Nursing Case Study for Pediatric Asthma
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Anthony is a 6-yr-old male patient brought to the pediatric ER with a history of asthma since he came home from the NICU as an infant. He lives with his parents, Bob and Josh, who adopted him after fostering him from age 4 months. They have tried the usual nebulizer treatments but Anthony is not responding as usual, so they brought him for evaluation.
Initial assessment in triage reveals both inspiratory and expiratory wheezes, dyspnea, tachypnea, diaphoresis, and retractions.
BP 70/40 mmHg SpO2 93% on room air HR 131 bpm RR 32bpm at rest Temp 38.3°C
What physiologic issue is Anthony suffering from based on the assessment findings?
- Respiratory distress is evidenced by both vital signs and physical assessment findings. His RR and HR are high. He is also sweating and having retractions which may indicate he is working hard to try to establish oxygen exchange.
What signs and symptoms might occur that would show worsening of his condition?
- Skin color changes (i.e. blue or bluish around the mouth or even inside the mouth, blue nail beds, gray or pale compared to usual)
- Grunting on exhalation (this indicates the body is trying to keep air in the lungs)
- Stridor (this is heard in the upper airway and can be an ominous sign)
- Changes in the level of consciousness (becoming lethargic or drowsy)
Anthony is pale but not gray. His lips do indicate a very faint bluish tinge. He can speak but it appears difficult.
What medications might the nurse expect the provider to order?
- Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs)
- Racemic albuterol – A racemic mixture of albuterol (salbutamol) is the primary SABA used for quick relief of acute asthma symptoms and exacerbations.
- Levalbuterol – Levalbuterol (Levosalbutamol), the R-enantiomer, is the active isomer of racemic albuterol that confers the bronchodilator effects. Levalbuterol is approved in the United States for the treatment of bronchospasm in children ≥4 years of age via hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and ≥6 years of age via solution for nebulizer
What side effects might occur from the medications ordered?
- “The most common side effects are tremor, increased heart rate, and palpitations” Anthony may report feeling jittery due to the activation of beta receptors.
After administration of racemic albuterol, Anthony now has a RR of 22 and O2 saturation of 95% on room air. However, the provider decides to admit him to the inpatient pediatric observation unit. His parents ask if there are ways to keep him from continually being admitted to the hospital.
What are some education topics to bring up to Anthony’s parents?
- Controlling asthma triggers — The factors that set off or worsen asthma symptoms are called “triggers.” Identifying and avoiding asthma triggers is essential to keeping symptoms under control. Common asthma triggers generally fall into several categories:
- Allergens (including dust mites, pollen, mold, cockroaches, mice, cats, and dogs)
- Respiratory infections, such as the common cold or the flu
- Irritants (such as tobacco smoke, chemicals, and strong odors or fumes)
- Exercise or other physical activity
What does the nurse understand about this medication?
- Systemic corticosteroids are an essential treatment option for many disease states, especially asthma. These medications reduce the length and severity of asthma exacerbations and reduce the need for hospitalization or ED visits. It is important for asthma patients to receive prednisolone as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms that are bronchodilator-unresponsive to attain these benefits.
- Although usually prescribed for a 5- to 7-day period, oral corticosteroids are not without adverse effects. The most common adverse effects are the same for the majority of oral corticosteroids and include increased appetite, weight gain, flushed face.
- Increased risk of infections, especially with common bacterial, viral and fungal microorganisms. Thinning bones (osteoporosis) and fractures happen over time, be mindful this may cause problems in an energetic child. Suppressed adrenal gland hormone production may result in a variety of signs and symptoms, including severe fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and muscle weakness.
Anthony sleeps during the night shift and the next day, his pediatrician makes rounds and discusses a change in the severity rating of Anthony’s asthma.
What does the nurse know about asthma severity and how it is determined?
- Asthma severity is the intrinsic intensity of the disease. Assessment of asthma severity is made on the basis of components of current impairment and future risk. The severity is determined by the most severe category measured
Bob and Josh are interested in meeting with respiratory therapy for assistance with inhalers. They say that Anthony has trouble using inhaler devices.
Inviting respiratory therapy to provide parent teaching is an example of what? How can this department help the family?
- Interdisciplinary team collaboration.
