with a central view of their most important performance indicators for an improved decision-making process. Here we will cover 15 useful dashboard examples from different industries and functions to put the value of dashboard reporting into perspective. 

1. Financial Report

Visual reporting example for finances tracking metrics such as current working capital, cash conversion cycle, and vendor payment error rate

Keeping finances in check is critical for success. This financial report offers an overview of the most important financial metrics that a company needs to monitor its economic activities and answer vital questions to ensure healthy finances. 

With insights about liquidity, invoicing, budgeting, and general financial stability, managers can extract long and short-term conclusions to reduce inefficiencies, make accurate forecasts about future performance, and keep the overall financial efficiency of the business flowing. For instance, getting a detailed calculation of the business working capital can allow you to understand how liquid is your company. If it's higher than expected it means you have the potential to invest and grow. Definitely, one of the most valuable types of finance reports.

2. Marketing Report 

A marketing report example for campaign tracking generated with a modern dashboard tool

Our next example is a marketing report that ensures a healthy return on investment from your marketing efforts. This type of report offers a detailed overview of campaign performance over the last 12 weeks. Having access to this information enables you to maximize the value of your promotional actions keeping your audience engaged by providing a targeted experience. 

For instance, you can implement different campaign formats as a test and then compare which one is most successful for your business. This is possible thanks to the monitoring of important marketing metrics such as the click-through rate (CTR), cost per click (CPC), cost per acquisition (CPA), and more. 

The visual nature of this report makes it easy to understand important insights at a glance. For example, the four gauge charts at the top show the total spending from all campaigns and how much of the total budget of each campaign has been used. In just seconds you can see if you are on target to meet your marketing budgets for every single campaign. 

3. Sales Report

A sales report template focused on high-level metrics such as revenue, profits, costs, incremental sales, accumulated revenue, up/cross-sell rates, etc.

An intuitive sales dashboard like the one above is the perfect analytical tool to monitor and optimize sales performance. Armed with powerful high-level metrics, this report type is especially interesting for managers, executives, and sales VPs as it provides relevant information to ensure strategic and operational success. 

The value of this sales report lies in the fact that it offers a complete and comprehensive overview of relevant insights needed to make smart sales decisions. For instance, at the top of an analysis tool, you get important metrics such as the number of sales, revenue, profit, and costs, all compared to a set target and to the previous time period. The use of historical data is fundamental when building successful sales strategies as they provide a picture of what could happen in the future. Being able to filter the key metrics all in one screen is a key benefit of modern reporting. 

4. HR Report 

Employee performance depicted with a modern human resources report

Our next example of a report is about human resources analytics . The HR department needs to track a lot of data such as employee performance and effectiveness. But overall they need to ensure that employees are happy and working in a healthy environment since an unhappy workforce can significantly damage a company. This is all possible with the help of this intuitive dashboard. 

Providing a comprehensive mix of metrics, this employee-centric report drills down into every major element needed to ensure successful workforce management. For example, the top portion of the dashboard covers absenteeism in 3 different ways: yearly average, absenteeism rate with a target of 3.8%, and absenteeism over the last 5 years. Tracking absenteeism rates in detail is helpful as it can tell you if your employees are skipping days of work. If the rate is over the expected target, then you need to dig deeper into the reasons and find sustainable solutions. 

On the other hand, the second part of the dashboard covers the overall labor effectiveness (OLE). This can be tracked based on specific criteria that HR predefined and it helps them understand if workers are achieving their targets or if they need extra training or help. 

5. Management Report

A example of a report type for investors relationships with metrics such as the working capital ratio, share price, share on assets, return on equity, among others

Managers need to monitor big amounts of information to ensure that the business is running smoothly. One of them being investor relationships. This management dashboard focuses on high-level metrics that shareholders need to look at before investing such as the return on assets, return on equity, debt-equity ratio, and share price, among others. 

By getting an overview of these important metrics, investors can easily extract the needed information to make an informed decision regarding an investment in your company. For instance, the return on assets measures how efficiently are the company's assets being used to generate profit. With this information, investors can understand how effectively your company deploys available resources in comparison to others in the market. Another great indicator is the share price, the higher the increase in your share price the more money your shareholders are making from their investment. 

6. IT Report 

IT report tracking the occurrence of technical issues to improve system operational performance

Just like all the other departments and sections covered in this list, the IT department is one that can especially benefit from these types of reports. With so many technical issues to solve, the need for a visual tool to help IT specialists stay on track with all their workload becomes critical. 

As seen in the image above, this IT dashboard offers detailed information about different system indicators. For starters, we get a visual overview of the status of each server, followed by a detailed graph displaying the uptime & downtime of each week. This is complemented by the most common downtown issues and some ticket management information. Getting this level of insight helps your IT staff to know what is happening and when it is happening and find proper solutions to avoid these issues from repeating themselves. Keeping constant track of these metrics will ensure robust system performance. 

7. Procurement Report

This procurement report example provides an overview of the most essential metrics of the procurement department

This next example of a report was built with intuitive procurement analytics software and it gives a general view of various metrics that the procurement department needs to work with on a regular basis. 

With the possibility to filter, drill down, and interact with the data, this intuitive procurement dashboard offers key information to ensure a healthy relationship with suppliers. With metrics such as compliance rate, the number of suppliers, or the purchase order cycle time, the procurement team can classify the different suppliers, define the relationship each of them has with the company, and optimize processes to ensure the company stays profitable.

8. Customer Service Report

Call center reporting type presented with the revenue value, costs per support, average time to solve an issue,  and overall satisfaction

Following our list of examples of reports is one from the support area. Armed with powerful customer service KPIs , this dashboard is a useful tool to monitor performance, spot trends, identify strengths and weaknesses, and improve the overall effectiveness of the customer support department. 

Covering aspects such as revenue and costs from customer support as well as customer satisfaction, this complete analysis tool is the perfect tool for managers that need to keep an eye on every little detail from a performance and operational perspective. For example, by monitoring your customer service costs and comparing them to the revenue you can understand if you are investing the right amount into your support processes. This can be directly related to your agent’s average time to solve issues, the longer it takes to solve a support ticket the more money it will cost and the less revenue it will bring. If you see that your agents are taking too long to solve an issue you can think of some training instances to help them reduce this number. 

9. Market Research Report 

A type of report for market research displaying the results of a survey about brand perception

This list of report types examples would not be complete without a market research report . Market research agencies deal with a big amount of information coming from surveys and other research sources. Taking all this into account, the need for reports that can be filtered for deeper interaction becomes more necessary for this industry than any other. 

The image above is a brand analytics dashboard that displays the results of a survey about how a brand is perceived by the public. This savvy tool contains different chart types that make it easy to visually understand the information. For instance, the map chart with the different colors lets you quickly understand in which regions each age range is located. The charts can be filtered further to see the detailed answers from each group for a deeper analysis. 

10. Social Media Report 

Social media report example displaying performance metrics for Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube

Last but not least, we have a social media report .  This scorecard format dashboard monitors the performance of 4 main social media channels: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube and it serves as a perfect visual overview to track the performance of different social media efforts and achievements. 

Tracking relevant metrics such as followers, impressions, clicks, engagement rates, and conversions, this report type serves as a perfect progress report to show to managers or clients that need to see the status of their social channels. Each metric is shown in its actual value and compared to a set target. The colors green and red from the fourth column let you quickly understand if a metric is over or under its expected target. 

If you feel inspired by this list then we recommend you to take a look at our dashboard examples library where you will find over 80+ templates from different industries, functions, and platforms for extra inspiration! 

11. Logistics Report

Logistics are the cornerstone of an operationally fluent and progressive business. If you deal with large quantities of goods and tangible items, in particular, maintaining a solid logistical strategy is vital to ensuring you maintain your brand reputation while keeping things flowing in the right direction.

An logistics report focused on the warehouse performance in the logistics industry.

A prime example of the types of data reporting tool designed to improve logistical management, our warehouse KPI dashboard is equipped with metrics required to maintain strategic movement while eliminating any unnecessary costs or redundant processes. Here, you can dig into your shipping success rates across regions while accessing warehouse costs and perfect order rates in real time. If you spot any potential inefficiencies, you can track them here and take the correct course of action to refine your strategy. This is an essential tool for any business with a busy or scaling warehouse.

12. Manufacturing Report

Next in our essential types of business reports examples, we’re looking at tools made to improve your business’s various manufacturing processes.

Manufacturing Production report displaying main manufacturing KPIs to keep the pulse of your factory.

Our clean and concise production tool is a sight to behold and serves up key manufacturing KPIs that improve the decision-making process when it comes to costs, volume, and machinery.

Here, you can hone in on historical patterns and trends while connecting with priceless real-time insights that will not only help you make the right calls concerning your manufacturing process at the moment but will also help you formulate predictive strategies that will ultimately save money, boost productivity, and result in top-quality products across the board.

13. Retail Report

As a retailer with so many channels to consider and so many important choices to make, working with the right metrics and visuals is absolutely essential. Fortunately, we live in an age where there are different types of reporting designed for this very reason.

Types of reports examples: retail sales and order report

Our sales and order example, generated with retail analytics software , is a dream come true for retailers as it offers the visual insights needed to understand your product range in greater detail while keeping a firm grip on your order volumes, perfect order rates, and reasons for returns.

By gaining access to this invaluable access in one visually presentable space will allow you to track increases or decreases in orders over a set timeframe (and understand whether you’re doing the right things to drive engagement) while plowing your promotional resources into the products that are likely to offer the best returns.

Plus, by gaining an accurate overview of why people are returning your products, you can omit problem items or processes from your retail strategy, improving your brand reputation as well as revenue in the process.

14. Digital Media Report

The content and communications you publish are critical to your ongoing success, regardless of your sector, niche, or specialty. Without putting out communications that speak directly to the right segments of your audience at the right times in their journey, your brand will swiftly fade into the background.

Content quality control dashboard as a digital media report example

To ensure your brand remains inspiring, engaging, and thought-leading across channels, working with media types of a business report is essential. You have to ensure your communications cut through the noise and scream ‘quality’ from start to finish—no ifs, no buts, no exceptions.

Our content quality control tool is designed with a logical hierarchy that will tell you if your content sparks readership if the language you’re using is inclusive and conversational, and how much engagement-specific communications earn. You can also check your most engaged articles with a quick glance to understand what your users value most. Armed with this information, you can keep creating content that your audience loves and ultimately drives true value to the business.

15. Energy Report

In the age of sustainability and in the face of international fuel hikes, managing the energy your business uses effectively is paramount. Here there is little room for excess or error and as such, working with the right metrics is the only way to ensure successful energy regulation.

Energy management dashboard as an example of a type of report for the energy industry

If your company has a big HQ or multiple sites that require power, our energy management analytics tool will help you take the stress out of managing your resources. One of the most striking features of this dashboard is the fact that it empowers you to compare your company’s energy usage against those from other sectors and set an accurate benchmark.

Here, you can also get a digestible breakdown of your various production costs in terms of energy consumption as well as the main sources you use to keep your organization running. Regularly consulting these metrics will not only help you save colossal chunks of your budget, but it will also give you the intelligence to become more sustainable as an organization. This, in turn, is good for the planet as well as your brand reputation. A real win-win-win.

Types Of Reporting For Every Business & Purpose 

As we’ve seen throughout our journey, there are different report formats that are used by businesses for diverse purposes in their everyday activities. Whether you’re talking about types of reports in research, types of reports in management, or anything in between, these dynamic tools will get you where you need to be (and beyond).

In this post, we covered the top 14 most common ones and explored key examples of how different report types are changing the way businesses are leveraging their most critical insights for internal efficiency and ultimately, external success.

With modern tools and solutions, reporting doesn’t have to be a tedious task. Anyone in your organization can rely on data for their decision-making process without the need for technical skills. Rather you want to keep your team connected or show progress to investors or clients. There is a report type for the job. To keep your mind fresh, here are the top 14 types of data reports covered in this post: 

Now, over to you. Are you ready? If you want to start building your own types of reports and get ahead of the pack today, then you should try our BI reporting software for 14-days for free ! 

Three potions in differently-shaped flasks, representing different types of reports.

No matter what type of role you have, chances are that if you work in an office environment you’ll encounter some type of report from time to time. While you may think that reports are all pretty much the same, there’s actually a different type of report for every business need.

Whether you need to show your boss your social media growth or provide an update on the status of a project, there’s a specific report that can help you do that. Continue reading to discover ten different types of reports, what they’re for, and the tools you can use to create them. 

Social Media Report

Social media managers have to track and manage huge amounts of data every day. From follower growth to IGTV views, there are a number of different metrics they need to be actively monitoring and reporting on. 

A social media report gives social media managers a way to track and analyze their data and prove the ROI of their efforts. Just like there are a variety of types of reports in general, there are various kinds of social media reports. A social media report prepared for the social media manager’s boss, for example, would look different than one they’ve put together solely for their own reference and goal-setting needs. 

Tools and Examples

A social media report can also be something a social media manager creates themselves (based on data they monitor) or generated through a native social media platform or scheduling tool. 

For example, a social media manager can use Facebook’s Insights feature and export their Facebook and Instagram analytics for their report, or use a tool like Hootsuite’s Analytics to collect data and create a report for one or multiple social media accounts at once, from one dashboard.

what is a report type

Google Analytics Report

A Google Analytics Report can help you track how users and customers interact with your website over time. With a Google Analytics (GA) Report, you’re able to see various GA metrics all from one dashboard. While there are hundreds of metrics you could track using Google Analytics, the reporting tools available ensure you’re able to see the most important data and information for your business at a glance.

There are a number of standard preset reports you can use within Google Analytics, including Realtime, Audience, Acquisition, Behavior, and Conversions reports. For example, an Audience Report will show you data such as who is coming to your site and how long their sessions are as well as page views and bounce rates. In addition to these standard reports, you can also create custom reports within Google Analytics. 

This type of report can either be created natively within Google Analytics itself, using an Excel spreadsheet or Google Sheet, or through an external automated reporting tool. 

For example, if you want to create a report on the number of page views your site has, you can use Google Analytics’ built-in reporting tool. Here you’d get a breakdown of the pages on your site that get the most visits, the audience member’s average time on page, bounce rate, and the monetary value of each page. From here, you can then export this data and include it in a greater Google Analytics report, or use it as your sole reporting document. 

what is a report type

Proposal Report

A proposal report is a document created to show how one business can help another business. Proposal reports are usually prepared in response to a business or organization issuing an RFP, or Request for Proposal. 

A proposal report must show the recipient exactly how the sender can help them meet their business needs. It must outline the project, propose a solution, and clearly define the anticipated outcome. Usually, organizations are receiving numerous proposal reports from a variety of businesses competing to “win” the project or client, so it’s important that a proposal report is completed thoroughly. 

Proposal reports can take many different forms depending on your industry. For example, a branding agency responding to an RFP may create a PDF from a presentation deck in Google Slides or Microsoft Powerpoint as their proposal report. 

Alternatively, businesses can use tools such as PandaDoc that enable them to create, send, and eSign client-facing proposal reports with pre-built templates and CRM integration . 

what is a report type

Informational Report

As its name implies, this type of report conveys information between two parties. That can be two businesses, two teams, or even two individuals. The data included and shared in an informational report is meant to be objective. 

An informational report is not meant to propose solutions to problems or present hypotheses, but rather to bring forth information and facts that can help inform any necessary decisions in the future or as a result. 

Informational reports can be formal or informal and as such, can come in many different forms. The tools used to convey information and data can be as simple as something like Microsoft Word (ie. for an informational report sharing annual general meeting minutes) or more complex like Quickbooks (ie. for financial reports). 

Other examples of informational reports include annual reports, monthly financial reports and earnings, and real estate appraisals.

what is a report type

Periodic Report

When a report is referred to as a “periodic report,” this simply means that it is being provided at regular intervals. These are used to share the performance status of various items within a business or organization to clients or more senior individuals. 

Many other report styles can also be classified as periodic reports. For example, if your client requests a Google Analytics report every week, this can also be considered a periodic report. 

As periodic reports can be used across all industries, the sky’s the limit when it comes to the tools you can use to create this type of report. For example, periodic reports can include email marketing reports, project progress reports, incident reports, social media reports, Google Analytics reports, or feasibility reports. 

Let’s take a sales report as an example. Here, you might use a tool like HubSpot to gather insights and create a regularly occurring report for both your team and upper management to view. HubSpot’s sales report tool offers more than 90 prebuilt report templates so you can easily and consistently provide regular and reliable sales reports to anyone across your organization. 

what is a report type

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Long Report

Any report that is greater than ten pages in length is considered a “long report.” These are used to share in-depth information that requires the inclusion of extensive detail and context. 

Long reports are typically more formal in tone and content. They follow a more structured format, avoid any subjectivity, and any other potentially distracting or bias-inducing elements such as personal pronouns (I, we, us). 

Examples of long reports include white papers, legal reports (such as court proceedings), feasibility reports, business proposals, research reports, and business plans. 

The majority (if not all) of these types of reports will be created in word processing software such as Microsoft Word or Google Docs. Some examples of a business plan, a form of long report, can be found here and here . 

Project Health Report

A project health report is used to update stakeholders with high-level information about a project, as well as provide them with its overall status. These help keep stakeholders and the project team aligned on the goals, purpose, and direction of the project. 

If a big project is only shown to stakeholders once all of the work is done, chances are there will be edits and feedback to implement. With regular project health reports, stakeholders and project managers are able to course correct when necessary — before the majority of the work is done. 

While you technically could create a project health report manually through something like Excel or Google Docs, it’s best to streamline the process in accordance with your project management tool of choice. 

With project management software such as Asana , for example, you’re able to view information in a Gantt Chart, Kanban board, spreadsheet-style view, or calendar and create project health reports with a single click.  

what is a report type

External Report

Not all reports are solely for sharing internally. External reports are created with the intention of being shared beyond the organization. They’re often used to share information with the general public or shareholders. External reports help the public understand the financial health of an organization, can help attract future investors, work to boost brand awareness, or fulfill the rights of citizens within a governmental body.

External reports can be voluntary; released by an organization for the purpose of accountability. They can also be made mandatory, usually by some legal requirement, such as financial reporting from publicly traded companies. 

Any report that is created for the purpose of being shared publicly is an external report. This type of report includes audit reports for government agencies, financial statements for publicly traded businesses, and any reports that include findings relevant to the broader public. For example, Apple provides its quarterly financial statements in the form of external reports in its investor relations portal online. 

Vertical and Lateral Reports

The labels “vertical” and “lateral” refer to the direction a report is traveling. Vertical reports are created for those either above or below someone in the organization’s hierarchy. For example, a report created for an employee by a manager, or by a manager to a senior level of the executive team. 

Lateral reports are created and shared between members at the same level in an organization. An example of this would be a report from a marketing director shared with the creative director within the same business. 

Examples of vertical reports include a performance review shared by a manager to their direct reports, an email marketing campaign results report shared by an employee to their superiors, or a project health report sent by a project manager to upper management and senior stakeholders.

 Lateral reports can include time tracking reports sent between project managers and working team managers (at the same seniority level), informational reports sent between members of a working team, or a financial report sent from the accounting department to the production team. 

As the classification of vertical and lateral refers to the movement of the report within an organization and not the format of the report, a wide variety of tools can be used in their creation. For example, an agile report created by a project manager in Jira and shared with the working team lead (of equal seniority) is a type of lateral report. 

what is a report type

Analytical Reports 

When it comes to sharing data and insights, an analytical report is your best bet. Analytical reports help organizations understand the overall health of the business through documents that share information such as statistics and research findings. 

While similar to an informational report, analytical reports go one step further to include predictions and solutions meant to help inform business decisions. Based on the data included in an analytical report, stakeholders in an organization can identify areas of the business that require more attention, and which are performing or exceeding expectations. 

With an analytical report, you can either gather information from software or tools and combine it with insights manually, or use a tool that will create a report that includes both the data and insights in one. Examples of analytical reports include pay-per-click reports, marketing campaign results reports, budget reports, and feasibility reports. 

For example, you can create an analytical report in a tool like Tableau that provides both the raw data and statistics you need, paired with valuable insights. Using Tableau, you’re not only able to see the results of digital media spending, website performance, customer journeys, and social media analytics — but understand what this data means for your business. 

what is a report type

Learn more in Unito’s Report on Reporting

Because reporting is such an important workflow, we wanted to get the lay of the land before building dedicated integrations for it. What are some of the biggest headaches that come with reporting? What tools do people use? How can these problems be solved?

That’s why we surveyed 150 knowledge workers from a variety of industries, asking them about their reporting workflows and their tool stack.

We poured through the data and broke it down in Unito’s Report on Reporting . Click the link below to get your free copy.

Ge t the ebook here

There’s a type of report for everyone.

While reports are a vital part of any business or organization, it’s important to know the different types of reports — and when to use them. With the examples above, as well as the tools you can use to create them, it’s clear that generating reports doesn’t need to be a headache. Whether you want to create a long and formal report or provide a brief status update on a project, the right report can communicate what you need, when you need it. 

Want to learn more?

