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How to Cite Something in MLA Format
MLA formatting refers to the writing style guide produced by the Modern Language Association. If you’re taking a class in the liberal arts, you usually have to follow this format when writing papers. In addition to looking at MLA examples, it helps to know the basics of the style guide.
MLA requires parenthetical citations within the document. This means you must include source information inside parentheses placed after a quotation or paraphrase from a source. Each parenthetical citation must have the page number where you found the information you used. It may also have the author’s or creator’s name. Do not use a comma to separate the name and the date.
The format for in-text citations depends on the format of the source material. For print material like books and journals, you need the author’s name and publication date. If the source has two authors, use and to join them and the term “et al.” if it has more than two authors. You can also reference the authors in the document and include only the page number in parentheses.
Citations for Nonprint Material
If you use nonprint materials as sources, you have to cite them. However, you don’t have to include page numbers with the in-text citations. You do have to include information like the name of the work, the creator’s name and the year of publication on the Works Cited page.
When you complete the Work Cited page, each source requires additional information. For images, you need to include contributors, the reproduction number and URL where you located the image online. Movies must list the director’s name and distributor. A TV series needs the episode title and number, series title, season number and network. Pieces of music should include the title of the track and album and the record label.
Works Cited List
When you use MLA format, you must have a Works Cited page that lists all of the sources you used for the paper. This page goes at the end of the document on a separate page. You list all of the sources in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name. Make sure the page is double-spaced and that you follow the specific guidelines for formatting each entry.
If you don’t have access to printed MLA style guides or don’t understand how to format your sources, you can turn to a citation generator. There are several citation generators available online for free or as part of a subscription service. You can also find them in word processing programs.
To use a citation generator, you enter information about each source. The program automatically formats the sources for the works cited page. You can also select the places in the document to add in-text citations.
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MLA Citation Guide (MLA 9th Edition): Case Studies
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / How to Cite Sources / How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA, or Chicago
How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA, or Chicago
When citing a case study, the format in MLA and APA is similar to that of a report, and in Chicago style, it is similar to that of a book. For all three citation styles, you will need the name of the author(s), the title of the case study, the year it was published, the publishing organization/publisher, and URL (if applicable). The templates and examples below will demonstrate how to cite a case study in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.
Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Case Study . Edition (if applicable), volume number (if applicable), Publisher, year of publication, URL without http:// or https:// (if applicable).
Hill, Linda A., et al. HCL Technologies (A). Rev. edition, Harvard Business School, 2008, www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
(Author Last Name(s) page #)
(Hill et al. 8)
Author Last Name, Author Initial. (Publication Year). Title of Case Study (Case # if applicable). Publishing Organization. URL
Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. (2008). HCL Technologies (A) (Case 408-004). Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784
(Author Last Name, Publication Year)
(Hill et al., 2008)
Author Last Name, First Name. Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year. URL.
Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. HCL Technologies (A). Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
1. Author First Name Last Name, Title of the Case Study (Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year), URL.
1. Linda A. Hill, Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker, HCL Technologies (A) ( Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008), https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
Author Last Name, First Name. Publication Year. Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization. URL.
Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. 2008. HCL Technologies (A). Boston: Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
(Author Last Name Publication Date)
(Holl, Khanna, and Stecker 2008)
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- MLA 8 Updates
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How to Cite a Case Study in MLA: Works Cited, Text Citation, and Footnote
6 July 2023
Academic writing is a broad discipline that covers essay writing, report writing, and case study analysis. In all these writings, students use scholarly sources, such as books, case studies, and peer-reviewed journal articles, to validate arguments. Hence, academic writing standards require students to cite sources that they use to present evidence to back up arguments.
General Rules on Citing a Case Study in MLA
If students use a case study as a source and cite it following the MLA format, there some essential details that they must capture in their citation entry. For example, the main elements include:
- Name of the author(s)
- Title of a case study
- Location of a publisher
- Year of publication
Citing a Case Study as a Standalone Document in MLA on the Works Cited Page
If an author has published a case study as a standalone document, a student should cite this source in the Works Cited page in the way they would cite a book. Hence, a citation entry should appear as follows:
Author’s Last Name, First Name. Case Study Title (Title case study and italicized). Location of the Publisher. Publisher, Date. Case Study. An example would be:
Rosegrant, Susan. Leadership Failure at Wal-Mart: The Curse of Internationalization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing, 2015.
Citing a Case Study with In-Text Citations and Footnotes in MLA
When it comes to citing a case study in a body of a paper, a student should use a parenthetical citation (in-text) by indicating the last name of the author and the page number in a case study from where the information is picked.
In-Text Citation Example:
If students follow the rules of an MLA format, an in-text citation would appear as (Rosegrant 5).