- Teaching about medications, proper inhaler (or other equipment) use, thorough explanation of peak expiratory flow (PEF) measuring, ways to help control RR.
After lunch, Anthony is ready to be discharged. His parents verbalize gratitude to the staff and thank the team for helping with education.
What can the nurse help Bob and Josh start to establish to try to help them with Anthony’s condition?
- Setting goals and planning. Preparing for an action plan (“Asthma ‘action plan’ is a form or document that your child’s provider can help you put together; it includes instructions about how to monitor symptoms and what to do when they happen. Asthma action plans are available for children up to five years old, for children five years and older and adults and for school. An action plan can tell you when to add or increase medications, when to call your child’s provider, and when to get immediate emergency help. This can help you know what to do in the event of an asthma attack. Different people can have different action plans, and your child’s action plan will likely change over time.”)
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Nursing case studies.
This nursing case study course is designed to help nursing students build critical thinking. Each case study was written by experienced nurses with first hand knowledge of the “real-world” disease process. To help you increase your nursing clinical judgement (critical thinking), each unfolding nursing case study includes answers laid out by Blooms Taxonomy to help you see that you are progressing to clinical analysis.We encourage you to read the case study and really through the “critical thinking checks” as this is where the real learning occurs. If you get tripped up by a specific question, no worries, just dig into an associated lesson on the topic and reinforce your understanding. In the end, that is what nursing case studies are all about – growing in your clinical judgement.
Nursing Case Studies Introduction
Cardiac nursing case studies.
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GI/GU Nursing Case Studies
- 2 Questions
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Obstetrics Nursing Case Studies
Respiratory nursing case studies.
- 10 Questions
Pediatrics Nursing Case Studies
- 3 Questions
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Neuro Nursing Case Studies
Mental health nursing case studies.
- 9 Questions
Metabolic/Endocrine Nursing Case Studies
Other nursing case studies.
- Case report
- Open Access
- Published: 21 February 2018
Pediatric severe asthma: a case series report and perspectives on anti-IgE treatment
- Virginia Mirra 1 ,
- Silvia Montella 1 &
- Francesca Santamaria 1
BMC Pediatrics volume 18 , Article number: 73 ( 2018 ) Cite this article
The primary goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control for reducing the risk of future exacerbations and progressive loss of lung function. Asthma not responding to treatment may result in significant morbidity. In many children with uncontrolled symptoms, the diagnosis of asthma may be wrong or adherence to treatment may be poor. It is then crucial to distinguish these cases from the truly “severe therapy-resistant” asthmatics by a proper filtering process. Herein we report on four cases diagnosed as difficult asthma, detail the workup that resulted in the ultimate diagnosis, and provide the process that led to the prescription of omalizumab.
All children had been initially referred because of asthma not responding to long-term treatment with high-dose inhaled steroids, long-acting β 2 -agonists and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Definitive diagnosis was severe asthma. Three out four patients were treated with omalizumab, which improved asthma control and patients’ quality of life. We reviewed the current literature on the diagnostic approach to the disease and on the comorbidities associated with difficult asthma and presented the perspectives on omalizumab treatment in children and adolescents. Based on the evidence from the literature review, we also proposed an algorithm for the diagnosis of pediatric difficult-to-treat and severe asthma.
The management of asthma is becoming much more patient-specific, as more and more is learned about the biology behind the development and progression of asthma. The addition of omalizumab, the first targeted biological treatment approved for asthma, has led to renewed optimism in the management of children and adolescents with atopic severe asthma.
Peer Review reports
Children with poor asthma control have an increased risk of severe exacerbations and progressive loss of lung function, which results in the relevant use of health resources and impaired quality of life (QoL) [ 1 ]. Therefore, the primary goal of asthma management at all ages is to achieve disease control [ 2 , 3 , 4 ].
According to recent international guidelines, patients with uncontrolled asthma require a prolonged maintenance treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in association with a long-acting β 2 -agonist (LABA) plus oral leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) (Table 1 ) [ 5 ].
Nevertheless, in the presence of persistent lack of control, reversible factors such as adherence to treatment or inhalation technique should be first checked for, and diseases that can masquerade as asthma should be promptly excluded. Finally, additional strategies, in particular anti-immunoglobulin E (anti-IgE) treatment (omalizumab), are suggested for patients with moderate or severe allergic asthma that remains uncontrolled in Step 4 [ 5 ].