With a project reporting workflow powered by Unito, automate reporting and save time and effort

Learn more about this workflow

what is a report type

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Reports in Power BI

A Power BI report is a multi-perspective view into a dataset, with visuals that represent findings and insights from that dataset. A report can have a single visual or many pages full of visuals. Depending on your job role, you might be someone who designs reports, or you might be a business user who consumes reports. This article is for business users.

The parts of a report

Screenshot showing the Sales and Marketing Sample report page.

A. This report has four pages (or tabs). The example shows the Sentiment page. B. This page has five visuals and a page title. C. The Filters pane shows any applied filters. To collapse the Filters pane, select the arrow ( > ). D. The Power BI banner shows the name of the report and the last updated date. Select the arrow to open a menu that shows the name of the report owner. E. The action bar contains actions to take on this report. For example, you can add a comment, view a bookmark, or export data from the report. Select More options (...) to see a list of report functions.

If you're new to Power BI, read Basic concepts for the Power BI service business users to get a good foundation. You can view, share, and annotate reports on mobile devices. For more information, see Explore reports in the Power BI mobile apps .

Advantages of reports

Power BI bases a report on a single dataset. Report designers create the visuals in a report to represent pieces of information. The visuals aren't static. They update as the underlying data changes. You interact with the visuals and filters as you dig into the data to discover insights and find answers. Like a dashboard, a report is interactive and customizable. The extent of what you can do with a report depends on your role and the permissions the report designer assigns to you.

Safely interact with content

As you explore and interact with your content by filtering, slicing, subscribing, and exporting, you can't corrupt the reports. Your work doesn't affect the underlying dataset or the original shared dashboards, reports, and apps.

You can't damage your data. The Power BI service is a great place for you to explore and experiment without worrying about breaking something.

Save your changes or revert to the default settings

Your changes won't affect underlying data, but that doesn't mean you can't save your changes. You can, but those changes only affect your view of the content. To revert to the default view of the report, select the Reset icon.

Screenshot of the Revert to default icon.

Dashboards versus reports

Dashboards can be confused with reports because they're both canvases filled with visualizations, but there are major differences. The following table shows an overview of the different capabilities of dashboards and reports:

Depending on your role, you may be a designer , someone who creates reports for your own use or to share with colleagues. You'll want to learn how to create and share reports.

Or you may be a business user , someone who receives reports from others. You'll want to learn how to understand and interact with the reports. If you're a report business user , these links are for you:

If you didn't find what you're looking for here, use the table of contents on this page to browse more articles.

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Massey University

What is a report?

A report is a specific form of writing that is organised around concisely identifying and examining issues, events, or findings that have happened in a physical sense, such as events that have occurred within an organisation, or findings from a research investigation.

These events can also pertain to events or issues identified within a body of literature. A report informs the reader simply and objectively about all relevant issues. There are three features that characterise report writing at a very basic level: a pre-defined structure, independent sections, and reaching unbiased conclusions.

Pre-defined structure

Report structures vary widely. So, check your guidelines to ensure that you are following the structure that has been specified.

At a very basic level, a report can be distinguished from an essay by headings which are used to organise information.

Headings typically indicate sections within a report, such as an introduction, discussion, and conclusion.

Within the discussion section, which usually makes up the main body of a report, you can often add sub-sections according to the literature you have sourced, your development of ideas, and the assigned task. The difference between main sections and sub-sections may be indicated through numbering and/or heading font style. You will need to check the assignment instructions to see whether this is appropriate.

1. Introduction 2. Discussion 2.1 Technological benefits 2.1.1 Efficiency 2.1.2 Access to monitoring 2.2 Technological weaknesses 2.2.1 Disconnections 2.2.2 Lack of face-to-face support 3. Conclusion 4. References

You may find that you do not need linking sentences as the headings provide a link between sections, although including a linking sentence from time-to-time may assist the reader's understanding.

Overall, a report is a highly structured piece of work and typically, the course co-ordinator or lecturer identifies the main sections required or indicates that you should follow a standard structure (such as a business report structure ). You are often given more guidance on how to write the assignment, with respect to its structure and section, compared to an essay where you decide the order of information in the essay body.

While you may have more freedom in structuring an essay, it may be more difficult to decide how to order information within your essay. In contrast, a report provides you with that structure before you begin to answer the question, while still allowing you some flexibility and freedom in deciding on the organisation of sub-sections.

Unbiased conclusions

Another element of report writing (in fact, all academic writing ) is that it is an unbiased and objective form of writing.

However, while essays put forward a particular position or argument at the very beginning, summarised in the thesis statement and then backed up in the body, a report's focus is slightly different.

A report sways more towards the process of identifying and reviewing the range of issues in the body of the report, and then reaching an objective conclusion or position at the end, sometimes with recommendations based on the discussion and conclusions.

Of course, you can always have in mind a particular point of view when you begin your report, but try to give the impression that you have come to your conclusion via an objective and methodical review of the issues involved.

Sometimes you will need to briefly summarise the report's findings in your introduction. Alternatively, sometimes you might need to provide an overview of your report in an executive summary or abstract . Report structures vary so this is something you need to check with your assignment instructions or course coordinator. Nevertheless, try to ensure that the conclusion is where you give emphasis to your findings and the recommendations or decisions you have arrived at after a careful analysis of all the issues. It should be clear to the reader that your conclusion is reasoned logically from the discussion of the issues and the evidence you have presented in the body of the report.

Page authorised by Director - Centre for Learner Success Last updated on 11 June, 2019

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  • Exporting from Other Data Sources
  • Exporting from Salesforce
  • Exporting from Outlook
  • Configure Salesforce CORS Allowlist
  • Exporting from ACT!
  • Export Data
  • Exclude the Confidential Information Disclaimer from Reports
  • Manage Real-Time Event Monitoring Events
  • Monitor Login Activity with Login Forensics
  • Types of Enhanced Transaction Security Policies
  • Enhanced Apex Transaction Security Implementation Examples
  • ApiEvent Policies
  • Enhanced Transaction Security
  • SessionHijackingEventStore Policies
  • ReportAnomalyEventStore Policies
  • ListViewEvent Policies
  • LoginEvent Policies
  • ReportEvent Policies
  • PermissionSetEventStore Policies
  • ApiAnomalyEventStore Policies
  • BulkApiResultEventStore Policies
  • FileEvent Policies
  • CredentialStuffingEventStore Policies
  • Enhanced Transaction Security Actions and Notifications
  • Test and Troubleshoot Your New Enhanced Policy
  • Enhanced Transaction Security Apex Testing
  • Create an Enhanced Transaction Security Policy That Uses Apex
  • Build a Transaction Security Policy with Condition Builder
  • Exempt Users from Transaction Security Policies
  • Best Practices for Writing and Maintaining Enhanced Transaction...
  • Condition Builder Examples
  • Enhanced Transaction Security Metering
  • Asynchronous Apex Example
  • Let Users See Report Headers While Scrolling
  • Enable the Japanese Imperial Calendar
  • Help Users Find Dashboards Quickly
  • Let Users Post Dashboard Components in Chatter
  • View and Classify Results with Einstein Data Detect
  • Deploy My Domain Changes
  • My Domain URL Format Changes When You Enable Enhanced Domains
  • Partitioned Domains for Developer Edition and Patch Orgs
  • Partitioned Domains for Demo Orgs
  • Einstein Data Detect
  • Einstein Data Detect Glossary
  • Add Identity Providers to the My Domain Login Page
  • My Domain Login and Application URL Formats with Enhanced Domains
  • My Domain Login and Application URL Formats Without Enhanced Domains
  • Example My Domain Change Pre-Deployment Checklist
  • Change Your My Domain Details
  • Edit Conversion Rates
  • Customize Your My Domain Login Page for Mobile Auth Methods
  • Enhanced Domains
  • Update Service Provider Endpoints After a Login or Site URL Change
  • Review Einstein Data Detect Scan Logs
  • Update Your Auth Provider or OpenID Connect IdP Configuration After...
  • Scan for Patterns with Einstein Data Detect
  • Considerations for Enhanced Domains
  • Installed Packages
  • Update Authentication After a My Domain Change
  • Configuring Installed Packages
  • Update Named Credentials After a My Domain Change
  • Disable or Remove Your Previous My Domain
  • Example My Domain Change Post-Deployment Checklist
  • Create an Interview-Based Login Page with My Domain Login Discovery
  • Log In to Salesforce with Code
  • Determine Whether Enhanced Domains Are Enabled
  • Enhanced Domains Timeline
  • Install and Configure the Einstein Data Detect Managed Package
  • Create a Data Detect Policy
  • Salesforce Edge Network
  • Upgrading Packages
  • Considerations for Salesforce Edge Network
  • Default Field Mapping for Outlook
  • Default Field Mapping for ACT!
  • Example My Domain Change Project Checklist
  • Link to Salesforce Domains in Packages
  • Example My Domain Change Checklists
  • Partitioned Domains
  • Preserve Login Access During a My Domain Login URL Change
  • Customize Your My Domain Login Page with Your Brand
  • Configure My Domain Settings
  • Set My Domain Login and Redirect Policies
  • What Determines Your URL Formats
  • Package Usage
  • Prepare for and Schedule a My Domain Change
  • Manage Installed Packages
  • Log My Domain Hostname Redirections
  • Test My Domain Changes
  • My Domain Provisioning and Deployment
  • My Domain Redirections
  • Enable Partitioned Domains
  • Partitioned Domains for Trailhead Playgrounds
  • Assigning Licenses for Installed Packages
  • My Domain Hostnames
  • Update Your Org for My Domain Changes
  • My Domain URL Formats
  • Get Your Org Status and Upcoming Maintenance Dates with My Domain
  • Notify Users and Customers About a My Domain Change
  • Understand Redirections for Previous My Domain Hostnames
  • Review Recommended Practices for a My Domain Change
  • Plan for a My Domain Change
  • Prepare for the End of Redirections for Non-Enhanced Domains
  • Update Your SAML SSO IdP Configuration After a Login or Site URL...
  • The System Overview Page
  • Delete Trial Data
  • What Is Salesforce Edge Network?
  • Determine the Required Authentication Updates After a My Domain Change
  • Importing Package Data
  • View Installed Package Details
  • Disable Redirects for Your Previous Site URLs
  • Understand the My Domain Change Process
  • Update Your Org and Test My Domain Changes
  • Partitioned Domains for Scratch Orgs
  • Define Delegate Administrators
  • Why Enhanced Domains
  • Responding to License Manager Requests
  • Route My Domain Through Salesforce Edge Network
  • Install a Package
  • Define Data Loader Field Mappings
  • Managing Licenses for Installed Packages
  • Brand Your Salesforce Org’s Domains
  • Namespace Permission Set Licenses in Packages
  • Troubleshoot Common Errors Related to Enhanced Domains
  • Enable Enhanced Domains
  • My Domain Considerations
  • Removing Licenses for Installed Packages
  • Uninstall a Managed Package
  • Delete Users
  • Monitoring Scheduled Jobs
  • Set Up a Platform Cache Partition with Provider Free Capacity
  • Request Additional Platform Cache
  • Data Import Wizard
  • Tips for Mass Updating Addresses
  • Cache Lightning Platform Data
  • About Data Loader
  • Data Loader Third-Party Licenses
  • Mass Update Addresses
  • Request a Platform Cache Trial
  • Transferring Records
  • Adding Tags to the Sidebar
  • Delete Personal Tags for Deactivated Users
  • Upgrade the Report Wizard
  • Provide Convenience Features for Your Report and Dashboard Users
  • User Interface Settings
  • Topics and Tags Settings
  • Customize the User Interface
  • Enable Tags
  • Lightning Experience Record Page Views
  • Set the Default Lightning Experience Record Page View
  • Let Users Subscribe to Report Notifications
  • Customize Report and Dashboard Email Notifications
  • Hide the Embedded Salesforce Classic Report Builder in Lightning...
  • Customize Reports and Dashboards
  • Set the Default Activities View
  • Autocomplete Addresses
  • Custom Record Page Settings
  • Provide Maps and Location Services
  • What Determines Field Access?
  • Managing Folders
  • Manage CSP Trusted Sites
  • Creating and Editing Folders
  • Create and Edit Divisions
  • Work in the Original Profile Interface
  • Create and Edit Groups
  • Configure Data Loader
  • Configure Remote Site Settings
  • Manage Information About Your Company
  • Step Four: Create the Configuration File
  • Prerequisites
  • Data Loader Command Line Introduction
  • Step Two: Create the Encrypted Password
  • Step Five: Import the Data
  • Step Three: Create the Field Mapping File
  • Step One: Create the Encryption Key File
  • View Debug Logs
  • Monitor Debug Logs
  • Verify Access for a Particular Field
  • Set Up Debug Logging
  • Start a New Trial
  • Enable Browser Security Settings
  • Bulk Move Reports or Dashboards Using the Metadata API
  • Read-Only Mode
  • When to Use Data Loader
  • Viewing Which Users Have Access to Your Records in Salesforce Classic
  • Viewing Which Users Have Access to Your Records in Lightning...
  • Check for Desktop Client Updates
  • View and Download Invoices
  • Access Your Completed Quotes with the Your Account App
  • Usage-Based Entitlement Fields
  • Manage Renewals
  • Update Billing Contact Access to the Your Account App
  • Usage-Based Entitlements
  • View Your Organization’s Feature Licenses
  • User Licenses
  • Restrict Permissions Cloning in Profiles
  • Unlock Users
  • Let Users Scramble Their User Data
  • Viewing and Editing Roles
  • Run Batch File With Windows Command-Line Interface
  • Give Your Billing Users Free Access to the Your Account App
  • Enable Field-Level Security for Permission Sets during Field Creation
  • Manage Your Quotes with the Your Account App
  • Administrators and Separation of Duties
  • View Your Salesforce Org’s Usage-Based Entitlements
  • Turn Off the Your Account App
  • Role and Territory Sharing Groups
  • Feature Licenses Overview
  • Assign an Approver to Complete a Self-Service Quote with DocuSign
  • Comparing Security Models
  • View and Edit Tab Settings in Permission Sets and Profiles
  • Get Support with the Your Account App
  • Work with Login Hours in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Remove a Permission Set License from a User
  • Work in the Enhanced Profile User Interface Page
  • “View All” and “Modify All” Permissions Overview
  • See User License Assignments with a Custom Report Type
  • System Permissions in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Manage Profile Lists
  • Edit Session Settings in Profiles
  • Password Policy Fields in Profiles
  • View and Edit Password Policies in Profiles
  • Assign Record Types and Page Layouts in the Enhanced Profile User...
  • Object Permissions
  • Set Field Permissions in Permission Sets and Profiles
  • Field Permissions
  • Work with Service Provider Settings in the Enhanced Profile User...
  • Limit Profile Details to Required Users
  • Assign Page Layouts in the Original Profile User Interface
  • Work with Visualforce Page Access in the Enhanced Profile User...
  • Work with Apex Class Access in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Login IP Ranges in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Work with Object Settings in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Enable the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • View and Edit Login Hours in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Personal User Information Policies and Timelines
  • View and Edit Assigned Apps in Profiles
  • Chatter User Licenses
  • Standard User Licenses
  • Group Member Types
  • Enable Custom Permissions in Profiles
  • View Your Organization’s User Licenses
  • Upgrade a Contactless User to a Community License
  • Viewing a Profile's Assigned Users
  • Profile Settings in the Original Profile Interface
  • Edit Profiles in the Original Profile Interface
  • Create or Clone Profiles
  • Personal User Information Considerations
  • View and Manage Your Permission Set Licenses
  • Enable Enhanced Permission Set Component Views
  • Permission Set Licenses
  • Add Products and Licenses with the Your Account App
  • Enable Contactless Users
  • Search in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Freeze or Unfreeze User Accounts
  • Restrict Login IP Ranges in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • App and System Settings in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Service Cloud Portal User Licenses
  • Enable Enhanced Profile List Views
  • Assign a Permission Set License to a User
  • Manage Personal User Information Visibility for External Users
  • Create a Permission Set Associated with a Permission Set License
  • Sharing Records with Manager Groups
  • Sites and User Licenses
  • User Licenses
  • Set Field-Level Security for a Field on All Profiles
  • Role Fields
  • Enable the Email Domain Allowlist
  • Public Group Considerations
  • Downgrade Experience Cloud Site Users with Community Licenses to...
  • Work with Assigned Apps in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • Add Multiple Users
  • App Permissions in the Enhanced Profile User Interface
  • External Identity License Details
  • Set Field-Level Security for a Field on All Permission Sets
  • Manage Your Contracts with the Your Account App
  • User Management Settings
  • Licenses Overview
  • Edit Multiple Profiles with Profile List Views
  • Channel Account Licenses
  • Create and Edit Profile List Views
  • Enable User Self-Deactivation
  • Considerations for Deactivating Users
  • Manage Users
  • Viewing Group Lists
  • User Management Administration
  • Manage Your Salesforce Account
  • Lightning Platform Starter and Lightning Platform Plus Details
  • Restrict User Email Domains
  • Guidelines for Adding Users
  • Considerations for Editing Users
  • Manage Contactless Users
  • Enable User Access Policies (Beta)
  • What Is a Group?
  • Legacy Portal Licenses
  • Authenticated Website User Licenses
  • Launch the Your Account App
  • When to Use an Internal or External License
  • User Fields
  • Enable a Feature License for a User
  • Available Feature Licenses
  • Create Contactless Users
  • Disable Field History Tracking
  • Track Field History for Standard Objects
  • Change the Default Division for Users
  • Track Field History for Custom Objects
  • Field History Tracking
  • Performance Assistant
  • Measure Performance for Your Salesforce Org
  • Org Configuration Best Practices
  • What Is EPT?
  • Technical Requirements for Lightning Experience
  • Improve Virtual Desktop Environment Performance
  • Improve Speed and Performance of Lightning Experience Pages
  • Technical Requirements for Phones
  • Network Best Practices
  • Device and Browser Best Practices
  • Technical Requirements and Performance Best Practices
  • Data Types Supported by Data Loader
  • State, Country, and Territory Picklist Fields
  • Standard Profiles
  • System Overview: User Interface
  • System Overview: Portal Roles
  • System Overview: Business Logic
  • Allow the Required Domains
  • Organization-Wide Default Access Settings
  • Built-in Sharing Behavior
  • System Overview: Schema
  • System Overview: Most Used Licenses
  • System Overview: API Usage
  • Set the Fiscal Year
  • Guidelines for Success with Roles
  • Disable the Salesforce Notification Banner
  • Sharing Rule Types
  • Restriction Rule Considerations
  • Asynchronous Deletion of Obsolete Shares
  • Which User Permissions Does Shield Platform Encryption Require?
  • Manage Group Membership Calculations
  • Control Standard Report Visibility
  • Scoping Rule Considerations
  • What’s the Difference Between Classic Encryption and Shield Platform...
  • Restriction Rule Example Scenarios
  • Defer Sharing Calculations
  • Edit Sharing Rules
  • Scoping Rules
  • Generate a Tenant Secret with Salesforce
  • Strengthen Your Data's Security with Shield Platform Encryption
  • Asynchronous Parallel Recalculation of Org-Wide Defaults
  • Understanding User Sharing
  • Work with Key Material
  • Considerations for Using Deterministic Encryption
  • Encrypt New Data in Custom Fields in Salesforce Classic
  • Synchronize Your Data Encryption with the Background Encryption...
  • Apply Encryption to Fields Used in Matching Rules
  • Sharing Rule Categories
  • Set the Org-Wide Sharing Defaults for User Records
  • User Sharing
  • Control Manual Sharing for User Records
  • Prerequisites and Terminology for Cache-Only Keys
  • Which Files Are Encrypted?
  • Create Guest User Sharing Rules
  • Sample Script for Generating a BYOK Tenant Secret
  • Defer Sharing Rule Calculations
  • How Deterministic Encryption Supports Filtering
  • Upload Your BYOK Tenant Secret
  • Why Bring Your Own Key?
  • Troubleshooting Bring Your Own Key
  • Back Up Your Tenant Secrets
  • Troubleshoot Cache-Only Keys
  • Encrypt Data with the Deterministic Encryption Scheme
  • Shield Platform Encryption in Hyperforce
  • Protect Your Salesforce Organization
  • Set Trusted IP Ranges for Your Organization
  • Shield Platform Encryption and the Lightning Experience
  • Create Criteria-Based Sharing Rules
  • Create Sharing Rules
  • Create and Assemble Your Key Material
  • Manage Master Encryption Keys
  • Cache-Only Key Service
  • Sharing Rule Considerations
  • Require Permission to View Record Names in Lookup Fields
  • Viewing Sharing Overrides
  • Manage Sharing Settings
  • User Session Types
  • Create a Flow That Applies a Scoping Rule
  • Object-Specific Share Locks
  • Sync Data with Self-Service Background Encryption
  • Interpret and Use Encryption Statistics
  • Asynchronous Parallel Recalculation of Sharing Rules
  • Encrypt New Data in Standard Fields
  • Recalculate Sharing Rules
  • Tradeoffs and Limitations of Shield Platform Encryption
  • How Do I Deploy Shield Platform Encryption?
  • Create Sharing Rules Based on Group Membership
  • Create Owner-Based Sharing Rules
  • Default Organization-Wide Access Levels
  • Organization-Wide Sharing Defaults
  • Sharing Considerations
  • Which Salesforce Apps Don’t Support Shield Platform Encryption?
  • Protect Sensitive Information in Your URLs
  • Generate a BYOK-Compatible Certificate
  • Shield Platform Encryption Customizations
  • Generate and Wrap BYOK Key Material
  • Define and Deploy Security Policies
  • Check Your Cache-Only Key Connection
  • Configure Your Cache-Only Key Callout Connection
  • Bring Your Own Key (BYOK)
  • Encrypt New Files and Attachments
  • Scoping Rule Example Scenarios
  • Create a Scoping Rule
  • Create a Restriction Rule
  • Restriction Rules
  • Review Threat Detection Events
  • Security Center Metrics
  • Which Standard Fields Can I Encrypt?
  • Key Management and Rotation
  • Manage Tenant Secrets by Type
  • Fix Compatibility Problems
  • How Does Shield Platform Encryption Work in a Sandbox?
  • Rotate Your Encryption Tenant Secrets
  • Security Health Check
  • Gather Encryption Statistics
  • Create Logout Event Triggers
  • Get Statistics About Your Encryption Coverage
  • Behind the Scenes: The Search Index Encryption Process
  • Require High-Assurance Session Security for Sensitive Operations
  • Encrypt Search Index Files
  • Set Up a Mutual Authentication Certificate
  • Require Multi-Factor Authentication for Key Management
  • Destroy Key Material
  • Why Isn’t My Encrypted Data Masked?
  • Encrypt Custom Fields in Installed Managed Packages
  • Create a Custom Baseline for Health Check
  • Report Types Support for User Sharing
  • Differences Between User Sharing with Manual Sharing and Sharing Sets
  • Use Encrypted Data in Formulas
  • Encrypt Event Bus Data
  • Update Metric Data
  • Encrypt New Data in Custom Fields in Lightning Experience
  • How Is the Health Check Score Calculated?
  • Security Center Data
  • Opt-Out of Key Derivation with BYOK
  • Designate a Parent Tenant in Security Center
  • Review Detailed Metric Data
  • Encrypt CRM Analytics Data
  • Use Cases for Alerts
  • Protect Your Visualforce Pages with Cross-Origin Opener Policy (COOP)
  • Destroy a Cache-Only Key
  • Restrict Page Resource Requests with Cross-Origin Embedder Policy...
  • Which Custom Fields Can I Encrypt?
  • Set Up Your Encryption Policy
  • Bring Your Own Key Overview
  • Take Good Care of Your BYOK Keys
  • Use Activations
  • Using Frontdoor.jsp to Bridge an Existing Session Into Salesforce
  • Custom Baseline File Requirements
  • Phishing and Malware
  • What Other Data Elements Can I Encrypt?
  • Considerations for Cache-Only Keys
  • Configure Clickjack Protection
  • Session Security
  • Shield Platform Encryption Best Practices
  • Disconnect a Child Tenant from a Parent Tenant
  • Controlling Access Using Hierarchies
  • View User Session Information on the Session Management Page
  • Manage Redirects to External URLs
  • Security Alerts
  • Activations
  • Certificates and Keys
  • What You Can Encrypt
  • Behind the Scenes: The Shield Platform Encryption Process
  • Disable Encryption on Fields
  • Security Center Definitions
  • How Cache-Only Keys Works
  • Manage Data Access
  • Generate a Self-Signed Certificate
  • Encrypt Fields on Custom Objects and Custom Fields
  • Add Replay Detection for Cache-Only Keys
  • Control Who Sees What
  • Shield Platform Encryption Terminology
  • Filter Encrypted Data with Deterministic Encryption
  • Review Health Check Data
  • Configure Your API Client to Use Mutual Authentication
  • Generate a Certificate Signed by a Certificate Authority
  • Take Charge of Your Security Goals with Security Center
  • Enable Security Center Permissions
  • Replace the Default Proxy Certificate for SAML Single Sign-On
  • Field Limits with Shield Platform Encryption
  • General Shield Platform Encryption Considerations
  • How Shield Platform Encryption Works
  • Encrypt Data in Chatter
  • Reactivate a Cache-Only Key
  • Security Infrastructure
  • Set Your External Organization-Wide Sharing Defaults
  • External Organization-Wide Defaults Overview
  • Specify Trusted Domains for Inline Frames
  • Create Alerts for Security Changes
  • Sharing Rules
  • Enable Clickjack Protection for Visualforce Pages
  • Set Up Einstein Search
  • Security Center Dashboards
  • Salesforce Shield
  • Review Data Loader Output Files
  • Set Up a Custom Report Type