Footnote Citation Example:
If a student has to use footnotes, a footnote citation example is
Susan Rosegrant, Leadership Failure at Wal-Mart: The Curse of Internationalization (Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing, 2015), 5.
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Writing A Case Study
Case Study Format
Simple Case Study Format for Students to Follow
Published on: Jun 18, 2019
Last updated on: Dec 19, 2022
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Knowing how to write a great case study is one of the important skills you will need in college. You may feel overwhelmed when you get the assignment to write a case study because it requires good analytical and writing skills.
When you are asked to write a case study, you are expected to come up with a solution to a problem which is not an easy task.
It is also important to organize your work efficiently. In this blog, we have provided the important format guidelines and a case study format sample to help you get started.
Importance of Case Study Format
Using the correct case study analysis format is as important as covering the key information in it. Therefore, it is essential to take into account all the formatting guidelines for a perfect case study.
Each college and university sets its own requirement for the case study formatting. So, it is important to check what format style requirements your institute has set. APA format and MLA format are the most commonly used styles for formatting a case study but some institutes use other kinds of referencing formats also.
In the case of the APA and MLA style case study, the reference pages will be outlined in the APA and MLA styles. Keep in mind that teachers pay careful attention to formatting. So, neglecting to properly format your case study can affect your grades.
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How to Format Your Case Study?
Students usually feel overwhelmed when it comes to turning the gathered information into something interesting and readable.
What should you include? Where should you start? And what is the best way to structure and organize your case study? These are the common questions students mostly encounter when writing a case study.
To help you get the answers to all these queries, it is important to first understand that there is no one way that you can use to present your case analysis. Usually, the case studies are either written or visual. No matter what case study you are working on, there are some elements that you need to take care of for a perfect case study.
Here are the elements that you need to include for a perfect case study paper format.
“What are the parts of a case study?”
Create an interesting title for your work. Keep it simple and short.
Here you need to briefly elaborate on the accomplishment. What you have done and how you got there.
Write about the entire story in one paragraph followed by 2-3 bullet points to display the case study contents.
An introduction about what the case study is all about.
Describe the challenges of the customer prior to using your product or service. Explain the long-term goals or objectives that the customer set out to achieve.
In this 2-3 paragraph section describe how your specific strategies provided a solution to their problem.
In this 2-3 paragraph section describe how your product or service specifically benefited and helped achieve the goals. You can also use percentages to show your contributions.
In the bottom section of your case study, add 1-2 quotes and visuals to support the story you are telling. You can also use icons to summarize information and highlight areas of your research. You can also combine these with social media icons to show this is a well-researched and thorough case study.
Write about the future plans for your case study analysis and whether or not those plans involve you.
Call to action is optional but adding one can encourage your readers to take some action after learning your work at your website.
Case Study Format Template
Case studies can be used for different purposes. In social sciences, it can help you understand the problems of other people.
In businesses, it can help you earn the trust of potential customers. But do you even know what are the different types of case study and how to write one?
For some people, writing a good case study format is easy but for others, it can be a nightmare. To make all things easier for you, we have provided you with a free case study template.
Refer to this template before you start writing your own document. This student case study format sample contains all the information you might need when gathering information for your case study.
Case Study Format Examples
Case study examples are the best way to learn the basic techniques for writing a great case study on your own.
A great approach for writing a perfect case study is to plan ahead and refer to a sample case study format that can guide you in the writing process.
For your help, we have also compiled real-life case study examples along with a format that you can refer to while writing your own.
APA Case Study Format
If you are asked to write a case study in APA format, keep in mind there are some specific requirements that you need to adhere to.
Here is a case study APA format example for you to learn how to format a case study.
Business Case Study Format
Business case studies can help businesses sell products or services to prospects. Here is a perfect example for you to learn how to write an impressive business case study.
Nursing Case Study Format
Writing a great nursing case study can be tough. That’s why we have provided a case study report format for nursing students to use as a guide in creating their work.
Refer to this family case study format example if you are writing a nursing case study for the first time.
Harvard Business School Case Study Format
Looking for HBS style business case study? Here is one for you to read and take hints and ideas to prepare this type of case study like a professional.
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Medical Case Study Format
Writing medical case studies is helpful in medical practices as it gives a lot of information about different diseases. Look at this example and learn how to write a detailed medical case study.
Case studies may not be as attractive as blog posts and they are often overlooked as compared to other content formats. But why do you need to write a case study?
In your academic years, you cannot avoid writing a case study. To complete this assignment, you need to conduct thorough research to identify the key takeaways and record the results in detail using APA or any other style asked by your teacher.
Students do not always have a considerable amount of time to write a case study. That’s why our paper writing service can help you in every discipline you need.