Herein, we reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation and treatment of four patients with uncontrolled severe asthma from our institution in order to explain why we decided to prescribe omalizumab. We also provided a review of the current literature that focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis of pediatric difficult asthma and the associated comorbidities, and summarizes the perspectives on anti-IgE treatment in children and adolescents.
Table 2 summarizes the clinical characteristics and the triggers/comorbidities of the cases at referral to our Institution. Unfortunately, data on psychological factors, sleep apnea, and hyperventilation syndrome were not available in any case. Clinical, lung function and airway inflammation findings at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up are reported in Table 3 . In the description of our cases, we used the terminology recommended by the ERS/ATS guidelines on severe asthma [ 6 ].
A full-term male had severe preschool wheezing and, since age 3, recurrent, severe asthma exacerbations with frequent hospital admissions. At age 11, severe asthma was diagnosed. Sensitization to multiple inhalant allergens (i.e., house dust mites, dog dander, Graminaceae pollen mix, and Parietaria judaica ) and high serum IgE levels (1548 KU/l) were found. Body mass index (BMI) was within normal range. Combined treatment with increasing doses of ICS (fluticasone, up to 1000 μg/day) in association with LABA (salmeterol, 100 μg/day) plus LTRA (montelukast, 5 mg/day) has been administered over 2 years. Nevertheless, persistent symptoms and monthly hospital admissions due to asthma exacerbations despite correct inhaler technique and good adherence were reported. Parents refused to perform any test to exclude gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as comorbidity [ 6 ]. However, an ex-juvantibus 2-month-course with omeprazole was added to asthma treatment [ 7 ], but poor control persisted. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed rhinosinusitis that was treated with nasal steroids for six months [ 8 ], but asthma symptoms were unmodified. Treatment with omalizumab was added at age 12. Reduced hospital admissions for asthma exacerbations, no further need for systemic steroids, and improved QoL score (from 2.0 up to 6.7 out of a maximum of 7 points) were documented over the following months. Unfortunately, after one year of treatment, adherence to omalizumab decreased because of family complaints, and eventually parents withdrew their informed consent and discontinued omalizumab. Currently, by age 17, treatment includes inhaled salmeterol/fluticasone (100 μg/500 μg∙day -1 , respectively) plus oral montelukast (10 mg/day). Satisfactory symptom control is reported, with no asthma exacerbations.
A full-term male, who had a recurrent severe preschool wheezing, at 6 years of age developed exercise-induced asthma. At age 10, severe asthma was diagnosed. High serum IgE levels (1300 KU/l) and skin prick tests positive to house dust mites were found. Despite a 3-year treatment with progressively increasing doses of inhaled fluticasone (up to 1000 μg/day) combined with salmeterol (100 μg/day) and oral montelukast (5 mg/day), monthly hospital admissions with systemic steroids use were reported. At age 13, a 24-h esophageal impedance/pH study demonstrated the presence of acid and non-acid GER [ 7 ]. Esomeprazole was added to asthma medications, but with an incomplete clinical benefit for respiratory symptoms. Esomeprazole was withdrawn after 3 months, and parents refused to re-test for GER. As respiratory symptoms persisted uncontrolled despite treatment, severe asthma was definitively diagnosed [ 6 ]. BMI was within the normal range and anterior rhinoscopy excluded rhinosinusitis. Inhaler technique and adherence were good; thus we considered the anti-IgE treatment option [ 9 ]. Subcutaneous omalizumab was started, with fast improvement of both symptoms and QoL score (from 3.9 up to 6.5). Seventeen months later, the dose of ICS had been gradually tapered and oral montelukast definitely discontinued. Currently, at age 14, treatment includes the combined administration of bimonthly subcutaneous omalizumab and of daily inhaled salmeterol/fluticasone (50 μg/100 μg∙day - 1 , respectively). Asthma control is satisfactory and no side effects are reported. Omalizumab has been continuously administered for 2.6 years and is still ongoing.