Add Child Objects to Your Custom Report Type

  • Let Users Attach Files to Report Subscriptions
  • Design the Field Layout for Reports Created from Your Custom Report...
  • Limits on Report Types
  • Manage Custom Report Types
  • Set Up Historical Trend Reporting
  • Reporting With Divisions

Create a Custom Report Type

  • Release Updates
  • Manage Release Updates
  • Importing Records
  • Enable Access to Real-Time Event Monitoring
  • Real-Time Event Monitoring Data Storage
  • Real-Time Event Monitoring Data Streaming
  • Stream and Store Event Data
  • Real-Time Event Monitoring
  • Real-Time Event Monitoring Definitions
  • Training and Inference Steps
  • Considerations for Using Real-Time Event Monitoring
  • Investigate Report Anomalies
  • View Threat Detection Events and Provide Feedback
  • Detection Event Isn’t Anomalous
  • Detection Event Possibly Anomalous
  • How Chunking Works with ReportEvent and ListViewEvent
  • View Events and Provide Feedback
  • Investigate Session Hijacking
  • Investigate API Request Anomalies
  • Investigate Credential Stuffing
  • Detection Event Is Confirmed Malicious
  • Best Practices for Investigating Report Anomalies
  • Credential Stuffing
  • Report Anomaly Detection Examples
  • Detection Event Is Definitely Anomalous but Maybe Not Malicious
  • API Request Anomaly Detection Examples
  • API Detection Event Possibly Anomalous
  • API Detection Event Is Confirmed Malicious
  • API Detection Event Isn’t Anomalous
  • Threat Detection
  • API Detection Event Is an Anomaly but Isn’t Clearly Malicious
  • Features of the Browser Fingerprint
  • Report Anomaly
  • Use Async SOQL with Real-Time Event Monitoring
  • Session Hijacking
  • API Anomaly
  • Make the Threat Detection App Visible to Users
  • Best Practices for Investigating API Request Anomalies
  • Secure Cross-Cloud Integrations with Private Connect
  • Establish an Outbound Connection with AWS
  • Establish an Inbound Connection with AWS
  • Considerations for Private Connect with AWS
  • Salesforce Platform Cookies
  • How Is Record Type Access Specified?
  • Remove User Assignments in Permission Sets and Permission Set Groups
  • Manage Assignment Expiration Details for Users in Permission Sets...
  • Tab Settings
  • Set Assignment Expiration Details for Users in Permission Sets and...
  • Revoke Permissions and Access
  • Permission Assignment Expiration Considerations
  • Create a Connected App for the Tooling API
  • User Permissions and Access
  • User Access Policy Considerations (Beta)
  • User Access Policies (Beta)
  • Mute Permissions in a Permission Set Group
  • Update the Callback URL in the Connected App
  • Modify a Permission Set Group with the User Access and Permissions...
  • Permission Set and Permission Set Group Assignment Expiration
  • Set User Authentication for the Tooling API Credential
  • Report on Permission Assignments by User
  • User Access and Permissions Assistant Considerations
  • Assign or Unassign Permission Set Groups
  • Analyze Your Permission Assignments
  • Analyze Object Permissions
  • Create a Permission Set to Use the Named Credential
  • Create a Named Credential for the Tooling API
  • Create a Permission Set with Required Permissions for the User...
  • Create a Permission Set Group with the User Access and Permissions...
  • Assign the Helper App Access Permission Set
  • Working with Visualforce Page Access in Permission Sets
  • Create an Authentication Provider for the Tooling API
  • Types of Permission Sets
  • Converting Profiles to Permission Sets
  • Convert a Profile to a Permission Set
  • Manage Permission Set Groups
  • Download the User Access and Permissions Assistant Package
  • Add or Remove Permission Sets from a Permission Set Group
  • Analyze User Permissions
  • User Access and Permissions Assistant
  • Analyze Permission Set Groups
  • Working with System Permissions in Permission Sets
  • Standard Permission Sets
  • Assign Custom Record Types in Permission Sets
  • What Are Session-Based Permission Sets?
  • Permission Sets
  • Session-based Permission Sets
  • Search Permission Sets
  • Remove User Assignments from a Permission Set
  • Create a Flow That Can Activate or Deactivate a Session-Based...
  • Working with Service Provider Access in Permission Sets
  • Integration Permission Sets
  • Guidelines for Creating Permission Sets and Permission Set Groups
  • Enable Custom Permissions in Permission Sets
  • View and Edit Assigned Apps in Permission Sets
  • Working with Object Settings in Permission Sets
  • Edit Object Permissions in Profiles
  • Create Permission Sets
  • Assign a Permission Set to Multiple Users
  • Permission Set Considerations
  • Manage Permission Set Assignments
  • App Permissions in Permission Sets
  • What Are Session-Based Permission Set Groups?
  • Remove Permission Sets from a Permission Set Group
  • Permission Set Group Status and Recalculation
  • Session-Based Permission Set Groups
  • Permission Set Group Muting Dependencies
  • Assign Permission Sets to a Single User
  • App and System Settings in Permission Sets
  • Work with Assigned Apps in Permission Sets
  • Allow Users to Activate or Deactivate a Session-Based Permission Set...
  • Can I Include a Session-Based Permission Set in a Permission Set...
  • When Do I Use a Permission Set Group Instead of a Permission Set?
  • Create a Permission Set Group
  • Permission Set Groups Considerations
  • Can I Assign a User to a Permission Set Group That Has Permissions...
  • Muting Permission Set
  • Add Permission Sets to a Permission Set Group
  • Permission Set Groups from Managed Packages
  • Create Session-Based Permission Set Groups
  • Mute a Permission in a Permission Set Group
  • Permission Set Groups and Combined Permissions View
  • Install the User Access and Permissions Assistant
  • Perform Mass Updates
  • Assign Permission Set Groups to Users
  • Automatically Grant or Revoke Access with a User Access Policy (Beta)
  • Perform Mass Deletes
  • Permission Set Groups
  • Manually Grant or Revoke Access with a User Access Policy (Beta)
  • Permission Set Group FAQs
  • Plan Your Salesforce Rollout
  • Activities View
  • Supported Number, Name, and Address Formats (ICU)
  • Experience Cloud User Licenses
  • Partner Portal User Licenses
  • Customer Portal User Licenses
  • Customer Portal—Enterprise Administration User Licenses
  • Use Permission Set Lists
  • Manual Sharing in Lightning Experience
  • Manual Sharing in Salesforce Classic
  • Download and Install Data Loader
  • Terminology
  • Classic vs Platform Encryption
  • Shield Encryption Flow
  • Search Index Encryption Flow
  • Masked Data
  • Required Permissions
  • Encrypt Files
  • Fix Blockers
  • Stop Encryption
  • Rotate Keys
  • Destroy a Key
  • Retrieve Encrypted Data with Formulas
  • Encryption Best Practices
  • General Trade-Offs
  • Lightning Trade-Offs
  • Field Limits
  • App Trade-Offs
  • Event Data Streaming
  • Event Data Storage
  • Using Async SOQL
  • Implementation Apex Examples
  • Apex Testing
  • Plan Your Performance Test and Identify Key Personas
  • Set Up and Run Performance Tests
  • Learn More About Setting Up Salesforce

Choose the primary object you’d like your new report type to support, then give it a name and a useful description. Mark it as “in development” until you’re ready to make it available for users to create reports.

Required Editions and User Permissions

  • From Setup, enter Report Types in the Quick Find box, then select Report Types .
  • If the Custom Report Type welcome page opens, click Continue .
  • Click New Custom Report Type .


  • You can choose from all objects—even the objects that you don't have permission to view. This flexibility lets you build report types for a variety of users.
  • After you save a report type, you can't change the primary object.
  • If the primary object on a report type is a custom or external object, and that object is deleted, the report type and reports created from it are deleted.
  • If you remove an object from a report type, all references to that object and its associated objects are removed from the reports and dashboards based on that type.
  • The name of the primary object is derived from the plural label field. The names of any related objects are derived from either the related list label field or the custom field that defines its relationship to the primary object.
  • In Essentials edition, when adding a child object, you can’t change the relationship with the primary object.
  • To create custom report types from which users can report on your organization's reports and dashboards. select Reports or Dashboards from the Primary Object dropdown list.
  • Enter the Report Type Label and the Report Type Name . The label can be up to 50 characters long. If you enter a name that is longer than 50 characters, the name gets truncated. The name is used by SOAP API.

Provide a meaningful description so users have a good idea of which data is available for reports. For example: Accounts with Contacts. Report on accounts and their contacts. Accounts without contacts are not shown. .

  • Select the category in which you want to store the custom report type.
  • Choose In Development during design and testing as well as editing. The report type and its reports are hidden from all users except user with the “Manage Custom Report Types” permission. Only users with that permission can create and run reports using report types in development.
  • Choose Deployed when you're ready to let all users access the report type.


  • Click Next .
  • A developer can edit a custom report type in a managed package after it’s released, and can add new fields. Subscribers automatically receive these changes when they install a new version of the managed package. However, developers can’t remove objects from the report type after the package is released. If you delete a field in a custom report type that’s part of a managed package and the deleted field is part of bucketing or used in grouping, you receive an error message.
  • Custom fields that you add to a Salesforce object in Setup are added automatically to all of the custom report types that based on that object. New fields that are deployed as part of a package aren’t added to custom report types.

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The Ultimate Guide to Report Types in Salesforce: 4 Reports Every Sales Pro Should Use

what is a report type

Are there weak spots in your sales pipeline? What was your average deal value in the last quarter? Or the average sales cycle length?

Monitoring relevant sales metrics is critical for timely reactions and quick fixes when you detect an issue in your sales cycle or identify an opportunity to boost your numbers. However, the only way to see the whole picture and gain important insight into your performance is to create reports.

Salesforce provides several types of reports that can help you understand how well your sales pipeline is performing and present company performance summaries and marketing and sales overviews in a digestible and streamlined format.

This guide will walk you through sales reports every sales professional should know about and show you how to use them in the most efficient way possible to drive business growth.

Let’s dive in.

  • What is a Salesforce Report?
  • What is a Report Type in Salesforce?
  • Salesforce Report Types

How to Create a Standard Report in Salesforce

Salesforce report examples, make better salesforce reports with databox.

HubSpot Sales Manager KPIs Dashboard Template

What Is a Salesforce Report?

A Salesforce report is a list of filtered data meeting a specific criteria that give you information about a question you want to answer. You can organize this data in different ways to answer various questions and display them in several ways, with one goal: to make it skimmable and easy to understand without spending hours on the report.

The purpose of having such data and being able to interpret it is to make data-driven decisions about your business: how to develop your product, what new products you may need to introduce, how to enhance communication with your customers and leads, and more.

Reports allow you to easily identify the common ground between two or more sets of data and base your future business activities on it.

Related : 10 Essential Metrics to Include in Your Salesforce Dashboard

What Is a Report Type in Salesforce?

Report types in Salesforce are practically templates: you choose one type or another based on what kind of data you want to see. The report type defines which records and fields will be displayed in your report, based on how the primary object is related to other objects.

There are several predefined report types you can use in Salesforce. You can’t edit them, but you can create your own custom report type to suit your needs entirely.

Let’s break down the predefined report types:

Object Relationships

  • Fields included in Results

Fields Checked by Default

Field display names (report column headers).

Objects are the essential element of every Salesforce report. They are digital tables (and are called so in many other sales management systems). The purpose of these tables is to store relevant data and info about a company, give it a structure, and help users manage the data.

If you have used another sales management software before, you may find object fields and records similar to database columns and rows.

There are several types of Objects:

  • Standard: It’s all in the name–these are primary structures, standard business objects such as campaign, opportunity, leade, account, contact, etc. are included in Salesforce.
  • Custom: These aren’t provided by Salesforce–you create them to store any data that’s specific to your business.

When you create a report, you can select different Objects to display. The Primary Object is the most important data in it, included in the report’s name, too. You can choose up to three other objects to include in the report with the primary one.

When you select the desired objects, it’s time to determine the relationships between these objects. Object relationships are specific field types that determine how two or more objects are going to interact one with another.

For example, say your main primary object is Account. You create a new Account object when you’ve talked to someone from the company for which you created the account. If you have that person’s contact information, it’ll be found under Related in Account, because there is a relationship between Account and Contact objects.

You can create custom relationship fields on an object to create new relationships between objects and enable other users to see related data in the report. 

Fields Included in Results

After you choose the desired objects and the relationships between them, you should decide what fields you want to include in the report.

The Field Layout Properties screen displays the layout and enables you to manage the fields that will be available to you through the report, where you can filter them for a specific output. Salesforce automatically creates sections in the layout based on the objects you have chosen, but you can edit them as necessary: create new ones or move fields from one to another.

Salesforce lets you check specific fields that you want to include in every report automatically.

You will see that some fields in the layout already have check marks by default, but you can select more to add to this list. Once you’ve checked all the desired fields by double-clicking on the field’s names, and checking the box under Checked by Default, you can complete your report creation and save it.

Say you have a really long field name–for example, Number of Purchases in Last N days. Such lengthy names would take up too much space in your report, while some other fields don’t have names that are clear enough to enable users to understand them without a context.

That’s why Salesforce lets you create a display name (think of it as a nickname!) for your field so it’s more compact in the report and understandable to others who may not be aware of the context. For instance, replacing “number of” with a # works perfectly. 

Note that adding a new custom field doesn’t mean it will automatically appear in your report types. This option isn’t available for now, so you need to add the new field manually to Report Types and to the actual report.

Standard Salesforce Report Types

There are standard and custom reports in Salesforce. Since custom reports depend on each salesperson’s needs and goals, we’ll only discuss the standard reports. There are four types:

Tabular Reports

Summary reports, matrix reports, joined reports.

Tabular reports in Salesforce are the basic type of reports that display the desired data in rows, and look almost like Excel spreadsheets. If your goal is to simply list your data without grouping it or doing any calculations, or you want to export the report, this type is the most suitable one. Users often create Tabular reports to list all contacts, for example.

If you want to do more complex things with your data, like manipulate it or use calculations, you should use another type of report, such as Matrix or Summary.

Typical reports that most people use in Salesforce are Summary reports. They display groups of data and you can choose how you’re going to make these groups.

For instance, you can group the opportunities by Account Name and then calculate the total value for each group, as well as find minimums or maximums for them. You can also organize the data by year or quarter, depending on what you need.

PRO TIP: Monitor Your Sales Team’s Performance in One Dashboard

Smart Sales Managers know that to achieve your monthly and quarterly goals, you have to monitor your team’s sales performance on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. To do that, you need an actionable dashboard that summarizes both team and individual sales rep metrics and allows you to:

  • Understand the current sales pipeline.
  • Track sales rep performance.
  • Compare team results to revenue goals.

If you use the HubSpot CRM, you can benefit from the experience of our sales experts, who have put together a plug-and-play Databox template showing some of the most important metrics for monitoring your sales team performance. It’s simple to implement and start using as a standalone dashboard or in sales reports, and best of all, it’s free!


You can easily set it up in just a few clicks – no coding required.

To set up the dashboard, follow these 3 simple steps:

Step 1: Get the template 

Step 2: Connect your HubSpot account with Databox. 

Step 3: Watch your dashboard populate in seconds.

In Matrix reports, things get a tad more complicated, since you can group data by row and by column and see different totals in the report. They are particularly useful when you want to see totals for two categories that aren’t related.

For example, you can use summary reports to see totals by accounts, but if you want to see totals for a specific product and different dates, Matrix reports are the way to do that. They’re helpful when you have too much elaborate data to show in the report.

Joined reports are useful when you want to compare the data from two individual reports.

In this report, you can create up to five separate blocks to display related data only, and these blocks behave like separate reports: you can use unique filters and formulas to sort and display the data in different views. For example, if you want to compare the number of opportunities for two accounts.

Standard Salesforce reports are easy to create, and you can keep them in your dashboard so you can quickly access them in the future whenever you need them again.

Follow the instructions below to create a standard report.

  • Open your Salesforce account and choose the New Report option in the Reports tab.
  • Click on Property and then Create to start the process.
  • In this step, you need to select the elements you want to see in the report: Properties, Fields, and Filters.
  • Opt for the desired report type.
  • Save the report to a folder and select Run report to finish creating it.

That’s all! 

Databox provides you with several dashboards so you can effortlessly track your leads, sales, and relevant Salesforce KPIs and metrics. Here are a few templates you can download for free.

  • Salesforce Expected Value of Sales Pipeline Dashboard

Salesforce Leads Dashboard

Salesforce leads overview dashboard, salesforce (expected value of sales pipeline) dashboard.