Our writers are capable enough to do marketing, business, psychology, and even nursing case study from scratch.
If you need help at any stage of your case study writing process, do not hesitate to contact us. Before placing your order you can also review samples at our website.
So, if you have no time to create a case study simply place the order and we will write a compelling case study for you.
Go to our order page now for top-quality case study writing help!
Barbara P (Literature, Marketing)
Dr. Barbara is a highly experienced writer and author who holds a Ph.D. degree in public health from an Ivy League school. She has worked in the medical field for many years, conducting extensive research on various health topics. Her writing has been featured in several top-tier publications.
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All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study
What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.
What Is a Case Study?
A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.
What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?
While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.
Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.
The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.
Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:
Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.
Types of Case Studies
The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:
- Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
- Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
- Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
- Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
- Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.
Case Study Format
The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:
- Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
- Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
- Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
- Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
- Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
- Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
- References. Provide all the citations.
How to Write a Case Study
Let's discover how to write a case study.
Setting Up the Research
When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:
- Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
- Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
- Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
- Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
- Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.
Read Also: 'CREDIBLE SOURCES: WHAT ARE THEY?'
Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:
- Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
- Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
- Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
- Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
- Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
- Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
- Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
- Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.
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Case Study Outline
Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.
- Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
- Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
- Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
- Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
- Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
- Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
- Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
- Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
- Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
- Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
- Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
- Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.
Writing a Case Study Draft
After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:
- Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
- In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
- Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
- Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
- At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.
Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study
Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :
With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.
Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.
Finalizing the Draft: Checklist
After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:
- Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
- Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
- Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
- Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?
Problems to avoid:
- Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
- Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
- Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.
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How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study
Let's see how to create an awesome title page.
Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:
- A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
- The title should have the words “case study” in it
- The title should range between 5-9 words in length
- Your name and contact information
- Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length. With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff.
Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:
There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.
Citation Example in MLA Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.
Case Study Examples
To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.
Eastman Kodak Case Study
Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany
To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .
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Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. If you’re having trouble with your case study, help with essay request - we'll help. EssayPro writers have read and written countless case studies and are experts in endless disciplines. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our writing service, and all of your worries will be gone.
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How to Cite a Case Study
Last Updated: February 12, 2023 References
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Particularly in research for business studies or papers in the social sciences, you may want to cite a case study completed by a university or other organization. While case studies have titles and publication information like other articles, they often have a unique case study number that is typically included in your citation. While Chicago citation style is most frequently used in business schools, you may also use the American Psychological Association (APA) or Modern Language Association (MLA) style.
- Example: Lee, Stan.
- If there is more than one author, list the additional authors' names in first-middle initial-last format. Separate author's names with commas, with the word "and" before the last author's name.
- Example: Lee, Stan. "DC Comics in 2016." HBS No. 999-111.
- Example: Lee, Stan. "DC Comics in 2016." HBS No. 999-111. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017.
- Example: Lee, Stan. "DC Comics in 2016." HBS No. 999-111. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017. http://hbsp.harvard.edu, accessed July 2018.
- Print example: Stan Lee, "DC Comics in 2016," HBS No. 999-111 (Boston, Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017), p. 14.
- Online example: Stan Lee, "DC Comics in 2016," HBS No. 999-111 (Boston, Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017), http://hbsp.harvard.edu, accessed July 2018.
- Example: Lee, S.
- Separate the names of multiple authors with commas, placing an ampersand before the last author's name.
- Example: Lee, S. (2017).
- If there is no year of publication listed, use the abbreviation "n.d." in the parentheses.
- Example: Lee, S. (2017). DC Comics in 2016 .
- Example: Lee, S. (2017). DC Comics in 2016 . HBS No. 999-111.
- Example: Lee, S. (2017). DC Comics in 2016 . HBS No. 999-111. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
- Example: (Lee, 2017).
- If there are 2 authors, place the word "and" between their names. For 3 or more, use commas with the word "and" before the final author. After the first author, list subsequent authors with their first name followed by their last name. For example: Lee, Stan and Clark Kent.
- Example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study.
- Example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study. Boston. Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017.
- Note that unlike many other citation styles, the unique case study number is not necessarily included for MLA citations. Ask your instructor or supervisor if they want this information included in your citation.
- Print example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study. Boston. Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017. Print.
- Web example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study. Boston. Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017. Web. 17 July 2018.
- If you accessed the case study online, you may put the URL of the case study. However, this isn't required by MLA style. Ask your instructor or supervisor for their preference.
- Example: (Lee 27).
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- ↑ https://www.library.hbs.edu/content/download/49322/786369/version/1/file/HBS_Citation_Guide
- ↑ https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/apa-citation-style/case-studies
- ↑ http://libanswers.snhu.edu/faq/128490
- ↑ http://libanswers.walsh.edu/faq/147917
- ↑ http://maag.guides.ysu.edu/businesscitations/mla
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