A full-term male had severe preschool wheezing and, since age 3, recurrent, severe asthma exacerbations with acute respiratory failure that frequently required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. At age 6, sensitization to multiple perennial inhalant (i.e., house dust mites, dog and cat danders, Alternaria alternata , Graminaceae pollen mix, Artemisia vulgaris , Parietaria judaica , and Olea europaea pollen) and food allergens (i.e., egg, milk, and peanut) was diagnosed. Serum IgE levels were 2219 KU/l. Weight and height were appropriate for age and sex. The patient has been treated over 3 years with a combined scheme of high-dose inhaled fluticasone (up to 1000 μg/day) plus salmeterol (100 μg/day) and oral montelukast (5 mg/day), with correct inhaler technique and good adherence. Despite this, monthly hospital admissions with systemic steroids use were recorded. Rhinosinusitis and GER were excluded on the basis of appropriate testing; thus treatment with omalizumab was started when the patient was 9 years old. At age 11, adherence to treatment is satisfactory, with no side effects. More importantly, reduced hospital admissions for asthma exacerbations, no further need for systemic steroids, and improved QoL score (from 6.4 to 6.8) were reported. Finally, progressive step-down of anti-asthma treatment was started, and at present (by 11.5 years) inhaled fluticasone (200 μg/day) plus bimonthly subcutaneous omalizumab provide good control of symptoms. Omalizumab has been continuously administered for 2.6 years and is still ongoing.
A full-term male had severe preschool wheezing and, since age 4, recurrent, severe asthma exacerbations with frequent hospital admissions. At age 8, multiple perennial inhalants and food sensitization (i.e., house dust mites, dog dander, Graminaceae pollen mix, Olea europaea pollen, tomatoes, beans, shrimps, and peas) and high serum IgE levels (1166 KU/l) were found. The patient has been treated over 5 years with inhaled fluticasone (up to 1000 μg/day) in association with salmeterol (100 μg/day) and oral montelukast (5 mg/day). Despite this, monthly hospital admissions with systemic steroids need were recorded. After checking the inhaler technique and adherence to treatment, comorbidities including obesity, rhinosinusitis and GER were excluded. Omalizumab was proposed, but parents refused it. By 13.6 years, despite a treatment including the association of inhaled salmeterol/fluticasone (100 μg/1000 μg∙day − 1 , respectively) plus oral montelukast (10 mg/day), monthly exacerbations requiring systemic steroids are reported.
Discussion and conclusions
Most children and adolescents with asthma respond well to inhaled short-acting beta 2 -agonists (SABA) on demand if symptoms are intermittent, or to low dose controller drugs plus as-needed SABA if the risk of exacerbations increases [ 1 ]. Nevertheless, a proportion of patients is referred to specialists because this strategy is not working and asthma is persistently uncontrolled [ 4 ]. For these children, assessment is primarily aimed at investigating the reasons for poor control. Indeed, when the child is initially referred, before the label of “severe, therapy-resistant asthma” (i.e., not responding to treatment even when factors as exposure to allergens and tobacco smoke have been considered) is assigned, three main categories need to be identified: 1) “not asthma at all”, in which response to treatment is suboptimal because the diagnosis is wrong; 2) “asthma plus ”, when asthma is mild but exacerbated by one or more comorbidities; and 3) “difficult-to-treat asthma”, when asthma is uncontrolled because of potentially reversible factors [ 10 ].
The reported cases highlight some aspects of the disease process that may expand the diagnosis and improve patients’ care. At our institution, the severe asthma program includes a multidisciplinary approach with consultations by gastroenterologists as well as ear, nose and throat experts. Recently, sleep medicine experts joined this multidisciplinary team; thus, unfortunately, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) could not be excluded at the time of our patients’ assessment. Inhalation technique is periodically evaluated by nurses or doctors in each patient. Unfortunately, in Italy an individual prescription database is not available and thus we cannot assess patients’ use of medication. In two cases, the filtering process eventually identified GER and rhinosinusitis, but poor control of asthma persisted even after comorbidities were treated. In all subjects, inhaler skills, treatment adherence, and environmental exposure to indoor/outdoor allergens as well as to second- and third-hand smoke were excluded as cause of lack of control. Eventually, three out of four patients started anti-IgE treatment; asthma control was obtained and maintenance drugs were progressively reduced. In the case that refused omalizumab therapy, pulmonary function, clinical features and controller treatment including high-dose ICS were unchanged.