The Salesforce Expected Value of Sales Pipeline dashboard template allows you to visualize your whole sales pipeline and highlights the sales closed in the current quarter. Moreover, you can also see the expected value of the opportunities that will likely close by the end of the quarter.

what is a report type

The metrics included in this dashboard are:

  • Closed and pending leads
  • Converted leads
  • Opportunities >51% chance leads source
  • Expected revenue
  • New leads by lead source
  • Open opportunities amount by stage name
  • Opportunities won revenue

This dashboard helps you answer important questions, such as where most of your leads come from, or what the total value of all deals in your sales pipeline is. 

By using this Salesforce Leads dashboard template you can get a detailed overview of all your leads in Salesforce, which facilitates tracking your sales. You can see what channels generate the most leads, how many leads are generated from all your marketing sources, what stage your leads are in, and more.

salesforce leads

The metrics available in this template are:

  • Lead source by create date
  • Lead status by create date
  • Lead owner by create date

If you opt for using Databox deep integration with Salesforce , you will be able to track even more: closed and won opportunities, sales cycle, win/loss rate, deal type, and more.

The Salesforce Leads Overview dashboard template lets you view all your leads in Salesforce and enables tracking your sales progress. Here, you can use the Query Builder tool to create advanced Salesforce reports.

what is a report type

The key metrics you can track in this dashboard are:

  • Leads by source
  • Lead status
  • Lead source

This streamlined overview of all your leads helps you answer some critical questions, such as where your leads are coming from or who owns them. And if you use our one-click integration with Salesforce, you can pull even more relevant data to complete your report.


Salesforce reports allow you to list, group, and relate your data so you can understand the performance of your sales pipeline.

Now, imagine taking these reports to another level. You have a customized, streamlined overview of your pipeline’s performance and you can answer crucial questions at a glance. You can quickly identify your team’s strengths and seize opportunities to close more deals and boost revenue. You can effortlessly pinpoint weak spots of your pipeline and analyze the data to understand the causes, so you can fix them.

No, this isn’t some perfect, unachievable scenario. It’s possible with Databox.

Databox dashboard templates save your time and energy by offering predefined dashboards that include all the relevant metrics you need to track your leads, identify where they come from, and learn what stages of your pipeline they’re in. Our deep, one-click integration allow you to pull the data from various sources and make the most out of your tracking, so you don’t lose track of your leads, opportunities, and revenue.

We trust you don’t want to miss the opportunity to build a customized dashboard and streamline your lead tracking in Salesforce. Sign up for our free trial today and see Databox in action!

what is a report type

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What is Report Writing: Format, Examples, Types & Process

  • Table of Contents

Many professionals struggle to create effective reports due to a lack of understanding of the essential elements and organization required. This can lead to frustration and a failure to communicate key information to the intended audience.

In this blog, we’ll explore what is report writing, the types of reports, essential elements, and tips for creating effective reports to help you communicate your message and achieve your goals.

Definition of report writing? 

According to Mary Munter and Lynn Hamilton, authors of “Guide to Managerial Communication,” report writing is “the process of selecting, organizing, interpreting, and communicating information to meet a specific objective.”

What is report writing? 

Report writing refers to the process of creating a document that represents information in a clear and concise manner. Reports can be written for various purposes, such as providing updates on a project, analyzing data or presenting findings, or making recommendations.

Effective report writing requires careful planning, research, analysis, and organization of information. A well-structured report should be accurate, and objective, and contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. It should also be written in a professional and accessible style, with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, tables, graphs, and other visual aids.

Overall, report writing is an important skill for professionals in many fields, as it helps to communicate information and insights in a clear and concise manner.

What is a report? 

A report is a formal document that is structured and presented in an organized manner, with the aim of conveying information, analyzing data, and providing recommendations. It is often used to communicate findings and outcomes to a specific audience, such as stakeholders, or managers. Reports can vary in length and format, but they usually contain a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.

What are the features of report writing

There are several key features of effective report writing that can help ensure that the information presented is clear, concise, and useful. Some of these features include:

1/ Clarity: Reports should be written in clear and concise language, avoiding jargon or technical terms that may be confusing to the reader. 

2/ Objectivity: A report should be objective, meaning that it should be free from bias or personal opinions. This is particularly important when presenting data or analysis.

3/ Accuracy: Reports should be based on reliable sources and accurate data. Information should be verified and cross-checked to ensure that it is correct and up-to-date.

4/ Structure: A report should be structured in a logical and organized manner, with clear headings, subheadings, and sections. 

5/ Visual aids: A report may include visual aids such as charts, tables, and graphs, which can help to illustrate the key points and make the information easier to understand.

6/ Evidence: Reports should include evidence to support any claims or findings, such as statistics, quotes, or references to relevant literature.

7/ Recommendations: Many reports include recommendations or suggestions for future action based on the findings or analysis presented.

Significance of report writing

Report writing is a critical skill that can have a significant impact on individuals, and organizations. In fact, a report by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that the ability to communicate effectively, including report writing, was the most important skill sought by employers.

  • Reports provide decision-makers with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Effective report writing demonstrates professionalism and attention to detail, which can help to build trust and credibility with clients.
  • Reports can inform planning processes by providing data and insights that can be used to develop strategies and allocate resources.
  • Reports often include recommendations or suggestions for future action, which can help to improve processes, procedures, or outcomes.
Further Reading: What is the significance of report writing

Types of report writing

By understanding the different types of report writing, individuals can select the appropriate format and structure to effectively communicate information and achieve their objectives. However, the kind of report used will depend on the purpose, audience, and context of the report.

1/ Informational reports: These reports provide information about a topic, such as a product, service, or process.

Further Reading : What is an information report

2/ Analytical reports: These reports present data or information in a structured and organized manner, often with charts, graphs, or tables, to help the reader understand trends, patterns, or relationships.

3/ Formal Reports: These are detailed and structured reports written for a specific audience, often with a specific objective. In comparison with informal reports , formal reports are typically longer and more complex than other types of reports. 

4/ Progress reports: These reports provide updates on a project or initiative, detailing the progress made and any challenges or obstacles encountered. 

5/ Technical reports: These reports provide technical information, such as specifications, designs, or performance data, often aimed at a technical audience.

6/ Research reports: These reports present the findings of research conducted on a particular topic or issue, often including a literature review, data analysis, and conclusions.

7/ Feasibility Report: A feasibility report assesses the likelihood of achieving success for a suggested project or initiative.

8/ Business Reports: These reports are used in a business setting to communicate information about a company’s performance, operations, or strategies. Different types of business reports include financial statements, marketing reports, and annual reports.

Structure of report writing 

The structure of a report refers to the overall organization and layout of the report, including the sections and subsections that make up the report, their order, and their relationships to each other. A report can we divided into three parts. 

Preliminary Parts:

  • Acknowledgments (Preface or Foreword)
  • List of Tables and Illustrations
  • Introduction (clear statement of research objectives, background information, hypotheses, methodology, statistical analysis, scope of study, limitations)
  • Statement of findings and recommendations (summarized findings, non-technical language)
  • Results (detailed presentation of findings with supporting data in the form of tables and charts, statistical summaries, and reductions of data, presented in a logical sequence)
  • Implications of the results (clearly stated implications that flow from the results of the study)
  • Summary (brief summary of the research problem, methodology, major findings, and major conclusions)

End Matter:

  • Appendices (technical data such as questionnaires, sample information, and mathematical derivations)
  • Bibliography of sources consulted.

This structure provides a clear and organized framework for presenting a research report, ensuring that all important information is included and presented in a logical and easy-to-follow manner.

Extra Learnings Role of a report structure in report writing  The report structure plays a crucial role in report writing as it provides a clear and organized framework for presenting information in an effective and logical manner. It ensures that the reader can easily understand the purpose and scope of the report, locate and access the relevant information.  The preliminary parts of the report, provide an overview of the report and aid navigation. The main text makes it easier for the reader to comprehend and analyze the information. And The end matter provides additional details and sources for reference. An organized report structure also helps the author to communicate their research and ideas effectively to the intended audience.

What is the report writing format? 

The format of report writing refers to the structure of a formal document that provides information on a particular topic or issue. The format typically includes several components that must be there in the report to provide specific subjects in an organized and structured format. 

8 Essential elements of report writing are: 

1/ Title page: This includes the title of the report, the author’s name, the date of submission, and other relevant information.

2/ Table of contents: The table of contents lists the report’s primary sections and subsections, together with their corresponding page numbers.

3/ Executive summary: An executive summary gives a concise summary of the report, emphasizing the significant conclusions and recommendations.

4/ Introduction: This provides background information on the topic or issue, explains the purpose and scope of the report, and outlines the methodology used.

5/ Main body: This is where the bulk of the information is presented, usually divided into several sections and sub-sections. The main body may include data, analysis, and discussion of the topic or issue.

6/ Conclusion: This Summarizes the primary discoveries of the report and offers conclusions or recommendations accordingly.

7/ References: This lists the sources cited in the report, following a particular citation style such as APA, MLA, or Chicago.

8/ Appendices: This includes any additional materials such as charts, tables, graphs, or other supporting data.

The specific format and structure of a report may vary depending on the purpose, audience, and type of report.

Report writing examples and samples


Example of Progress Report


The essential process of report writing

Report writing requires careful planning, organization, and analysis to ensure that the report effectively communicates the intended message to the audience. Here are the general steps involved in the process of report writing:

Plan and prepare:

  • Identify the purpose of the report, the target audience, and the scope of the report.
  • Collect and examine data from different sources, including research studies, surveys, or interviews.
  • Create an outline of the report, including headings and subheadings.

Write the introduction:

  • Start with a brief summary of the report and its purpose.
  • Provide background information and context for the report.
  • Explain the research methodology and approach used.

Write the main body:

  • Divide the report into logical sections, each with a clear heading.
  • Present the findings and analysis of the research in a clear and organized manner.
  • Use appropriate visual aids, such as tables, graphs, or charts to present data and information.
  • Utilize a language that is both clear and Brief, and avoid using unnecessary jargon or technical terminology.
  • Cite all sources used in the report according to a specified citation style.

Write the conclusion:

  • Summarize the main findings and conclusions of the report.
  • Restate the purpose of the report and how it was achieved.
  • Provide recommendations or suggestions for further action, if applicable.

Edit and revise:

  • Review the report for errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
  • Check that all information is accurate and up-to-date.
  • Revise and improve the report as necessary.

Format and present:

  • Use a professional and appropriate format for the report.
  • Include a title page, table of contents, and list of references or citations.
  • Incorporate headings, subheadings, and bullet points to enhance the report’s readability and facilitate navigation.
  • Use appropriate fonts and sizes, and ensure that the report is well-structured and visually appealing.

Important Principles of report writing

To write an effective report, it is important to follow some basic principles. These principles ensure that your report is clear, concise, accurate, and informative. In this regard, here are some of the key principles that you should keep in mind when writing a report:

1/ Clarity: The report should be clear and easy to understand. 

2/ Completeness: The report should cover all the relevant information needed to understand the topic

3/ Conciseness: A report should be concise, presenting only the information that is relevant and necessary to the topic. 

4/ Formatting: The report should be properly formatted, with consistent fonts, spacing, and margins

5/ Relevance: The information presented in the report should be relevant to the purpose of the report.

6/ Timeliness: The report should be completed and delivered in a timely manner.

7/ Presentation: The report should be visually appealing and well-presented.

Extra Learnings Styles of report writing When it comes to the style of report writing, it’s important to use hard facts and figures, evidence, and justification. Using efficient language is crucial since lengthy reports with too many words are difficult to read. The most effective reports are easy and quick to read since the writer has comprehended the data and formulated practical recommendations. To achieve this, it’s important to write as you speak, avoid empty words, use descending order of importance, use an active voice, and keep sentences short. The goal should be to write to express and not to impress the reader.  It’s also important to get facts 100% right and to be unbiased and open. By following these tips, one can create a well-written report that is easy to understand and provides valuable insights.

Differences between a report and other forms of writing

Reports are a specific form of writing that serves a distinct purpose and have unique characteristics. Unlike other forms of writing, such as essays or fiction, reports are typically focused on presenting factual information and making recommendations based on that information. Below we have differentiated report writing with various other forms of writing.

Essay vs report writing

Project writing vs report writing, research methodology vs report writing, article writing vs report writing, content writing vs report writing, business plan vs report writing, latest topics for report writing in 2023.

The possibilities for report topics may depend on the goals and scope of the report. The key is to choose a topic that is relevant and interesting to your audience, and that you can conduct thorough research on in order to provide meaningful insights and recommendations.  

  • A market analysis for a new product or service. 
  • An evaluation of employee satisfaction in a company. 
  • A review of the state of cybersecurity in a particular industry. 
  • A study of the prevalence and consequences of workplace discrimination. 
  • Analysis of the environmental impact of a particular industry or company. 
  • An assessment of the impact of new technology or innovations on a particular industry or sector. 

Report writing skills and techniques 

Effective report writing requires a combination of skills and techniques to communicate information and recommendations in a clear, and engaging manner.

From organizing information to tailoring the report to the intended audience, there are many factors to consider when writing a report. By mastering these skills and techniques, you can ensure that your report is well-written, informative, and engaging for your audience. Some of the primary ones are: 

1/ Organization and structure: Structure your report in a logical and organized manner with headings and subheadings.

2/ Use of data and evidence: Present objective data and evidence to support your findings and recommendations.

3/ Audience awareness: Tailor your report to the needs and interests of your intended audience.

4/ Effective visuals: Use graphs, charts, or other visuals to communicate complex information in a clear and engaging way.

5/ Editing and proofreading: Carefully edit and proofread your report to ensure it is error-free and professional.

6/ Tone: Use a professional and objective tone to communicate your findings and recommendations.

7/ Time management: Manage your time effectively to ensure you have enough time to research, write, and revise your report.

Tips for effective report writing

  • Understand your audience before you start writing. 
  • Start with an outline and cover all the important points. 
  • Employ clear and concise language.
  • Utilize headings and subheadings to organize your report.
  • Incorporate evidence and examples to support your points.
  • Thoroughly edit and proofread your report before submission.
  • Follow formatting guidelines If your report has specific formatting requirements.
  • Use visuals to enhance understanding.

What is the ethical consideration involved in report writing 

Ethical considerations play a crucial role in report writing. The accuracy of the information presented in the report is of utmost importance, as it forms the basis for any conclusions or recommendations that may be made. In addition, it is essential to avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original sources of information and ideas. 

Another crucial ethical consideration is confidentiality, particularly when the report contains sensitive or confidential information. It is important to safeguard this information and prevent its disclosure to unauthorized individuals.

Avoiding bias in report writing is also crucial, as it is essential to present information in an objective and unbiased manner. In cases where research or data collection is involved, obtaining informed consent from human subjects is a necessary ethical requirement.

By taking these ethical considerations into account, report writers can ensure that their work is fair, accurate, and respectful to all parties involved.

Common mistakes in report writing 

There are several common mistakes that students and report writers make in report writing. By avoiding these common mistakes, students as well as report writers can create effective and impactful reports that are clear, accurate, and objective.

1/ Writing in the first person: Often, students and report writers commit an error by writing in the first person and utilizing words such as “I” or “me. In reports, it is recommended to write impersonally, using the passive voice instead.

2/ Using the wrong format: Reports should use numbered headings and subheadings to structure the content, while essays should have a clear line of argument in their content.

3/ Failing to introduce the content: The introduction of the report should introduce the content of the report, not the subject for discussion. It is important to explain the scope of the report and what is to follow, rather than explaining what a certain concept is.

4/ Missing relevant sections: Students and report writers, often miss out on including relevant sections that were specified in the assignment instructions, such as a bibliography or certain types of information. This can result in poor interpretation.

5/ Poor proofreading: Finally, not spending enough time proofreading the reported work can create unwanted mistakes. Therefore, It is important to proofread and correct errors multiple times before submitting the final report to avoid any mistakes that could have been easily corrected.

By avoiding these common mistakes, students and report writers can improve the quality of their reports. 

What are some challenges of report writing and how to overcome them

Report writing can be a challenging task for many reasons. Here are some common challenges of report writing and how to overcome them:

1/ Lack of clarity on the purpose of the report: To overcome this challenge, it is important to clearly define the purpose of the report before starting. This can help to focus the content of the report and ensure that it meets the needs of the intended audience.

2/ Difficulty in organizing ideas: Reports often require a significant amount of information to be organized in a logical and coherent manner. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create an outline or flowchart to organize ideas before beginning to write.

3/ Time management: Writing a report can be time-consuming, and it is important to allow sufficient time to complete the task. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to create a timeline or schedule for the various stages of the report-writing process.

4/ Writer’s block: Sometimes writers may experience writer’s block, making it difficult to start or continue writing the report. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break, engage in other activities or brainstorming sessions to generate new ideas.

5/ Difficulty in citing sources: It is important to properly cite sources used in the report to avoid plagiarism and maintain credibility. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to use citation management tools, such as EndNote or Mendeley, to keep track of sources and ensure accurate referencing.

6/ Review and editing: Reviewing and editing a report can be a challenging task, especially when it is one’s own work. To overcome this challenge, it can be helpful to take a break before reviewing the report and seek feedback from others to gain a fresh perspective.

By being aware of these challenges and taking proactive steps to overcome them, report writers can create effective and impactful reports that meet the needs of their intended audience.

Best Software for writing reports 

Report writing software has made it easier for writers to produce professional-looking reports with ease. These software tools offer a range of features and functionalities, including data visualization, collaboration, and customization options. In this section, we will explore some of the best report-writing software available:

1/ Tableau : This tool is great for creating interactive and visually appealing reports, as it allows users to easily create charts, graphs, and other data visualizations. It also supports data blending, which means that you can combine data from multiple sources to create more comprehensive reports.

2/ Zoho reporting : This tool is designed to help users create and share professional-looking reports quickly and easily. It offers a variety of customizable templates, as well as a drag-and-drop interface that makes it easy to add data and create charts and graphs.

3/ Bold Reports by Syncfusion : This tool is designed specifically for creating reports in .NET applications. It offers a wide range of features, including interactive dashboards, real-time data connectivity, and customizable themes and templates.

4/  Fast Reports : This tool is a reporting solution for businesses of all sizes. It allows users to create reports quickly and easily using a drag-and-drop interface and offers a variety of templates and customization options. It also supports a wide range of data sources, including databases, spreadsheets, and web services.

Further Reading : 10+ Best Report Writing Software and Tools in 2023

What is the conclusion of report writing

The conclusion of report writing is the final section of the report that summarizes the main findings, conclusions, and recommendations. It should tie together all the different sections of the report and present a clear and concise summary of the key points. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE has given an inverted introduction framework that can use used for writing effective conclusions for reports. 


Example of conclusion in report writing:

The implication of the above diagram can be explained with the following example:  


Social media has revolutionized the marketing landscape, providing new opportunities for brands to connect with their target audience.


However, the complexities and limitations of social media mean that it is unlikely to completely replace traditional marketing methods. The role of the marketing professional remains crucial in ensuring that social media strategies align with the company’s overall goals and effectively reach the desired audience.


Automated tools cannot fully account for the nuances of human communication or provide the level of personalization that consumers crave. Therefore, the most effective marketing strategies will likely blend social media tactics with traditional marketing channels.

4. CONCLUDING STATEMENT [restating thesis]:

In conclusion, while social media presents significant opportunities for brands, the expertise of marketing professionals is still essential to creating successful campaigns that achieve desired outcomes.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1) what is report writing and example.

Ans: Report writing involves preparing a structured document that delivers information to a particular audience in a clear and systematic manner. An example of a report could be a business report analyzing the financial performance of a company and making recommendations for improvement.

Q2) What is report writing and types of reports?

Ans: The act of presenting information in an orderly and structured format is known as report writing. Reports come in different types, such as analytical reports, research reports, financial reports, progress reports, incident reports, feasibility reports, and recommendation reports.

Q3) What are the 5 steps of report writing

The five steps of report writing, are as follows:

  • Planning: This involves defining the purpose of the report, determining the audience, and conducting research to gather the necessary information.
  • Structuring: This step involves deciding on the structure of the report, such as the sections and subsections, and creating an outline.
  • Writing: This is the stage where the actual writing of the report takes place, including drafting and revising the content.
  • Reviewing: In this step, the report is reviewed for accuracy, coherence, and effectiveness, and any necessary changes are made.
  • Presenting: This final step involves presenting the report in a clear and professional manner, such as through the use of headings, visuals, and a table of contents.

Q4) What is a report in short answer? 

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The Right Type of Data Reporting (+ 11 Types of Reports)

Reports are well researched, planned and organized documents that are written for a purpose. A report is written for a specific audience; it must always be accurate and objective. It is a concise document based on research that typically analyses a situation and sometimes makes recommendations.

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Jan 20 2020 ● 3 min read

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Table of Contents

Types of reports include memos, meeting minutes, expense reports , audit reports, closure reports, progress reports, justification reports, compliance reports, annual reports , and feasibility reports.

You can classify reports in different categories in various ways such as action, formality, and length, and some of them may overlap the classification structure.

Different Types of Reports in Various Categories  

Long reports are longer than ten pages and are typically formal reports. While shorts reports are less than ten pages and mostly informal reports are shorter reports.

Internal reports usually travel within the organization, while external reports are for outside of organization use. Internal reports may touch upon different topics, be it work optimization by using innovative time management software .

what is a report type

Vertical type of reports represent the direction of a report. Reports which go upward or downward the hierarchy are referred to as vertical reports.  Lateral report travels between the same organization level, such as the accounting department and finance department and helps correlate work in a company.

Periodic reports are reporting periodically and on regular intervals. These types of reports are typically vertical reports to check overall business activities or reports written by federal agencies, corporations, non-profits. Periodic reports include incident reports , sales reports, and feasibility reports and progress reports.  

What Are the Different Types of Business Reports?

Reports are a vital part of any business organization; businesses monitor their progress and make critical decisions based on these reports.

In Business reports, you analyze a situation, evaluate the success or the problems and provide suggestions to fix the issues. A business report includes facts and figures, and usually, there is not one but many solutions for a problem with their own cost and benefits. Therefore, you can keep on top of your business affairs, whether you are reaching your goals or not and plan accordingly.

Moreover, a formal business report is written for a specific audience; it could be the CEO or the head of the organization. Additionally, informal reports are for internal use and staff members. There are different types of business reports ; some are formal and some informal reports. Business report examples include analytical reports , informational reports, inventory reports, marketing reports , statutory reports, non-statutory reports, annual reports, and general or confidential reports.

what is a report type

Statutory reports are mandatory reports and companies are required by law to submit financial information to specific government agencies. Statutory reports have to be prepared according to the structure and rules that are already defined for these types of reports.

Non-statutory reports are not required to be submitted by a law. These are either formal reports submitted to the higher up in rank or informal for administrative use.

Business reports can either be general or confidential. A general report is for the inside of an organization use or press or public. A confidential report is not for many people and is reserved for some important figures in the organization.

what is a report type

Annual report, as the name suggests, are yearly reports. The report is based on yearly data, sales, and profit. An annual report is submitted at the end of every year for the decision-makers to study and plan accordingly.

Informal report is shorter and written approximately in one to ten pages. These types of reports are natural and casual in style and do not require a lot of planning. Informal reports are mostly internal and used to report inside of a business organization. Informal reports examples include memorandum and letters.

What Are the Formal Reports and Its Types?

A formal report is more prolonged and requires in-depth research; it is written for decision-making audience or another organization. A formal report is written after careful planning and data gathering ; moreover, the reports are written using impersonal writing style.

Informational reports provide information, facts and data without evaluation and recommendation, and without giving a conclusion. Informational reports can be formal or informal, and the report examples include meeting minutes, expense reports, and progress reports.

Analytical report provides the same information as informational but also include the analyses of the problems and provide possible solutions. Analytical reports can also be formal or informal, and the examples include annual reports, audit reports feasibility report, justification report, and closure reports.

what is a report type

What Are the Different Types of Technical Reports?

Technical reports communicate technical information and explain process and progress. Furthermore, it could also be the result of scientific and technological research. The types of technical reports include a feasibility report, business plans, research reports, and scientific research.

Published on Jan 20 2020

Indrė is a copywriter at Whatagraph with extensive experience in search engine optimization and public relations. She holds a degree in International Relations, while her professional background includes different marketing and advertising niches. She manages to merge marketing strategy and public speaking while educating readers on how to automate their businesses.

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Report Types: Top 8 Types of Reports

what is a report type

This article throws light upon the top eight types of report. The types are: 1. Formal or Informal Reports 2. Short or Long Reports 3. Informational or Analytical Reports 4. Proposal Report 5. Vertical or Lateral Reports 6. Internal or External Reports 7. Periodic Reports 8. Functional Reports.

Type # 1. Formal or Informal Reports :

Formal reports are carefully structured; they stress objectivity and organization, contain much detail, and are written in a style that tends to eliminate such elements as personal pronouns. Informal reports are usually short messages with natural, casual use of language. The internal memorandum can generally be described as an informal report.

Type # 2. Short or Long Reports :

This is a confusing classification. A one-page memorandum is obviously short, and a twenty page report is clearly long. But where is the dividing line? Bear in mind that as a report becomes longer (or what you determine as long), it takes on more characteristics of formal reports.

Type # 3. Informational or Analytical Reports :

Informational reports (annual reports, monthly financial reports, and reports on personnel absenteeism) carry objective information from one area of an organization to another. Analytical reports (scientific research, feasibility reports, and real-estate appraisals) present attempts to solve problems.

Type # 4. Proposal Report :


The proposal is a variation of problem-solving reports. A proposal is a document prepared to describe how one organization can meet the needs of another. Most governmental agencies advertise their needs by issuing “requests for proposal” or RFPs. The RFP specifies a need and potential suppliers prepare proposal reports telling how they can meet that need.

Type # 5. Vertical or Lateral Reports :

This classification refers to the direction a report travels. Reports that more upward or downward the hierarchy are referred to as vertical reports; such reports contribute to management control. Lateral reports, on the other hand, assist in coordination in the organization. A report traveling between units of the same organization level (production and finance departments) is lateral.

Type # 6. Internal or External Reports :

Internal reports travel within the organization. External reports, such as annual reports of companies, are prepared for distribution outside the organization.

Type # 7. Periodic Reports :

Periodic reports are issued on regularly scheduled dates. They are generally upward directed and serve management control. Preprinted forms and computer-generated data contribute to uniformity of periodic reports.

Type # 8. Functional Reports :

This classification includes accounting reports, marketing reports, financial reports, and a variety of other reports that take their designation from the ultimate use of the report. Almost all reports could be included in most of these categories. And a single report could be included in several classifications.

Although authorities have not agreed on a universal report classification, these report categories are in common use and provide a nomenclature for the study (and use) of reports. Reports are also classified on the basis of their format. As you read the classification structure described below, bear in mind that it overlaps with the classification pattern described above.

i. Preprinted Form:

Basically for “fill in the blank” reports. Most are relatively short (five or fewer pages) and deal with routine information, mainly numerical information. Use this format when it is requested by the person authorizing the report.

ii. Letter:

Common for reports of five or fewer pages that are directed to outsiders. These reports include all the normal parts of a letter, but they may also have headings, footnotes, tables, and figures. Personal pronouns are used in this type of report.

Common for short (fewer than ten pages) informal reports distributed within an organization. The memo format of “Date,” “To,” “From,” and “Subject” is used. Like longer reports, they often have internal headings and sometimes have visual aids. Memos exceeding ten pages are sometimes referred to as memo reports to distinguish them from shorter ones.

iv. Manuscript:

Common for reports that run from a few pages to several hundred pages and require a formal approach. As their length increases, reports in manuscript format require more elements before and after the text of the report. Now that we have surveyed the different types of reports and become familiar with the nomenclature, let us move on to the actual process of writing the report.

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Editor’s note: This post was updated on May 30, 2023, with the latest information and resources. 

Understanding how to create data sets in Salesforce is key to creating accurate reports. The data you and your users want to report on is not always stored in records from a single object. Many times you will need to join data together from various objects to create meaningful reports.

The methods to join data from different objects in Salesforce rely on the explicit relationships that you set up (master-detail and lookup fields). But with so many ways to join data together, it’s crucial to know when to use each method.

We will be utilizing custom report types and cross filters to create the following data sets in part 1 of this blog series:

Records from one object

Parent records with child records, parent records with or without child records, parent records without child records.

Here is the Trailhead module on reports if you are brand new to Salesforce or need a refresher.

And here is the sample data we will be using:

Parent Records (Accounts)

The account table is the parent object and the opportunities table is the child object. This is accomplished by a lookup field on the opportunity object that can optionally specify an account record.

This is as simple as it gets. There are no joins when creating this kind of report. Analogous to a list view in Salesforce, when you only specify one object in your report type you will only have access to the data stored in the fields defined on that object. Every row in this data set represents a record. If there is no record, there will be no row in the data set. This is due to the concept of the “primary object”, which determines the focus object for a report type. If there is no record from the primary object, we will not see a row in our data set. In the sample data above, each table is already showing what the resulting data set would look like. Here is the account data set:

what is a report type

And here is the opportunity data set:

The opportunity data set.

There are two ways to interpret this scenario:

1. Display a row for each parent record meeting filter criteria that is based on child record data. In Salesforce’s report builder, this is accomplished by way of a Cross Filter – which easily allows you to display a deduplicated list of parent records. Here’s an example showing just the accounts that have opportunities with amounts greater than $1,000,000.

Red box highlighting how you can add a Cross Filter.

2. Display a row for each record in the child object that specifies a record in the parent object. This is an “inner join” in SQL terms. More on inner joins here . The “join” occurs when the ID of a parent record matches the ID specified in the lookup field on a child record – giving you the ability to reference data from a parent record on a row that represents the existence of a child record. Using the sample data above, we should expect to see a row for every opportunity record that specifies an account record. A picture is worth a thousand words here – the resulting data set looks like this:

Report showing accounts with opportunities.

Notice that the “Dream Big Inc” account and the “Patty’s Deal” opportunity are not represented in this data set. This is because the “Dream Big Inc” account does not have any child opportunity records and the “Patty’s Deal” opportunity record does not specify an account record. Since our primary object is “Accounts” in this report type, a record will not be represented unless it is related to an account record.

Setting up the report type is simple: First, choose the parent object as the primary object.

Report Types in Setup. Red arrow highlighting the Primary Object drop down.

Then, choose the child object as the related object.

Be sure to specify the option for “Each “A” record must have at least one related “B” record.”

Accounts with Opportunities. Select the option for “Each “A” record must have at least one related “B” record.”

This is a “left outer join” in SQL terms, which means the resulting data set will display a row for every unique combination of matching records between the two tables, and then will show a row for every parent record that does not have a child record.  More on left outer joins here .

Using the sample data above, the resulting dataset would be the following:

Report showing Accounts with or without Opportunities.

The “Dream Big Inc” account appears in this report but does not have any values showing for the opportunity fields that are included as columns. The “Patty’s Deal” opportunity record is not accessible here since our primary object is “Accounts” in this report type. A record will not be represented unless it is related to the primary object specified in the report type configuration.

Creating this report type is very similar to scenario #2. Just be sure to specify the option for “ “A” records may or may not have related “B” records.”

Accounts with or without opportunities.

The filter behavior in a report using this configuration is unique – a filter based on a field from the parent object will affect all rows shown for the parent record and its child records. But a filter based on a field from the child object will only affect rows shown for the child records – even if that filter eliminates all child record rows, the parent records will still be displayed as rows. This can be desirable when you want to analyze a set of parent records, summarize a subset of its children, and keep the parent records included even if they have no child records meeting the filter criteria.

There are two reports types you can use to accomplish this one. One option is to start with the “Accounts with or without Opportunities” report type we created in scenario 3 and then use a cross filter within a report to ensure we only include Accounts that do not have child opportunities.

Edit Filter showing "Accounts without opportunities."

The resulting data set looks like this for our sample data:

Report showing 1 record.

While that will certainly work, you may not need to see all the empty columns for the child object. A simpler way to accomplish this would be to use a cross filter on a basic report type for the parent object – e.g. the “Accounts” report type from scenario 1. For our sample data, the data set would look like this:

Report accounts section filled out.

Additional resources

That’s all for now! We’ve covered the basic building blocks of report types. Check out the next post of this two-part series below where we cover three more report types that you can add to your toolbox.

Evan Ponter

Evan Ponter is a Salesforce Admin Hero from Baltimore, MD who has been focusing on declarative development since 2012. His desire to keep an org simple, streamlined, and maintainable by future admins has led him to being an expert on the declarative features of the platform.


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Reports: definition, features and types | company management.

what is a report type


Read this article to learn about Reports. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Definition of Reports 2. Importance of Reports 3. Features 4. Types.

Definition of Reports:

A Report may be defined as a statement or an account, either big or small, on some happenings, findings, obser­vations or recommendations prepared either by an individual or by a group. A report may be oral or written.

It may be prepared by a single individual (like a secretary or a departmental head or an investigator) or by a group of persons or a committee or a sub-com­mittee. A report may be prepared at regular interval of time (like annual report of an organisation or a monthly report by a branch to the head office) or only once (like a report by an enquiry committee).

Importance of Reports:

Importance of reports in organisational life and for general administration is very great. Decisions are very often taken on many controversial and problematic issues based upon some reports. Members of an organisation or a committee or a depart­ment, etc., can know many relevant and material facts about the organisation or committee or group itself or of other organisations, committees or groups through reports thereon. General administra­tion is guided very much by different kinds of internal and external reports.

Sometimes reports have to be prepared, submitted, and cir­culated statutorily. For example, annual reports of a company. A report has a documentation value. It is a source of reference, evidence, and history. The secretary of an organisation or a committee or a sub-committee, etc. has great responsibility in connection with reports because he has to prepare them.

Features of Reports:

(1) A report is based upon facts and also very often supported with some statistics data, references etc.

(2) A report has to be prepared in a proper form and style. The form and style depend on the purpose of the report.

(3) A report has definitely a purpose. One common purpose is spreading of infor­mation. Other purposes are—compiling of record, providing guidance to action or judgement, making of evidence, etc.

(4) A report is meant for circulation either exclusively to an individual, or group of individuals, or members of an organisation or public at large.

(5) A report shall satisfy all the characteristics for its effectiveness.

(6) Reports are of various types.

(7) Reports are closely related to meetings.

(8) The basic function of a report is that it is a means of communication of some facts.

(9) A report is addressed to some definite reader or readers.

(10) A report has invariably a bearing on time.

(11) A report may be just received or adopted, or tabled (i.e., deferred for taking any action), or referred back to committee for reconsideration. So, a report may be treated differently.

Types of Reports:

Reports are of various types. They are classified on the basis of various principles. Such classification is also based on groups.

They are detailed below:

(1) Routine or Special:

A Routine Report is prepared and presented as a routine work and at a regular period of time. For example, the annual report of an association or a company which has to be prepared by the secretary or by the Board of Directors at the end of every financial year and copies have to be distributed among the members.

A routine report contains some facts or information either in detail or in a summarised form. It may also be of critical type containing some remark or opinion. For example, the auditor’s report on the final accounts of a company. Departmental managers or branch managers have to regularly submit routine reports to the higher authorities.

A Special Report is prepared and presented not as a matter of routine. This is prepared on the basis of some enquiry or investigation either by a single individual or by a body or a committee or a sub­committee or a commission specially formed and entrusted with the duty.

The secretary of an organisation, by virtue of his position, is often entrusted with the duty of preparing reports on certain depart­ment or person or event to be submitted to the top management people for taking decisions. The Government very often sets up committees or commissions to make investigation on some matter or person and to submit report. A special report is in many cases of confidential type and contains apart from facts and information, some recommen­dations. A Technical Report prepared by technologists on some specific issue is a kind of Special Report.

Whether the report is ordinary or special, it may be an item of discussion at any general or committee or Board meeting and the fact has to be mentioned in the agenda of the meeting.

(2) General or Confidential:

A General Report is that which is for distribution among many, like the members of an organisation- Such reports may be printed in large numbers or even published in newspapers for the public information. The Government publishes reports of different committees or commissions and places them on sale to the public.

A Confidential Report is meant for some superior person or persons and is not for general information. Sometimes the report may be so confidential that the secretary or any other person pre­paring it. Writes it by hand or types it out him-self.

(3) Formal or Informal:

A Formal Report is that which is prepared according to some prescribed form and at a prescribed time and is presented according to a conventional procedure. For example, the annual report of a company or any association, a report of a branch to its head office, etc.

Sometimes formal reports are further classified into two parts:

Statutory and Non-Statutory.

(a) Statutory reports are those which have to be prepared by a company under the provisions of the Companies Act or by a registered society registered under the Societies Registration Act or by a co-operative society registered under the Cooperative Societies Act and a copy of such report have to be submitted to the respective Registrar. For example, the annual report of a company or a society. The Statutory Report to be prepared and submitted by every public limited company also comes into this category.

(b) Non-Statutory Reports are those which have to be prepared formally but there is no compulsion under law to be submitted to any authorised person. For example, a report prepared and submitted by a Committee set up by the Board of Directors of a company for a particular purpose, e g. on development of market. The submission of the report shall be to the Board of Directors. Formal but non-statutory reports are also prepared and submitted by the secretary to the Board of Directors on different issues.

Informal Reports are those which need not be prepared or presented according to some prescribed form or procedure. An informal report is generally a kind of personal communication and may be even in the form of a letter. For example, a newly appointed employee has to submit a joining report to his boss.

(4) Verbatim or Summarised:

Such classification is generally related to reports on meetings. After any meeting is over, a report on the same has to be prepared and presented by the secretary. A Verbatim Report of a meeting means a report containing all the details, word for word, on what events have occurred at the meeting, what words have been spoken by the different participants and what decisions have been taken.

In other words, the record of full pro­ceedings of a meeting can be called verbatim report. Such reports are necessary for every Assembly or Parliament session or for a case in a court of law.

A Summarised Report means a report taking into consideration the main points of discussion at a meeting and the short description of events happening at a meeting. For example, a Press Report prepared after a meeting, whether public or private, to be sent to different newspapers for the favour of publication.

A report, whether verbatim or summarised, must be however, based on facts because the readers of such reports will depend on the information supplied. A summarised report must not be confused with the minutes of the meeting.

(5) Privileged or Non-Privileged:

Reports can be further classified into privileged or non-privileged. A Privileged Report is that which contains statements or remarks made by some people which may be defamatory to some others but permitted to be spoken under privilege in speech.

A report on proceedings of a case in a court of law or in Assembly or Parliament session, etc. is allowed to be published in newspapers or otherwise. But such a privi­lege is a ‘qualified’ privilege and will be allowed provided the report is accurate and meant for public interest.

But the report containing privileged speeches on a private meetings like the annual general meeting of a company, cannot be published as a privileged report.

Every other kind of report is a Non-privileged Report. Reports in general are non-privileged.

(6) Other Types:

Reports can be further classified into with or without recommendations. Generally reports prepared for information only do not contain recommendation but reports pre­pared by some enquiry committee contain recommendations.

Lastly, reports can be classified one-man report or group report. A report may be prepared by an individual only like any report by a secretary or it may be prepared by a group or a committee.

Even in case of a committee, there is a secretary or convenor to each committee who drafts the report on behalf of the committee and gets it confirmed by others, with or without modifications. A committee may be divided and two reports, one by the majority and the other by the minority, may be separately submitted. Therefore, reports may be of majority and minority types.

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What is Report Writing? Parts, Types, Structure, Process

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What is Report Writing?

Report writing is a formal style of presenting objective facts and information. There can be various types of reports, such as academic reports, science reports, business reports, technical reports, and news reports. A report can be verbal or written. However, a written report is more formal than a verbal report.

What is Report Writing

Table of Content

Report Writing Definition

Report writing is the process of organizing and presenting information in a clear, concise, and objective manner for a specific audience. It involves gathering data, analyzing it, and presenting it in a format that is easy to understand and relevant to the topic at hand. – The University of Wisconsin Writing Center

Report writing is the art of communicating information that has been acquired through research or investigation in a formal, structured manner. It involves synthesizing information, drawing conclusions, and making recommendations based on the findings. – The American Management Association

Report writing is the process of creating a document that provides information, analysis, and recommendations on a particular topic or issue. It requires the ability to organize and present data in a logical and meaningful way, as well as to convey complex ideas in a clear and concise manner. – The International Business Communication Standards (IBCS)

Report Writing Advantage

A written report also provides the following advantages:

However, writing a report is not as easy as drafting a formal e-mail. A report is a brief, precise document. It is written for a specific audience with some specific objective. To write a report, you need to first thoroughly understand the purpose of report writing, then research information from various sources, verify the validity of information, analyse information, and then present findings or results. These findings must be reported objectively without personal biases.

A well-written report must have an effective objective analysis. Based on the analysis, you can recommend possible courses of action for the future. However, it is up to the report reader to accept the recommendations.

Therefore, while report writing, you must pay attention to why you are writing the report and who has asked you to write the report. This will help you investigate the information appropriately.

Parts of a Report

Following are the main sections of a formal report :


Conclusions, recommendations.

This section indicates the purpose of the report, who has ordered the report, how the data is collected, and whether any recommendations are provided. In addition, the introduction section may also provide information on who has written the report and the date on which it is submitted.

This section provides the background of a problem or a situation on which the report is written. In case the report is too lengthy, then instead of introduction, an executive summary should be written.

The purpose of an executive summary is to enable top executives and managers to get a quick snapshot of a long report without reading the entire report. Therefore, the executive summary comes before introduction. Of course, then there would be no background section.

This is the longest section of a report, which is written after the investigation is over. This section presents factual information without any interpretation or suggestions.

Each finding is summarised as a conclusion in this section. In the above sample report, there are four conclusions based on the summary of each paragraph in the findings section. These conclusions are listed numerically in the same order as the corresponding findings.