Previous studies have highlighted an association between increasing asthma severity in children and reduced QoL [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Uncontrolled asthma symptoms not only affect children physically, but can impair them socially, emotionally, and educationally [ 13 ]. In line with previous observations, 3 out 4 of our cases had poor QoL, assessed by a standardized questionnaire [ 14 ]. It is well known that improving QoL in difficult asthma is not an easy task, despite a variety of treatments aimed at achieving control [ 12 ], and much more remains to be done to address the problem. Nevertheless, 2 of our 3 cases showed a remarkable improvement of QoL after one year of treatment with omalizumab.
Reduction in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1 ) is often used to define childhood asthma severity in treatment guidelines and clinical studies [ 5 , 11 , 15 ]. Nevertheless, children with severe asthma often have a normal FEV 1 that does not improve after bronchodilators, indicating that spirometry may be a poor predictor of asthma severity in childhood [ 6 , 16 , 17 ]. Actually, children with a normal FEV 1 , both before and after β 2 -agonist, may show a bronchodilator response in terms of forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF 25–75 ) [ 18 ]. However, the utility of FEF 25–75 in the assessment or treatment of severe asthma is currently unknown. Interestingly, all the reported cases showed normal or slightly reduced values of FEV 1 but severe impairment of FEF 25–75 . Two cases showed a bronchodilator response in terms of FEV 1 (subjects 3 and 4), while 3 patients had a significant increase of FEF 25–75 (cases 1, 3 and 4). Unfortunately, we could not provide the results of bronchodilator response during or after the treatment with omalizumab in any case.
Available literature on the diagnostic approach to difficult asthma in children offers a number of reviews which basically summarize the steps needed to fill the gap between a generic diagnosis of “difficult asthma” and more specific labels (i.e., “severe” asthma, “difficult-to-treat” asthma, or even different diagnoses) [ 3 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 10 , 19 , 20 , 21 ]. So far, few original articles and case reports have been published, probably due to the peculiarity of the issue, which makes retrospective discussion of cases easier than the design of a prospective clinical study [ 4 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ]. Available knowledge mainly derives from the experience of specialized centers.
The evaluation of a child referred for uncontrolled asthma should start with a careful history focused on typical respiratory symptoms and on the definition of possible triggers. In the “severe asthma” process, it is crucial for clinicians to maintain a high degree of skepticism about the ultimate diagnosis, particularly in the presence of relevant discrepancies between history, physical features and lung function, as many conditions may be misdiagnosed as asthma. In order to simplify this process, herein we propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of difficult-to-treat and severe asthma (Fig. 1 ). Confirmation of the diagnosis through a detailed clinical and laboratory re-evaluation is important because in 12–50% of cases assumed to have severe asthma this might not be the correct diagnosis [ 10 ]. Several documents have indicated the main steps of the process that should be followed in children with uncontrolled asthma [ 3 , 8 , 10 ]. The translation of these procedures into real life practice may deeply change from one subject to another due to the variability of individual patients’ history and clinical features, which will often lead the diagnostic investigations towards the most likely reason for uncontrolled asthma. For children with apparently severe asthma, the first step is to confirm the diagnosis and, before proceeding to broader investigations, to verify that the poor control is not simply determined by poor adherence to treatment, inadequate inhaler skills and/or environmental exposure to triggers. A nurse-led assessment, including a home visit, despite not being applicable in all settings, may be useful for identifying potentially modifiable factors in uncontrolled pediatric asthma [ 27 ].
A practical algorithm for the diagnosis of difficult-to-treat and severe asthma. ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; OCS, oral corticosteroids
A number of comorbidities have been increasingly recognized as factors that may impact asthma clinical expression and control in childhood [ 10 , 28 ]. Children with uncontrolled disease should be investigated for GER, rhinosinusitis, dysfunctional breathing and/or vocal cord dysfunction, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, psychological factors, smoke exposure, hormonal influences, and ongoing drugs [ 3 , 6 , 8 , 20 ]. Indeed, the exact role played by comorbidities in pediatric asthma control is still debated [ 28 ]. The most impressive example is GER. Several pediatric documents recommend assessing for GER because reflux may be a contributing factor to problematic or difficult asthma [ 7 , 29 ]. Nevertheless, GER treatment might not be effective for severe asthma [ 30 , 31 ], as confirmed by current cases 1 and 2. There is an established evidence that chronic rhinosinusitis is associated with more severe asthma in children [ 32 , 33 , 34 ]. Therefore, examination of upper airways and ad hoc treatment if rhinosinusitis is evident are recommended in children with severe asthma [ 3 , 8 , 35 ]. However, intranasal steroids for rhinitis resulted in a small reduction of asthma risk in school-aged children [ 36 ], and actual placebo-controlled studies on the effect of treatment of rhinosinusitis on asthma control in children are lacking [ 10 , 37 ].