The final section provides a numbered list of recommendations, which are based on the list of the conclusion. Each recommendation uses the verb should. This is because the writer is simply giving suggestions and not making a decision. Therefore, the verb should is used instead of the verb will. However, there are exceptions:

Types of Reports

Reports exist in our academics and workplaces in so many forms that we may not even be aware of them. For example, a student submits a laboratory report to communicate the methods and results of scientific experiments conducted in a lab.

Academicians and business people use research reports to view scientific studies of an issue or a problem. Policy-makers read field study reports to read about the ground situation from branch offices and manufacturing plants. Similarly, there are progress reports, technical reports, functional reports, case studies, etc.

All these reports share the attributes, principles, and format of report writing, which are described above. These reports can be organised into three groups:

Informational reports

Analytical reports, news reports.

An informational report is used to objectively present information without any analysis. Examples of informational reports include the First Information Report (FIR), annual reports, monthly financial reports, or employee attrition reports. These reports only report the facts as they are.

For example, the police write an FIR to record details about a cognisable offence, such as personal details of the complainant/informant, place, date and time of occurrence, offence, description of the accused, witnesses, and complaint.

Similarly, a company presents an annual report to its shareholders to present details of its business activities and finances of the previous financial year. An informational report presents objective facts without analysing the reasons and conditions behind the reported situation.

For example, if someone wants to study information on a field trip, then he can ask for a site visit report. Similarly, if a manager wants to view the feedback of a training programme, then he can ask for the training feedback report from the trainer. If the head of a department wants to get an update on the different projects in his department, he can ask for progress reports from different project managers.

An analytical report evaluates a problem or an issue and presents the outcomes of analysis to explain the causes of the problem, demonstrate relationships, or make recommendations.

For example, a scientific or market research report studies a problem scientifically by developing a hypothesis, gathering data, analysing data, and presenting findings and conclusions.

Similarly, a feasibility analysis report studies a problem and predicts whether the current solution or alternatives will be practical or will produce the desired outcome. Whenever you need to make a critical decision, then an analytical report is prepared. These reports help the decision-maker(s) analyse the prevailing situation.

For example, a company wants to decide where to open a branch office in a particular area. In this situation, an analytical report can evaluate the details of the property, such as infrastructure, land cost, competitive stores, etc., and then recommend the best site from the available options.

If you are working as or aspire to be a journalist, then you may need to write a press report. A press report is a newsworthy article in a newspaper, magazine or website. It is different from the press release by companies. A press release is an official statement of a company on an important subject or event. A press release generally focuses on one particular subject, such as a milestone, a launch, an anniversary, etc.

On the other hand, a press report discusses the subject in detail. A press release is a marketing tool used by companies to keep the general public and the media updated about its newsworthy occasions. It helps build a company’s visibility in the minds of its customers and community at large.

A press release is generally prepared by a company’s marketing or Public Relations (PR) team, whereas a press report is written by an independent journalist. Therefore, a press report presents more objective information than a press release, which is a company’s promotional mouthpiece. Just like informational and analytical reports, a press report requires considerable research on a subject before it is written credibly.

The author must ask the 5 Ws and 1 H – who, what, where, why, when, and how. Questions arise in the following manner:

After finding the answers, he must note down all the relevant facts that must be mentioned in the news report. These facts can be organised into the following three groups:

By organising information into the above groups, the author will be able to include all the relevant facts into the news report. The facts must be specific. If there are gaps in the story and the related information is not available, then questions can be marked against them so that these can be researched further.

Next, the author must decide the type of news report he wants to write – informational or analytical. The former will provide objective and straightforward information, whereas the latter will also provide the author’s opinion on the subject.

After determining the type of news report to write, the author must create an outline or structure of the report. The most common structure is an inverted triangle, where the most important information is at the top.

A news report must provide the information that the readers want as soon as possible. If the news report is for a newspaper, then the most important news must be above the “fold”. The “fold” is the crease in the newspaper when it is folded in half. All the engaging stories are above the fold. Similarly, on a website, the most important information is at the top of the screen before one has to scroll down.

A news report must be written according to the audience. The author should ask the 5Ws with respect to the audience reaction, such as:

Structure of News Report

Finally, the structure of a news report is as follows:

Remaining details

Informational news report, analytical news report, additional details, concluding sentence.

The leading sentence of a news report is the most important section. It should tell what the news report is all about, why it is important, and what information the rest of the news report provides.

These provide the basic information of what happened, where it happened, when it happened, who was involved, and why it was remarkable.

In this report, the remaining details provide more information about the newsworthy item.

In this report, the remaining details also provide the opinion of the author.

These details help the reader learn more about the newsworthy item, such as additional facts about the subject, contact information, or interview quotes. These details comprise transitional elements that help build the flow of information. In an analytical report, these can also include counter-arguments and their authors.

The news report should end with a concluding sentence, which repeats the leading statement or a statement mentioning future developments.

Report Writing Process

This process will ensure that your report is accurate, clear, comprehensive and credible.

Before writing a report, identify the following parameters:

To research the facts or information for report writing:

After gathering and analysing the required information, organise it as follows:

Feasibility Reports

A feasibility report is a written document that analyses the proposed solution and examines whether it is feasible considering various types of constraints such as financial, social, environmental, social, technical, and legal that can make it impossible for a solution to be opted.

Feasibility reports assess the practicality of following a particular course of action for a project. It advises whether it will be feasible to opt for a particular course of action or will this proposal or plan work? These are written internal reports that advise on consolidating departments or to organise a wellness programme for employees or to outsource company’s accounting or social media or to move the manufacturing unit to a new location.

Some companies hire a professional consultant to write feasibility reports in order to investigate a problem. These reports help in deciding whether to proceed or reject the proposed option.

Proposal Writing

A business proposal is defined as a written document from a seller that offers a particular service or product to a prospective buyer. Business proposals are important in scenarios where a buyer might consider multiple prices in a transaction.

A good business proposal considers the buyer’s requirements and puts forth the seller’s proposal in a way that favours the seller’s products and services, and persuades the buyer about the offer. A business proposal is a critical document as it determines the difference between success and failure in a venture. Business proposals can be:

Because proposals are time-consuming, it is the best to start with available templates if possible. You will save a lot of time if you start with a proposal template that matches what you need and then customise it according to your requirements.

A business proposal includes various sections which are defined as follows:

Cover letter

Executive summary, pricing information, terms and conditions.

In the other article, you studied writing cover letters for a job application. A business proposal also needs a cover letter because a good cover letter will stimulate interest in the proposal. Make sure to highlight your positives and personalise them to the client to whom you are sending the business proposal.

This is where you give the client a ‘problem statement’ to help him identify the challenges and requirements in his business. This is because in order to persuade the client to do business with you, you first need to make sure that the client realises they have those needs. Then you briefly state how you will be able to help them meet those requirements.

The proposal is the part where you offer a detailed solution to the challenges and needs of the prospective client. This is the main reason for submitting a business proposal so it should be as detailed as possible, addressing all the needs of the client.

You should explain to the client all services that you can provide. You should tailor your list of services to suit the particular client’s needs but include other services that you may provide. Also include an estimated project schedule and time frame.

Most buyers consider the price of services before offering a contract. Thus, getting accurate pricing information is crucial. However, two points must be kept in mind. One it is important to be exact with the pricing and the second is to never negotiate below what you think the project is worth.

For smaller projects, a ‘fee summary’ will do the job. But a ‘fee schedule’ is needed for bigger projects, where payments need to be broken down to specific milestones.

It is in your interest to get legal counsel to review the proposal as this will cover your business against claims.

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what is a report type

12 Types Of Reports (And What Each Is Best For)

Marketing reports take on many forms.

In this post, we’ll look at 12+ different types of reports and their best use cases. 

If you’ve ever wondered how to use such reports in different business scenarios — whether it’s communicating results to clients or relaying information between various departments — this guide is for you.  

Marketing reports

1. Periodic reports

1.1 google analytics report, 1.2 email marketing report, 1.3 social media report, 2. analytical reports.

Types of internal reports

4. internal reports, 5. short reports.

7. Proposal reports

8. vertical reports, 9. lateral reports, types of external reports, 10. external reports.

12. Long reports

13. formal reports, marketing reports.

Here are some reports that you can use if you are a marketer or a marketing agency in particular.

digital marketing report

See this report live

Use it to: Communicate performance to clients or a group of people (e.g., stakeholders like CMO and CEO).

Periodic reports are reports issued at regular intervals . They’re often presented as project deliverables and help with decision-making (i.e., an agency sends a digital marketing report to a client every month). You can have yearly, monthly, quarterly or weekly reports for example.

Examples: Progress reports , sales reports , social media reports , Google Analytics reports , email marketing reports . 

Let’s explore how these reports look in detail .

Google Analytics (GA) is widely used by marketers who want to make sense of data and drive strategic decisions.

If you’re a frequent GA user, you’d know this: It’s overwhelming navigating the sheer amount of data. Imagine how your client must feel when you present these data in a spreadsheet!

What’s a better way to communicate your results? 

DashThis’s Google Analytics report template:

GA report template

Grab this template with your Google Analytics data!

In your GA report, drag and drop preset KPIs like goal completions and conversions, sessions and users, and landing page performances. 

Creating this visual presentation will help you to present ROI to your clients in a compelling manner .  

Emails are often used to educate, nurture, and convert subscribers to customers down the road.

Want to make sure your clients understand how their email campaigns are doing? Pull metrics from your email autoresponder, and let DashThis summarize your data in an email marketing report template .

email analytics report

Grab this template with your email marketing data!

With DashThis ’ preset KPI widgets (e.g., open rate, number of subscribers, and unsubscribe rate) shown in a sleek format, clients will be able to view results at a glanc e .

what is a report type

Grab this template with your social media data!  

Social media is a beast, especially when you’re on multiple platforms. 

One great way to track results across these different social channels is to use DashThis’ social media report template and use its pre-set KPIs (e.g., impressions and reach).

Display the best-performing posts from Facebook or Instagram directly on DashThis with a few clicks . Long gone are the days of manually inserting them. 

what is a report type

Creating reports is a big job. It’s the stage where clients evaluate how easy it is to work with you and decide if they should continue extending your contract. 

With DashThis , you no longer need to hop from one platform to another to attach seven different Google Analytics reports, a handful of email marketing reports , and screenshots of a viral Instagram post for each client.

Go from spending hours each week per client to less than ten minutes total! DashThis is the perfect tool to create these different types of reports . Thanks to automation, you don’t have to start from scratch every time.

Start your DashThis 15-day free trial and automate your marketing reports toda y.

what is a report type

Get an analytical report like this one with your own data

Use it to : Share data and insights to evaluate business decisions.

Data never lies. 

Analytic reports are business documents that share statistics, predictions, and solutions (e.g., feasibility report ). It’s a more technical report that gives you a clear understanding of what’s happening in your organization, so that you can evaluate your action plan.

Example: An ecommerce report that shows transactions and revenue. Based on the data, marketers can identify which channels generate the highest sales and choose which to focus on.

3. Marketing d ashboards

marketing dashboard

Dashboards are a real-time type of report . Much like the dashboards of your car, it shows you where your marketing strategies are as of now.

Use it to : It’s a functional report particularly useful to track a campaign and adjust it as it goes. 

Example: A rolling dashboard that follows your ongoing Facebook ads campaign , or a weekly marketing dashboard . 

Source:  Wild Apricot

Those reports are usually shared between different teams or employees across the same organization.

Use it to: Convey information among team members and departments within the organization. 

Internal reports are circulated within the company. They usually are there to inform different teams on different topics, or the entire company for an announcement.

Example : A marketing budget report sent to the finance department for approva l.

Use it to: Announce new events or internal changes. They are usually on an organization level .

Short reports are documents with less than ten pages; they’re usually informal. They usually are internal reports since they don't convey a lot of information.

Example: A memorandum (or “memo” for short) to inform staff of an upcoming work event .  

6. Informational reports

Use it to : Provide background information from a sector of a company to another.

Informational reports transmit information from a sector of an organization to another (e.g., annual reports , financial reports, accounting reports ).

Example : A leadership meeting minutes report that details which department heads attended and what was discussed .

Use it to: Set clear expectations and explain your strategy.

P roposals are problem-solving reports that include a project overview, solution, and expected outcome. They’re often used to convert leads to paying clients.  

Example: A digital marketing proposal that showcases an agency’s proposed strategy, case studies, scientific research, and process to a prospective client .

what is a report type

Source:  AppSumo

Use it to: Communicate information to management or employees a supervisor or manager oversees.

Vertical reports communicate information either upward or downward in the hierarchy.

Example: A marketing plan created by a marketing coordinator sent for approval to the head of marketing, monthly financial reports sent for approva l.  

Use it to: Transfer knowledge so all departments arrive at the same decision. 

Lateral reports coordinate knowledge transfer between different departments in an organization. 

Example: A marketing plan detailing budget information such as marketing spend and expected incoming revenue sent to the finance tea m.

what is a report type

Source: 8x8

The reports are usually public, so shared across multiple different organizations, available on a website or on different medias. 

Use it to: Announce an event, product launch, or other happenings.

External reports are distributed outside the company.

Example: A press release report about a new product launch sent to a tech publication for coverag e.

11. Informal reports

Use it to : Present information for internal use. 

Informal reports are less-structured documents (i.e., uses casual language). They’re usually of short length. 

Example : An informal post-event report with summarized points created by a marketer after attending a conferenc e.

Use it to: Share in-depth information.

Long reports are documents with more than ten pages. Due to the length, they’re usually formal.

Example: A white paper about an industry’s latest trend s.

Use it to: Provide information to educate, inform, convince, or drive decisions.

Formal reports are detail- and structure-oriented. Due to the long nature, they often include many sections (e.g., table of contents , executive summary) for easier reference.

Example: A yearly market research report used as a lead magnet to attract enterprise leads. 

What types of reports will you create today?

These 12 kinds of reports overlap each other.  

For example, a three-page SEO deliverable is an analytical, short, and external report .

So remember: It’s perfectly fine if your report format looks a little different from the examples in this list.

Does creating a single report eat up hours of your time? Or are you tired of cobbling analytics from multiple channels in your longer reports ? Report writing can take way too long and that’s why apps were created to help you streamline this tedious part of your job.

With DashThis , you don’t need to hop from one platform to another to pull in different data.

dashthis report

Get a report like this one with your own data!

Our dashboarding tools automate your monthly reporting and help you create reports in the blink of an eye. 

Whether you want to create a three- page report for different clients, a marketing dashboard for a specific audience or campaign, or multi-reports for a single brand, DashThis can make it happen.


DashThis is the power behind thousands of reporting dashboards created by and delivered for agencies and digital marketers every month.  Try it out for yourself!

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20 Types of Reports and When to Use Them (Plus Templates)

If the many types of business reports make you want to scream, you’re not alone.

It can get overwhelming – from internal reports about sales activities to reports you must submit for external collaborators. 

However, the reality of modern business is that they require several business report types to achieve success. 

A  Unito report revealed that over 75% of respondents said reports provide valuable insights almost every time.

The chances are high that you’ve had to write certain types of reports, whether you realize it or not. Irrespective of your role, you’ll likely need to write reports, whether occasionally or once in a while.

And to ensure you’re writing the appropriate report for specific situations, you need to recognize the different types of reports and how to write them.

Below, you’ll discover an exhaustive list of business report types, what they do, and when you need them, plus examples and templates. 

Let’s get into it. 

Table of contents

1. Formal report

2. informal report , 3. audit report, 4. marketing report, 5. progress or periodic report, 6. trend report, 7. analytical report, 8. evaluation report, 9. client report, 10. sales report, 11. proposal report, 12. survey report , 13. research report, 14. financial report, 15. incident report, 16. project report, 17. annual report, 18. lateral report.

20. Event report

Make beautiful, engaging reports with Piktochart. Try it for free .

What is report writing? 

Do you remember those report cards you received at the end of every school session? The details of how well you perform academic and extracurricular activities during the year.

This is what reports do. 

Reports are documents detailing the results or findings from a process, project, or investigation. They can also refer to a well-detailed analysis of specific data sets or situations.

In business communications, report writing is the process of preparing formal documents that elaborate on a specific topic. Report writing often uses facts, tables,  graphs , charts, etc., to explain its findings for easy comprehension.

Since any report aims to educate and inform through scientific research, preparing the  perfect report  focusing on the target audience is crucial. Some reports also present available options and recommendations based on their findings.

20 types of reports, examples, and templates 

While businesses use numerous types of reports, these are the most common ones we’ve seen used almost daily.

Formal reports often carry objective information that is in-depth and straight to the point without personal references. These reports require careful structuring based on the organization’s style and purpose.

Formal report classification includes accounting reports, functional reports, and other lengthy reports.

employee compensation formal report template cover

Informal reports are the opposite of a formal reports. It lacks strict structuring, contains short messages, and uses casual language. Businesses intending to pass quick critical information often use informal reports. Informal reports pay more attention to fast and effective communication than formal structuring.

Again, other types of informal reports fall into this category, including digital postings, emails, memo reports, and some forms of internal reports.

informal report fashion internal report template cover for informational reports

An audit report is a formal report created by an auditor about the financial status of an organization. Audit reports are written using generally accepted auditing standards.

However, these formats may vary slightly depending on the audit’s circumstances. An example is an end-of-the-year audit report for an organization.

internal audit report template cover example of informational reports

Marketing reports give detailed information about marketing campaigns. They are used for monitoring marketing activities and informing about marketing strategies that work or require improvements.

social media report template cover

Progress reports , or periodic reports, are generated at specific intervals. Depending on the report needs, they could be daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual reports or they may even use regularly scheduled dates. 

Progress reports are used to supply progress or performance information. Other business report types could also qualify as periodic reports if they are made available at intervals. 

Examples of progress reports include analytical reports, Google analytics reports, and inventory reports.

progress report template cover for formal reports, informal reports, marketing reports and external reports

Sometimes called trend analysis reports, trend reports analyze everyday business operations and compare them to forecasts.

This report helps businesses discover recent industry trends and how they can benefit organizations. They also reveal important details about marketing campaigns and tell you the reach of your messages and their influences on marketing.

Examples include Google Analytics reports, surveys, and statistical reports.

annual trends report template cover for formal reports and external reports

Analytical reports have gained prominence in recent years due to the growing importance of business data analysis. 

The last few years have seen data analysis ingrained as part of standard business practices, and the industry expects to  reach $68 billion in annual revenue  by 2025.

Organizations leverage data-driven insights that make analytical reports one of the most common reports used. Analytical reports can suggest recommendations to improve businesses by leveraging data insights to evaluate performance.

financial analysis report template cover for formal reports and external reports

When an organization rolls out products, services, campaigns, or processes, it must evaluate the success periodically or after the program.

An evaluation report documents a product’s effectiveness if a service meets expectations or if a campaign is successful.

Evaluation reports also highlight findings and make recommendations based on the performance. It is a formal, in-depth report, sometimes including background information, definitions, results, forecasts, and recommendations.

This report can assist with the decision-making process and show transparency to stakeholders.

evaluation report template cover for performance reviews on same organization level or other evaluation

Since businesses deal with clients, they need a client report detailing their relationship with each client and their work activities. Client reports clarify projects’ progress and help the business make management decisions.

Client reports are created and delivered according to the agreed time frame. For example, it could be weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. This makes the report a periodic report.

Meetings and discussions with clients could also accompany it to explain the content. As a result, client reporting helps a business build trust.

client report template cover for justification reports starting with an executive summary

The sales department reports a business’ sales performance to executives and the board through the sales reports. Members of the sales team could also make a sales report for other group members or the team manager.

A sales report details the performance of a business for a specified period. They can also reveal happenings on the field to inform decisions.

This type of report highlights sales volume, revenue from the sales, leads, etc. They may be used to set key performance indicators or formulate an entire business target.

Examples of sales reports include periodic reports that track sales performance for the specified period. For instance, a weekly sales report will track weekly sales, revenue, leads, etc.

sales report template for expense reports, weekly reports and more

Businesses go into partnerships and other forms of business relationships. But before this happens, they establish the specifics of the relationship through a proposal report.

Proposal reports are official documents highlighting how a business intends to help another.

Proposal reports are sent in response to a Request for Proposal or RFP. They contain specific steps the business will undertake to assist the recipient business.

Since a company usually receives business proposals from many businesses, aim for thorough and precise proposal reports.

digital marketing proposal template cover

Survey reports are documents that help a business highlight the findings from a survey. It does its best to summarize the responses of a survey and objectively present the information while using visuals like tables, graphs, charts, and infographics to make reports easy to read .

survey report template cover for problem solving reports via survey results

Research reports are documents created to communicate the findings from the research – whether business or scientific – related to the company. Experts in the field usually do it. Sometimes, a research report can uncover information requiring urgent attention.

The content in a research report includes the research process, findings, conclusions, recommendations, and limitations.

It will inform a business about essential market needs they need to attend to and how their products or service affects the public. For example, some social media platforms are looking into how they influence young people.

SDG report template cover for long reports and feasibility reports

Financial reports and budget reports are often used interchangeably, but they are not necessarily the same.

Production and finance departments are typically in charge of these reports. Financial reports are formal documents that explain a business’s financial status and performance. Examples of budget reports include weekly or monthly financial reports that detail the economic activities for the period specified.

On the other hand, budget reports are concerned with the pre-set budget conditions and how they compare with the company’s financial situation. They help businesses make proper financial decisions and can be used to compare milestones over a specific period.

corporate financial review template for long reports and feasibility reports

Although businesses put measures to prevent accidents and other undesirable incidents, they can still happen in the workplace. And when these incidents occur, additional steps may be required to avoid a reoccurrence. An incident report is an informational report that details the facts of an incident.

Incident reports may also reveal unusual occurrences, safety and health issues, security breaches, near misses, damage, etc.

It highlights the cause, exact occurrence, and ways to prevent incidents in the future. Specific industries like insurance companies and security agencies may also require them.

incident report template cover for business reports

Also known as a project health report, project reports help the organization give information about specific projects.

Businesses generally embark on projects, and making reports about each allows them to track progress and assess performance effectively.

Project reports contain the objectives, which can help ensure compliance from everyone overseeing the project. Such reports also make it easy for stakeholders to give feedback, edit, assess financial requirements, and implement necessary actions.

marketing project template cover for marketing report can also bw used for business reports

Annual reports are comprehensive longer reports that give in-depth details about a business in the preceding year. It details the financial statements and achievements for the specific year. 

They could qualify as external reports since many organizations release their annual reports to the public. In some instances, releasing annual reports may be a mandate for some businesses.

However, companies mainly  design annual reports  to review the company’s business during the year. They help stakeholders become aware of the performance and inform shareholders and others about the financial performance.

annual report template cover, less than ten pages annual budget reports and more

Vertical and lateral reports are terms used when referring to the direction of a report. Compared to other reports, lateral reports describe those that move between members at the same organizational level.

Examples of these types of reports are informational reports exchanged between team managers, short reports between members of a team, or comprehensive reports between departments.

talent management and recruitment template cover wih ten pages

19. Vertical report 

Vertical reports comprise a document prepared in a report form shared between different organizational hierarchies. It could be from a higher level to a lower level or vice versa.

Examples include business reports from employees members of an executive team or managers to their team members.

vertical reports team progress report template cover, single report for management control

Businesses organize many events, and event reports analyze each event’s success.

Event managers prepare these short reports and work by comparing event results to the set goals. It determines an event’s success and serves as a blueprint for future events.

event report template cover for formal reports, types of reports example

Make beautiful, engaging, and different types of reports with Piktochart 

Understanding the different types of reports is crucial to using them for the growth and organization of your business. 

Not only report vital, but they can also help a business identify pain points and forecast future occurrences when appropriately used.

However, this isn’t always the case because many business report types often confuse employees and owners.

The way out is to use  report-writing tools  like Piktochart. Piktochart is an all-in-one business communication tool that helps businesses create reports, presentations, infographics, and various other business designs.

Pick a template, input your data, and watch your report come alive.  Create a free Piktochart account  to get started now!

Create your own report with a few clicks.

Start with a report template designed by experts and customize it with your fonts and brand colors. Upload your own photos or choose from our free library of royalty-free images. Add charts or maps and quickly get to a professionally-looking report.

report templates

Jessica La is a writer with over six years in the SEO, AI, and content industry. In her blog , she explores all things marketing and is passionate about the unique ways businesses can improve, innovate and grow. You can reach her at [email protected]

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Likelihood of Approval and Phase Transition Success Rate Model – Ozempic in Liver Cirrhosis

Pages: 6 Published: May 25, 2023 Report Code: GDHCDR10390LOA-MP

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How likely is it that a drug will get approved? Will the drug transition to the next phase of its clinical pathway? This report provides you with the data that allows you to track and predict the specific likelihood of approval (LOA) and phase transition success rate (PTSR) of a drug using GlobalData’s proprietary machine learning algorithms developed using over 10 years of historical data.

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Ozempic in Liver CirrhosisDrug Details:

Semaglutide (Ozempic / NN-9535 / NN-9931) is a derivative acts as an anti-diabetic agent. It is formulated as injectable solution for subcutaneous route of administration. Ozempic is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The drug is based on protein acylation technology which is a protein engineering technology. It is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, acute ischemic stroke and liver cirrhosis. It is administered through oral route.

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The data is segmented by drug name per indication and shows the current likelihood of approval for the drug compared to the indication benchmark and the industry benchmark.

The Likelihood of Approval data is updated regularly based on events that take place which impact the clinical development process and regulatory considerations. GlobalData’s proprietary machine learning models consider these events in real time, to produce quantitative changes to the LOA and PTSR along with qualitative reasoning why the likelihood of approval has changed.

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– Use PTSR and LOA information and event-driven changes for your investment decisions.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is likelihood of approval (loa).

The probability of a drug ultimately receiving market authorization

What is Phase Transition Success Rate (PTSR)?

The probability of a drug’s advancement to the next stage of clinical development

Why is GlobalData’s product so powerful?

GlobalData’s  Drug-Specific Likelihood of Approval (LoA)  calculates the  Phase Transition Success Rate (PTSR)  and  Likelihood of Approval (LoA)  customized to individual drug. The model uses a combination of  Machine Learning (ML)  and a  GlobalData  proprietary algorithm to process data points from the  Drugs, Clinical Trials, Regulatory Milestones, Company,  and  Financial databases.

What is the data scope (inclusions and exclusions)?

Data Scope:

Drug Phase Scope:

Drug Geography Scope:

Drug Type Scope:

Entity Type Scope:

Only drugs in development by companies are included in the model.

Can be used by individual purchaser only

Can be shared by unlimited users within one corporate location e.g. a regional office

Can be shared globally by unlimited users within the purchasing corporation e.g. all employees of a single company

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Every customer’s requirement is unique. We understand that and can customize the report basis your exact research requirements pertaining to market insights, innovation insights, strategy and planning, and competitive intelligence. You can also avail the option of purchasing stand-alone sections of the report or request for a country specific report.

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Wildfire smoke skies darken as air alerts are issued across northern u.s..

Smoke from the hundreds of wildfires blazing in eastern Canada has drifted south, casting a hazy pall over New York City and triggering air alerts from Minnesota to Massachusetts.

  • Give this article
  • Ottawa By Abe Bourgi Via Tmx and Reuters
  • Manhattan Maansi Srivastava/The New York Times
  • Alberta, Canada Alberta Wildfire, via Reuters
  • Quebec NASA/ISS Above, via Storyful
  • The Bronx Sarah Stier/Getty Images
  • Manhattan Steven Freeman for The New York Times
  • Rochester By @JODISPAYNE70 Via Storyful
  • Long Beach, New York Johnny Milano for The New York Times
  • Manhattan Patrick Sison/Associated Press
  • Montreal Andrej Ivanov/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
  • Ottawa Sean Kilpatrick/The Canadian Press, via Associated Press
  • Brooklyn Ed Jones/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Follow our updates on the wildfires, smoke and air pollution .

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Jesus Jiménez ,  Derrick Bryson Taylor and Judson Jones

Here’s what to know about the wildfire smoke.

A smoky haze floated over a wide swath of the northern United States on Tuesday from Canada, where hundreds of wildfires were blazing , triggering air alerts from Minnesota to Massachusetts.

In Ontario, a layer of haze blanketed parts of Ottawa and Toronto, where Canadian officials warned residents about the poor air quality, as smoke floated over portions of New York State and Vermont. All of New York City was under an air quality alert on Tuesday because of the smoke; by the afternoon, the Manhattan skyline was obscured by hazy skies.

More than 400 active wildfires were burning in Canada on Tuesday, according to the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Center, exacerbating an already active wildfire season that is only expected to worsen. More than 200 of the fires were burning out of control, the agency said.

In eastern Canada, Quebec was most affected by wildfires as of Tuesday night, with more than 150 active blazes across the area, according to the fire agency. Residents in some areas were being encouraged to shut their windows and doors, local officials in Quebec said.

Videos and images showed some fires blazing for miles, sending dark smoke plumes billowing into the sky.

Here’s what else to know about the smoke:

As of Monday, an estimated 26,000 people across Canada had been evacuated from their homes because of wildfires, Bill Blair, Canada’s minister of public safety, said at the news conference.“The images that we have seen so far this season are some of the most severe ever witnessed in Canada,” Mr. Blair said.

Bands of smoke from the wildfires shifted southward across the border on Tuesday, creating hazy skies and prompting the U.S. National Weather Service to issue air quality alerts for parts of the Northeast and upper Great Lakes regions.

Weather officials warned that people more sensitive to poor air quality, such as people with lung disease and heart disease, children and older adults, should limit certain activities outdoors.

New York State officials said that an air quality health advisory alert would be in effect for much of the state starting at midnight. Long Island, New York City and the Central and Western New York regions will be affected through Wednesday night.

Similar alerts were issued for parts of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont.

Molly Peterson

What else can I do to limit smoke pollution inside my home?

Thick smoke can sneak into your home through loose seals and cracks; closing those up can help. Simply shutting windows can cut pollution by about 30 percent . If it still smells like a barbecue inside on a smoky day, placing wet towels around cracks under doors and around windows can slow smoke’s entry into your home.

The E.P.A. also recommends avoiding activities like cooking, vacuuming or smoking on smoky days, which can stir up pollutants already inside your home. And the American Lung Association recommends using a good welcome mat to wipe your shoes on, or taking shoes off altogether when you’re walking around inside your house, to avoid tracking in contaminants.

If your indoor space is larger than an air purifier can filter, the E.P.A. recommends dedicating one room as a “ clean room ” to use as a refuge on smokier days. But avoid using rooms where you create smoke or other particles indoors, like the kitchen, or any room with a lot of windows and doors.

Smoke forecast

Ed Shanahan

Ed Shanahan

New York City’s air was ‘very unhealthy,’ the mayor said.

Mayor Eric Adams said in a news release late Tuesday that by 10 p.m. air quality in parts of New York City had become “very unhealthy,” rising to 218 on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality Index.

New York’s air quality rating briefly ranked as the worst of any city in the world on Tuesday, according to the IQAir World Air Quality Index . By comparison, the city’s air quality has generally been below 50 on the index in recent years, in the “good category,” and even improved during the pandemic-driven lockdown in 2020, according to IQAir .

“While conditions are anticipated to temporarily improve later tonight through tomorrow morning, they are expected to deteriorate further tomorrow afternoon and evening,” Mr. Adams warned. He noted that the state’s Department of Environmental Conservation had issued a citywide air-quality health advisory.

The mayor indicated that the city’s schools would be open on Wednesday and he urged all students to attend, but he added that schools would not be holding outdoor activities. About 10 Public Schools Athletic League baseball and softball games had been scheduled for Wednesday.

“We recommend all New Yorkers limit outdoor activity to the greatest extent possible,” Mr. Adams said. “Those with pre-existing respiratory problems, like heart or breathing problems, as well as children and older adults, may be especially sensitive and should stay indoors at this time.”

The mayor said he would brief the public on his administration’s plans Wednesday morning.

Ontario braces for more bad air as fires rage.

As fires continue to rage in eastern Canada, parts of southern Ontario, including Toronto, are bracing for several days of polluted air, peaking on Thursday.

Winds have been pushing plumes of wildfire smoke from Quebec across southern Ontario, causing reduced air quality and visibility, said Katrina Eyk, a senior meteorologist at Environment and Climate Change Canada, the federal ministry.

“It’s still pretty yucky out there,” said Ms. Eyk, speaking from Toronto on Tuesday evening. “But on Thursday, it looks like with the wind overall shifting to the northeast, that plume could move directly overtop of the Greater Toronto Area and give pretty poor conditions.”

Smoky skies hung over eastern Ontario on Tuesday, with few shadows cast by the obscured sun in Ottawa. The capital, Kingston and Belleville all recorded some of the highest risk ratings on the province’s air quality health index.

A cold front on Saturday is slated to shift the winds back east, blowing lingering smoke out, and could bring scattered showers in Toronto, Ms. Eyk said.

In a message posted on Twitter late Tuesday, Nathaniel Styer, a spokesman for New York City Public Schools, said education officials were “making schools aware of the air quality health advisory,” “recommending that outdoor activity be limited” and asking that “special attention be made to vulnerable students and staff populations.” It was not clear whether Public Schools Athletic League games scheduled for Wednesday would be postponed.

Ken Sturtz and Cole Louison

The haze comes in a variety of colors — orange, yellow, even purple.

Among the most peculiar parts of the smoky haze that has settled over the northern United States is the wide variety of colors it seems to create — not just gray but also yellow, orange and even purple.

Dan Delfuoco of Syracuse, N.Y., noticed the peculiar ability of the smoke to warp colors when he looked out his window Tuesday morning, and the sky had a golden hue. “It felt like it was constantly sunset,” he said. “I was like, was it really 10 a.m.?”

Mr. Delfuoco recently took up photography and wanted to shoot sunsets and reasoned that the smoke in the air would allow him to capture some particularly vivid colors. He and a friend, Jillian LaPoint, drove 40 miles from Syracuse to Breitbeck Park in the city of Oswego, N.Y., on Lake Ontario, a popular sunset photography spot.

He dusted off a box of surgical masks left over from the coronavirus pandemic just to be safe. “It definitely felt kind of nostalgic to put one on,” he said.

Mr. Delfuoco’s bet about the sunset proved to be correct, though clouds eventually blocked his view. The smoke gave the sun a brilliant reddish-orange tint.

“It was like nothing I had ever seen before,” he said. “It was just red the whole time.”

“It was like an orange haze,” Ms. LaPoint said. “It kind of looked like the apocalypse was coming.”

In Fairport, N.Y., outside of Rochester, a man reported a light purple sky and a “sickly blood-orange” sun.

And in Macedon, N.Y., Ann Schauman described the sky as beige and the sun as bright red.

“I’m on a hill, so I’ve been able to see this smoke-fog, whatever you call it, very clearly,” said Ms. Schauman, owner of Ann’s Purple Produce, a small organic farm. “I’ve lived on the land 48 years and I’ve never seen anything like it out here.”

Ernesto Londoño and Eduardo Medina

Officials in Minnesota warn residents of potential smoke danger.

Officials in Minnesota warned residents that smoke from the Canadian wildfires could blanket much of the state on Tuesday, potentially bringing unhealthy pollutant levels to thousands.

The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, which issued an air quality alert on Monday , said that a band of smoke from wildfires in Quebec would linger in the state on Tuesday because of “very light winds.”

The heaviest smoke was projected to reach the southeast corner of the state, where fine particle levels were expected to reach the red category, which is considered “unhealthy for everyone,” according to the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.

In east central Minnesota, which includes the Twin Cities, pollutant levels were expected to reach an orange category that is considered to be unhealthy for sensitive groups, the agency said.

The heaviest smoke was expected to be near Rochester and Winona, about 100 miles southeast of Minneapolis.

The air quality on Tuesday night appeared to be normal in the state, according to a forecast map on the agency’s website. In Minneapolis, the sky was mostly cloudless in the evening.

Smoke was expected to linger in east central and southeast Minnesota through late Tuesday, the agency said.

In Philadelphia, hazy skies and ‘sneezing like a maniac.’

Looking out from the 18th floor of a skyscraper in downtown Philadelphia on Tuesday afternoon, Megan Harper noticed that the city looked different. The light, filtered through a fog of smoke particles, cast the buildings in a “shimmery purple.”

The city felt different, too. The poor air quality kept her “sneezing like a maniac” on her walk home.

Wildfires raging in eastern Canada have sent smoke drifting south, shrouding areas of the United States — like Philadelphia — largely unaccustomed to the effects of the conflagrations that tend to consume landscapes in the West. The hazy skies that draped Philadelphia reminded Ms. Harper, she said, of a visit to Colorado, where the air had been polluted by fires in Montana.

Carolyn Moneymaker, a software engineer who works in Center City Philadelphia, used to live in Colorado. During wildfires there, she said, the smoke would obscure the sun much as it did in Philadelphia on Tuesday.

“You would get this very distinct look where the sun is clearly shining but something is in front of it,” Ms. Moneymaker, who now lives in suburban Malvern, Pa. “You can see something is blocking it out.”

When she was out walking on Monday, Ms. Moneymaker noticed a grayish tinge to the sky. By Tuesday, she could hardly see other buildings from the window of her 27th floor of her workplace.

Maddy Wescott, a product manager for a technology company, said she noticed the poor air quality when she went outside her office building on Monday.

“I sat outside on the patio, and I could not stop coughing,” said Ms. Wescott, 28, who lives in the Fairmount section of Philadelphia. “I almost went back in.”

Tracey Tully

Tracey Tully

In Jackson, N.J., residents were coping with more than just poor air quality from Canadian wildfires. New Jersey’s Forest Fire Service was struggling to contain a wildfire that was covering about 30 acres Tuesday evening near East Commodore Boulevard and Cedar Swamp Road in Jackson, a 60,000-resident community in Ocean County. Several roadswere closed and 30 structures were at risk of being consumed by fire, state officials said.

Scott Dodd

As wildfire smoke fills the skies with gray haze, it can also turn the sun (or moon) a bright red. I asked Kofi Donnelly, who teaches physics at a Brooklyn high school, to explain why. White light from the sun is made up of all colors in the spectrum, he said. But smoke particles in the air “tend to scatter the shorter wavelengths (bluish light) more than the longer wavelengths (reddish light). Therefore bluish light from the sun is scattered in a bunch of directions (not into your eyes), while reddish light still gets to your eyes.”

Jesus Jimenez

Jesus Jimenez

That’s a wrap in the Bronx, where the Yankees lost 3-2 against the Chicago White Sox. The announced attendance was 38,049 fans, who watched a two-hour and 28-minute ballgame on a night when officials were recommending limiting time outdoors. Several other minor league baseball games in the Northeast also went on tonight despite air quality alerts.

Nate Schweber ,  Joshua Needelman ,  Ellen Yan and Liset Cruz

In New York City: gray air, coughs and apocalyptic thoughts.

Grayish air, mysterious coughs, apocalyptic thoughts: New York City was enveloped in a strange waking bad dream Tuesday evening. The few who ventured out expressed confusion over the city’s altered state.

On the pedestrian bridge over the Long Island Expressway in Forest Hills, Gerard Berman gazed at the Manhattan skyline on his way home, but it was hidden by fog.

“The eeriness of it all, it really drew me in,” said Mr. Berman, who lives in Rego Park. “It’s like Halloween in spring.”

In downtown Manhattan, foot traffic was sparse. Those outside held phones aloft and snapped pictures. Outdoor tables at one Italian restaurant were untouched. From the Battery Park Esplanade, the outline of the Statue of Liberty was barely visible.

“I didn’t notice it until my throat started hurting,” said Liz Flores, who operates a fruit and grocery stand at the corner of 231st Street and Broadway. She plans to wear a mask tomorrow.

“What is happening out here?” Luis Nazario, 35, shouted in the street, nearby. He was helping a customer with bags at the Lot-Less. He said he had a headache all day. “Since earlier I was like wondering why it’s so smoky,” Mr. Nazario said. “This looks like, have you seen ‘Crow’? ‘City of Angels’? It’s kind of like what the film looks like.”

In Williamsburg’s Domino Park Jocelynn Loebl wore a black mask as she walked her dog. “I’d rather keep that smoke out of my lungs,” she said. “I’m coughing.” She had words of mock gratitude for the smoke’s source: “Thanks, Canada.”

Ayse Muratoglu took photos of the skyline with her cellphone and spoke in apocalyptic movie terms. “It’s pretty scary, very ominous, quite eerie, almost in a cinematic sense,” said Ms. Muratoglu, a marketing manager for a natural food company.

Leo Prather, 27, and his girlfriend Bernice Noel, 25, said their asthma had been exacerbated by the smoke. “I coughed real hard earlier in the day, and I couldn’t understand why,” Mr. Prather said.

Can an air purifier help?

By some estimates , a good air filtration system can cut smoke pollution indoors by about 50 to 80 percent. When skies grow hazy, if you have central air and heating, close your windows and switch your system’s filtration settings to recirculate.

Adding a higher efficiency filter, like one with at least a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) 13 rating, to central air systems makes them even more effective at removing small particles from smoke. If you don’t have central air, portable air purifiers with HEPA filters can work well in smaller spaces.

Experts caution that you should avoid using air purifiers that rely on and emit ozone , which can be harmful even at low levels and can irritate the lungs. Check with your local public agencies to see if they provide guidance or financial support for buying air filters. Low-income people with certain respiratory conditions who live in the Bay Area, for instance, are eligible for free portable air filters .

If you can’t find an affordable air purifier, you can make one out of a box fan, some tape and some high efficiency filters.

Bryan Ramsey, a National Weather Service meteorologist in New York, said that the New York City area could see some smoke clear by Wednesday morning, but that it was possible another thick plume of smoke could move into the region by Wednesday afternoon, much like the one New Yorkers saw on Tuesday. “It’s going to be here for a while,” Mr. Ramsey said of the smoke.

Raymond Zhong

Raymond Zhong

Climate change is intensifying a “global wildfire crisis.”

A landmark United Nations report concluded last year that the risk of devastating wildfires around the world will surge in coming decades as climate change further intensifies what the report described as a “global wildfire crisis.”