Dysfunctional breathing, including hyperventilation and vocal cord dysfunction, is associated with poorer asthma control in children [ 8 , 10 , 38 , 39 ]. Unfortunately, there is scarce literature on the effect of its treatment on the control of severe asthma in children [ 40 ]. SDB ranging from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is very common in children [ 41 ], and an increased prevalence of SDB together with increasing asthma severity has been reported [ 42 ]. Interestingly, GER may also be worsened by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction associated with SDB, and this may further trigger bronchial obstruction. Asthma guidelines recommend the assessment of SDB through nocturnal polysomnography in poorly controlled asthmatics, particularly if they are also obese [ 5 ]. There are no studies examining whether pediatric asthma improves after SDB has been treated, for example, with nasal steroids, adenotonsillectomy, continuous positive airway pressure or weight reduction if the child is also obese [ 43 ]. The parallel increase in obesity and asthma suggests that the two conditions are linked and that they can aggravate each other [ 44 , 45 ], even though the exact mechanisms that underlie this association remain unclear [ 46 ]. Indeed, other coexisting comorbidities such as SDB or GER may play a confounding role in the development of the interactions between obesity and the airways [ 47 , 48 ]. Obesity is associated with increased markers of inflammation in serum and adipose tissue and yet decreased airway inflammation in obese people with asthma [ 49 ]. Several interventions, including behavioral and weight reduction programs or bariatric surgery, may result in improved asthma control, quality of life and lung function in adult obese asthmatics [ 50 ]. Although reports of adolescent bariatric surgery demonstrate a significant body weight decrease, this approach is not widely available and there are no published reports on its effect on pediatric severe asthma control [ 51 ]. Finally, although it is still unclear whether food allergy is causative or shares a common pathway with difficult asthma, it might explain the loss of asthma control at least in some children and thus be considered as a comorbid condition [ 10 , 16 , 52 ].
In conclusion, establishing the impact of comorbidities on asthma control may be cumbersome, and an ex-juvantibus treatment is sometimes necessary to assess their role. Comorbid conditions can also worsen each other, and symptoms arising from some of them may mimic asthma [ 6 ]. Although the ability to improve pediatric severe asthma by treating comorbidities remains unconfirmed, they should be treated appropriately [ 9 ].
The vast majority of asthmatic children exhibit a mild or at most a moderate disease that can be fully controlled with low-to-medium dose ICS associated or not with other controllers [ 5 , 6 ]. However, a subset of asthmatics remains difficult-to-treat [ 5 , 6 ]. With the advent of biologics, these severe steroid-dependent asthmatics have alternative options for treatment, as steroid-related adverse events are common in severe asthma [ 53 ]. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is the only biologic therapy recommended in children with moderate-to-severe asthma by the recent guidelines [ 5 , 6 ]. In Italy, this treatment is fully covered by the National Health System. Therefore, there is no influence by any funding on treatment decisions. It was approved by the US (Food and Drug Administration) in 2003 and by the European Union (European Medicines Agency) in 2005 as an add-on treatment for patients aged > 12 years with severe persistent allergic asthma and who have a positive skin test or in-vitro reactivity to a perennial aeroallergen, FEV 1 < 80% predicted, frequent daytime symptoms or nighttime awakenings, and multiple documented severe asthma exacerbations despite daily ICS plus a LABA [ 54 , 55 ]. In 2009, it also received approval in Europe for treating patients aged 6–12 years. Figure 2 illustrates current indications for treatment with omalizumab in children and adolescents with severe asthma.