The scientific assessment is the first by the organization’s environmental authority to evaluate wildfire risks worldwide. It was inspired by a string of deadly blazes around the globe in recent years, burning the American West, vast stretches of Australia and even the Arctic .

The images from those fires — cities glowing under orange skies , smoke billowing around tourist havens and heritage sites, woodland animals badly injured and killed — have become grim icons of this era of unsettled relations between humankind and nature.

“The heating of the planet is turning landscapes into tinderboxes,” said the report, which was published by the United Nations Environment Program.

The report, produced by more than 50 researchers from six continents, estimated that the risk worldwide of highly devastating fires could increase by up to 57 percent by the end of the century, primarily because of climate change. The risks will not be distributed equally: Some regions are likely to see more fire activity, while others may experience less.

In some regions with long histories of brush fires, such as eastern Australia and the western United States and Canada, they have become more intense over the last decade and are ravaging larger areas, the report found.

In a moderate scenario for global warming, the likelihood of extreme, catastrophic fires could increase by up to a third by 2050 and up to 52 percent by 2100, the report estimates. If emissions are not curbed and the planet heats up more, wildfire risks could rise by up to 57 percent by the end of the century.

New York City has the worst air quality of any major city in the world right now, according to a live ranking by IQAir, a technology company that tracks air quality and pollution around the world. Historically, New York City does not rank in the top 3,000 cities with the worst air quality, according to IQAir .

Ben Shpigel

Ben Shpigel

The New York Road Runners, the organization that owns and stages the New York City Marathon, urged runners living in areas polluted by the smoke to consider not running on Global Running Day on Wednesday. Jennifer Stowell, a postdoctoral fellow at Boston University’s School of Public Health, who has studied the health effects of wildfires, told The Times in 2020 that wildfire smoke “may be more toxic” to the lungs than standard urban air pollution.

June 7 is Global Running Day, but if you're in NYC or any affected area, please read and follow your city's health advisory regarding air quality, and consider running another day. — New York Road Runners (@nyrr) June 6, 2023

Eduardo Medina

Eduardo Medina

Max Bowie watched as his twin 8-year-old daughters pulled their tie-dyed peach sweaters over their faces, walking quickly. They were near their Queens apartment, but Bowie said he couldn’t help but feel alarmed and frustrated over the air conditions. World leaders, he said, need to take more action on environmental issues. One of his daughters removed the sweater from her mouth to ask a question: “Will the rain wash away all the smoke?”

What’s the best way to protect myself from wildfire smoke?

If a wildfire is close enough that you can see flames or if your community is blanketed in smoke and ash, you should be prepared to evacuate if you’re instructed to do so, according to the Environmental Protection Agency .

Even if you’re far from flames, but the smoke is darkening your skies, your safest choice may be to leave, Dr. Prunicki said. If that’s not feasible, the likely next best thing is to stay inside and take steps to limit your smoke exposure.

According to the E.P.A., vulnerable people like older adults, children and those with heart or lung conditions should avoid going outside when the air quality index — a numerical value from 0 to 500 that indicates air pollution and health risk levels — goes over 100. Anything over 150 means it’s unhealthy for anyone to be outside without a high-quality mask.

You can consult AirNow’s interactive fire and smoke map , a federally-run tracker for air quality conditions. PurpleAir can also offer a more local picture of air quality, as can other products and apps, like IQAir and BreezoMeter .

For children, safety concerns arise when the air quality index is even lower. Because breathing smoke can increase the risk of asthma in children and might even have irreversible consequences for their immune cells , experts recommend that, when the air quality index is above 50, caregivers should start thinking about keeping children inside, especially if they already have asthma.

Nightfall appeared to arrive early as the Yankees and Chicago White Sox were heading into the bottom of the sixth inning under a dark haze at Yankee Stadium.

If I have to go outside, how can I protect myself?

Limiting your time outside is a good start. There is no safe distance from smoke, and its health effects can accumulate. So if you must go outdoors, wearing a high quality mask, such as an N95 respirator, is essential.

Reporters at Wirecutter, a New York Times Company that reviews and recommends products, suggest choosing a mask that filters exhalations as well as inhalation air. You want to check to make sure the mask has a good seal around your nose and mouth. Cloth masks are less effective.

And keep in mind that no mask will protect you 100 percent. “Wearing an N95 reduces your exposure, but if you have to go out, you will get exposed,” Dr. Balmes said.

There’s also some evidence that you may want to protect your skin when you go outside. In a first-of-its-kind study published in 2021, researchers found associations between short term smoke exposure and health care visits for itchy skin and eczema.

Some skin care creams and products with labels like “antipollution” or “pollution protection” probably won’t help much. Though applying a lotion with emollient properties — like shea butter, lanolin or petroleum jelly — before you go outside may help create an artificial barrier on your skin. Dermatologists advise that you avoid smoke if you can, cover up with long sleeves and pants if you have to go outside, and cleanse your skin after spending time outdoors to remove any pollutants.

Dan Higgins and Ken Sturtz

In some parts of New York State, the air has been smoky for days.

In New York City, the smoky air and dark skies may have come as a surprise on Tuesday, but elsewhere in the state, the effects of the Canadian fires had been evident for days.

In Buffalo and around Western New York, the skies have been suffused with a silver-gray haze since early last week.

“When the sun rises, it’s an unusual bright orange color,” said Richard Linn, of Orchard Park, who is out early every morning with his dogs. “There’s a decidedly smoky smell,” he added.

In Buffalo’s northern suburbs last Friday, the smoke created the conditions for a peculiar sunset. The sun was a deep, bright orange and, at times, appeared as just a small point in the sky, as if it was sinking into the haze.

A local TV station published footage from a webcam overlooking downtown Buffalo, where the smoke appeared thick enough to look like fog.

In Oswego, on the shore of Lake Ontario, the smoke created a haze that settled over the city on Tuesday and gave the sky a yellowish tint most of the day. By evening, a steady breeze had picked up but the smell of smoke was still detectable, and the streets were mostly empty.

School districts in Oswego County canceled athletic events and outdoor after-school activities. The Oswego Little League said it was canceling all of its games out of an abundance of caution. Even a planned D-Day ceremony in the nearby city of Fulton to honor a soldier who received the Medal of Honor for his actions on June 6, 1944, was postponed.

In Manhattan Tuesday evening, some commuters were startled by smell.

At the subway station at West 86th Street and Broadway around 6:45 p.m., passengers trudged up the stairs and onto the street and gasped. The sky was a strange orange-gray, and the cool air smelled of smoke.

“This morning, it smelled like burnt toast, but now it’s more like campfire,” said Benjamin Lukas, 47, who was on his way to his mother’s apartment to cook her dinner. “It’s just wild.”

Mr. Lucas worried about his mother’s breathing — and hoped that she had her windows shut, despite the cost of air-conditioning.

Up the street, Genevieve Cruz was making a quick pit-stop into the CVS on Amsterdam Avenue, hoping the pharmacy was still selling masks. “I used to have one on me all the time for Covid,” she said. “I can’t believe I don’t even have a single one anymore.”

For some New Yorkers, the news of the Canadian wildfires came as a surprise, even as they breathed in the smoky air. “That’s what this is?” asked Joe Lerner, as he stood waiting for a crosstown bus. “I figured it was a building fire or something.” Already, he said, his throat felt a little sore.

New York State officials said that an air quality health advisory, an alert that indicates a health concern related to pollution in an area, will be in effect for much of the state starting at midnight. Long Island, New York City, eastern Lake Ontario, Central New York and Western New York will be affected.

Why is wildfire smoke so harmful, and who’s most vulnerable?

Wildfire smoke contains a complex mix of gases, hazardous air pollutants, water vapor and particulate matter (or particle pollution), which pose the greatest threat.

Some of those particles, including dust, dirt, soot or smoke, are so large or dark that they can be seen with the naked eye. But the tiniest of them — microscopic particles that are about one-fifth to one-thirtieth as wide as a human hair — can travel deep into your lungs and even into your bloodstream. There, they can cause inflammation and dampen your immune system.

While ash and soot from burning wood are some of the most concerning types of particle pollution, wildfire smoke can also contain other toxic and cancer-causing substances, including chemicals, heavy metals and plastics. Indeed, said Dr. John Balmes, a pulmonologist and professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco: Smoke from fires is “pretty much like tobacco smoke without the nicotine.”

Breathing in wildfire smoke can make anyone cough, wheeze and struggle for air. It can irritate your eyes, nose and throat, and cause headaches.

Felice Belman

On her way home from work on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, Genevieve Cruz was making a quick pitstop into the CVS on Amsterdam Avenue, hoping the pharmacy was still selling masks. “I used to have one on me all the time for Covid,” she said. “I can’t believe I don’t even have a single one anymore.”

Madison Dong

Hundreds of wildfires were burning in Canada on Tuesday, according to the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Center, as fires have broken out across the country in recent weeks. Quebec alone had more than 150 active blazes across the province, the fire agency said.

Canada wildfires

At a subway station on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, commuters trudged up the stairs and onto the street and gasped. The sky was a strange orange-ish gray, and the cool air smelled of smoke. “This morning, it smelled like burnt toast, but now it’s more like campfire,” said Benjamin Lukas, 47, who was on his way to his mother’s apartment to cook her dinner. “It’s just wild.” Mr. Lukas worried about his mother’s breathing.

The North Carolina Environmental Quality Department said the state would be under Code Red or Code Orange air quality alerts on Wednesday because of the “rapidly rising levels of fine particle pollution attributed to smoke” from the wildfires. Officials are urging residents to stay indoors as much as possible, particularly those with asthma.

A minor league baseball game scheduled for tonight in Moosic, Pa., between the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders and the Norfolk Tides was postponed tonight because of air quality concerns. Meanwhile in the Bronx, where smoke was visible on Tuesday night, the New York Yankees and the Chicago White Sox played on.

Across Athens Square Park in Queens, Fennel Robinson was quickly walking back to his apartment, eager to avoid breathing in the poor air. He had wondered if there was a fire close by before seeing the news about the Canadian wildfires. “It’s crazy,” he said. “But what can you do?” He continued past the park, where three children had paused their playing to point at the sky.

Practice was cancelled for a youth soccer league in Montclair, N.J., at around 6 p.m. as wildfire smoke darkened the sky over the fields in Brookdale Park, and parents expressed concerns about the health risks for players.

Jon Barr, 38, who was waiting for a ride in Queens on Tuesday evening, said he worried about being outside. In his 12 years of living in New York City, he said, he had never seen a sky this ashen. “It’s kind of like a horror movie.”

In Astoria, Queens, residents walking home looked up at the sky, which had a fluorescent, gray glow, as if a thunderstorm were passing through. One man covering his face with his jacket said of the atmosphere: “It feels like a bonfire.”


  • Debt ceiling
  • 2024 Elections
  • Russia-Ukraine war


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The Hill’s 12:30 Report — It’s ‘Trump day’: The latest on the indictment

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–> A midday take on what’s happening in politics and how to have a sense of humor about it.*

*Ha. Haha. Hahah. Sniff. Haha. Sniff. Ha–breaks down crying hysterically.


Trump’s legal issues just got real :

Former President Trump , who says he’s innocent, has been indicted on charges related to his handling of classified documents, after a number were discovered at his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida after he was out of office.

Trump has denied any wrongdoing, offering varied explanations for why he was entitled to retain documents that carried “top secret” labels. But the federal indictment is unprecedented and could get very real, very soon. ( The Hill )


CNN has reported that Trump acknowledged that he didn’t declassify some of the information he held onto.

The Hill’s Julia Shapero and Rebecca Beitsch break down what we should expect from the seven charges against Trump and what they mean.

Wondering what’s next: The Hill’s Brett Samuels has you covered .


Of course, Team Trump released a statement about the news, calling it an “act of open legal ‘warfare’ and ‘un-American.'”

More from the statement:

“President Donald J. Trump has long been the biggest threat and the top political target for Joe Biden and the corrupt Democrat Party. As President Trump’s dominance grows, the nastier the Deep State attacks become … President Trump will fight this unconstitutional abuse of power until he is ultimately vindicated. He will never stop fighting for the American people, and he will continue to work to restore the greatness of the United States of America.”


Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis ( via Twitter ): “ The weaponization of federal law enforcement represents a mortal threat to a free society.

We have for years witnessed an uneven application of the law depending upon political affiliation.

Why so zealous in pursuing Trump yet so passive about Hillary [Clinton] or Hunter [Biden]?

The DeSantis administration will bring accountability to the DOJ, excise political bias and end weaponization once and for all. “

Vivek Ramaswamy ( The Hill ): “I never thought we’d see the day when the U.S. President deputizes the DOJ to arrest his lead rival in the middle of an election. … It would be much easier for me to win this election if Trump weren’t in the race, but I stand for principles over politics. I commit to pardon Trump promptly on January 20, 2025, and to restore the rule of law in our country.”

Sen. Josh Hawley (R-Mo. — via Twitter ): “If the people in power can jail their political opponents at will, we don’t have a republic.”

AND: Republican senators, including members of the Senate Judiciary Committee, think the indictment raises conflict-of-interest issues for Attorney General Merrick Garland . More from The Hill .


House Minority Leader Hakeem Jeffries (D-N.Y.): “The rule of law is central to the integrity of our democracy. It must be applied without fear or favor. To everyone.”

Rep. Bonnie Watson Coleman (D-N.J.): “This is sad, but necessary. We must apply the law equally no matter who they are.” ( More here from The Hill )

It’s Friday, June 9. 🌈 Blue skies are coming back to us … hopefully not just a temporary situation after the hazy smoke we’ve had the past couple of days (Sending up prayers for NYC, where it’s been much worse).

I’m Elizabeth Crisp , filling in for Cate with a quick recap of this buzzy Friday morning and what’s coming up. Did someone forward this newsletter to you? Sign up here. Send me your tips, add me to your media list, share your funny animal videos and pass along your White House or 2024 campaign gossip: [email protected] and follow me on Twitter @elizabethcrisp .

In Congress

Republican leaders readying for blockade from the right: After this week’s unexpected revolt, House Speaker Kevin McCarthy (R-Calif.) is trying to appease disgruntled conservatives who are unhappy about the debt ceiling deal that won more Democratic votes in the chamber than Republican. Spoiler: Rank-and-file members aren’t exactly hopeful for a resolution. ( The Hill )

Several House Republicans left D.C. on Thursday for an early weekend “warning the sides remain so far apart that it might require weeks — maybe longer — to get the House back to working order,” The Hill’s  Emily Brooks , Mike Lillis and Mychael Schnell report in their deep dive into what’s happening in the House.

🏃 2024

Three GOP presidential candidates enter the same state … :

Former President Trump , former Vice President Mike Pence and Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis — all running for the 2024 GOP presidential nomination — will be in North Carolina this weekend.

It’s the first time since entering the race that all three candidates will try to engage the same audience. The Hill’s Caroline Vakil breaks down the potentially uncomfortable situation.

🛬 White House

There’s a new FAA chief in town:

President Biden has picked Deputy Transportation Secretary Polly Trottenberg to be the interim head of the Federal Aviation Administration.

Biden’s last nominee for the permanent post, Phil Washington , withdrew his name earlier this year after he was criticized for not being experienced enough.

Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg said he has “full confidence” in Trottenberg during “the search for a permanent administrator.” ( The Hill )

🚗 In other news

Live in NYC, Houston, Dallas, Austin or DC? Sorry, your commute is killing you:

For many people, the worst part of their day is the commute. And just a heads up, it could contribute to expensive and dangerous consequences, beyond the headaches.

Bumper-to-bumper traffic, hours sitting on the road and fluctuating gas prices all combine to create a startling danger.

MoneyGeek has ranked cities by where driving is worst. ( The Hill )

🐥 Notable tweets

VPR takes out the trash:

Are you obsessed with Vanderpump Rules and the “ Scandova l” of it all? Because I am. … This tweet pretty much tells you how you should feel about the weirdos involved. ( View Tweet that documents a man being horrible )

‘WAR’ what is it good for? Partisan politics:

Arizona governor race loser who won’t give up Kari Lake (R) went to a Georgia GOP convention wearing an Andrew Breitbart shirt declaring “WAR.” ( Tweet via GOP fundraiser Caroline Wren )

⏱ On tap

The House and Senate are gone for the weekend, as the smoke and PRIDE weekend take over D.C. 👋  

President Biden is in North Carolina to promote workforce training programs and meet with military families, and Vice President Harris is in the Bahamas on a diplomatic trip.

10 a.m. President Biden left the White House for his trip to North Carolina.

*TBD: Deputy press secretary Olivia Dalton briefed reporters on Air Force One during the flight to North Carolina.

1:10 p.m.: Biden tours Nash Community College in Rocky Mount, N.C.    

1:30 p.m.: Biden gives a speech on how workforce training programs are preparing students for good-paying jobs in North Carolina. ( Watch here )

2:40 p.m.: Biden heads to Fort Liberty, N.C.

4:15 p.m.: Biden meets with military members and their families and delivers remarks at an event promoting the Joining Forces initiative.

8:05 p.m.: Biden heads back to DC.  

All times Eastern.

🎬 In lighter news

Today is National Movie Night ! With dangerous smoke clouding the cities and events being canceled, you have a perfect excuse to just stay in this Friday night. Pop some popcorn, grab your favorite beverage, get comfy and watch a movie!

And because you made it this far, check out the video of this king getting what he deserves. 👑

Copyright 2023 Nexstar Media Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

More 12:30 Report News

The hill’s 12:30 report — smoke haze could linger of northeast into weekend, the hill’s 12:30 report — everyone’s bracing for word on trump’s classified documents case, house gop presses ahead with proceedings against fbi’s wray, the hill’s 12:30 report — pence running; sununu opts out, video/, see all, see all video, rising: june 9, 2023, rising: june 8, 2023, rising: june 7, 2023, top stories.

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Watch live: White House monkeypox response team holds briefing

What is human metapneumovirus? What to know about the virus that flew under everyone's radar.

what is a report type

All eyes were on viruses like influenza and RSV this winter season, but Americans may have missed another important pathogen: Human metapneumovirus, or hMPV.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention last week reported an uptick of hMPV cases throughout the country this winter and spring , which experts say may be partly due to the public's increased capacity to test for different viruses.

“There’s a much greater attention to identifying the cause of (infections) than we’ve ever had before,” said Dr. Rick Malley, an infectious disease specialist at Boston Children’s Hospital.

He attributed that increased attention to the COVID-19 pandemic.

“The importance of other viruses and the diseases they cause has come to the floor and that’s why I think you’re hearing more about this virus," he said.

Here's everything to know about the respiratory virus that flew under everyone's radar this season, including symptoms, transmission and treatment.

What is human metapneumovirus, hMPV?

Human metapneumovirus, or hMPV, is an infection that affects the upper and respiratory tract, according to the CDC. While it can affect people of all ages, the agency says young children, older adults and people with weakened immune systems are at greater risk.

HMPV was first discovered in 2001 and belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, which also includes respiratory syncytial virus, the CDC said.  

New COVID variant: Arcturus is linked to pink eye. What you need to know.

More: Experts worry where the next pandemic will come from – and if we'll be ready

Is human metapneumovirus just a cold? What are hMPV symptoms?

People with hMPV typically experience mild symptoms similar to a cold, according to the American Lung Association . Symptoms last about two to five days and usually resolve on their own in healthy individuals.

The CDC says common symptoms include:

  • Nasal congestion
  • Shortness of breath

Young children, older adults and those with weakened immune systems are at higher risk for developing more severe disease and can experience wheezing, difficulty breathing and asthma flare-ups.

The American Lung Association said secondary infections – like bronchiolitis, bronchitis and pneumonia – can also occur and may require medical attention.

How is human metapneumovirus transmitted?

Like most respiratory viruses, hMPV is commonly spread from person to person through:

  • Close contact with an infected individual
  • Touching objects that have the virus on them

The CDC says the virus is more likely to circulate during the winter and spring months, like the flu, RSV and cold viruses.

More: A maternal RSV vaccine to protect infants is one step closer to FDA approval

Do you need antibiotics for human metapneumovirus?

There is no antiviral therapy to treat hMPV or vaccine to prevent the virus, according to the CDC.

Because hMPV symptoms typically clear up on their own, the American Lung Association says treatment usually consists of over-the-counter medications to control pain, fever and congestion. Patients with more severe symptoms like wheezing are advised to seek medical care, where a doctor may prescribe a temporary inhaler and steroids, according to the American Lung Association.

Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, not viral infections. However, hMPV is associated with an increased risk of developing bacterial pneumonia that would typically be treated with antibiotics, Malley said.

“This virus is probably a very important co-conspirator in causing pneumonia, specifically pneumococcal pneumonia,” he said. “Just because you’ve identified a virus in someone doesn’t mean that there can’t be a bacterium lurking around.”

Follow Adrianna Rodriguez on Twitter: @AdriannaUSAT.

Health and patient safety coverage at USA TODAY is made possible in part by a grant from the Masimo Foundation for Ethics, Innovation and Competition in Healthcare. The Masimo Foundation does not provide editorial input.

More: The COVID public health emergency is over in the US. Here's what that means for you.


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