Indications for omalizumab in children and adolescents with severe asthma
IgE antibodies, Th 2 -derived cytokines and eosinophils play a major role in the development of chronic airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects [ 56 ]. Once released from plasma cells, IgE binds principally to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on mast cells, triggering different effector responses, including the release of mediators leading to allergic inflammatory reactions [ 56 ]. The activation of the allergic cascade by IgE, under constant allergen stimulation, leads to the establishment of chronic allergic inflammation in the airways of asthmatic patients, with IgE being a key element of the vicious circle that maintains it. Cytokines produced during the late phase and subsequent chronic inflammation stage have been directly associated with the induction of airway remodelling, indirectly implicating IgE in the process [ 56 ]. At present, omalizumab is the only commercially available recombinant humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody that specifically binds serum free IgE at its CH 3 domain, in the proximity of the binding site for FcεRI, thus preventing IgE from interacting with its receptor on mast cells, basophils, antigen-presenting cells and other inflammatory cells [ 57 ]. The rapid reduction of free IgE levels leads to a downregulation of the FcεRI expression on inflammatory cells and an interruption of the allergic cascade, which results in the reduction of peripheral and bronchial tissue eosinophilia and of levels of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 [ 58 ]. Moreover, basophils have a relevant role in the initiation and progression of allergic inflammation, suggesting that they may represent a viable therapeutic target. Indeed, in children with severe asthma, it has been reported that omalizumab therapy is associated with a significant reduction in circulating basophil numbers, a finding that is concurrent with improved clinical outcomes [ 59 ]. This finding supports a mechanistic link between IgE levels and circulating basophil populations, and may provide new insights into one mechanism by which omalizumab improves asthma symptoms.
Several clinical controlled and real-life studies of adults with severe, inadequately controlled allergic asthma have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of omalizumab in reducing asthma-related symptoms, corticosteroid use, exacerbation rates, and healthcare resource utilization, and in improving QoL and lung function [ 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 ]. Fewer studies have been published in children. In two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of children aged 6 to 12 years with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, treatment with omalizumab reduced the requirement for ICS and protected against disease exacerbations, but there was little change in asthma symptom scores or spirometry [ 9 , 64 ]. These findings were confirmed and extended in older children [ 65 , 66 , 67 ].
The results of the ICATA study, a multicenter RCT of 419 inner-city children, adolescents and young adults with persistent allergic asthma, showed that, compared to placebo, omalizumab reduces the number of days with asthma symptoms and the proportion of participants with at least one exacerbation by approximately 25% and 19%, respectively ( p < 0.001), thus reducing the need for asthmatic symptom controllers [ 68 ]. Another multicenter RCT of inner-city children and adolescents showed that the addition of omalizumab to ongoing guidelines-based care before patients return to school reduces fall asthma exacerbations (odds ratio, 0.48), particularly in subjects with a recent exacerbation [ 69 ]. Moreover, in a real-life study of 104 children and adolescents with severe allergic refractory asthma followed over 1 year, treatment with omalizumab resulted in good asthma control in 67% of the cases ( p < 0.001), while FEV 1 improved by 4.9% ( p = 0.02) and exacerbation rates and healthcare utilisation decreased approximately by 30% ( p < 0.001) [ 70 ]. The same authors also showed that, after two years of treatment, exacerbation rate and healthcare utilisation were further decreased by 83% and 100%, respectively, while level of asthma control, steroid use and lung function remained unchanged [ 71 ].
A systematic review of pediatric RCTs pooled the data of 1381 children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma in order to establish the efficacy of omalizumab as an add-on therapy [ 72 ]. During the stable-steroid phase, omalizumab decreased the number of patients with at least one exacerbation (risk ratio, 0.69; p < 0.001), the mean number of asthma exacerbations per patient (risk ratio, 0.35; p < 0.001), and the asthma symptom score (mean difference, 0.12; p = 0.005) when compared to placebo. During the steroid reduction phase, omalizumab further reduced the number of patients with at least one exacerbation (risk ratio, 0.48; p < 0.001) and the mean number of asthma exacerbations per patient (mean difference, 0.12; p < 0.05).
Given the cost of omalizumab, many authors have argued for the importance of identifying specific asthma populations who will have significant benefit from it [ 68 , 73 , 74 ]. In the ICATA study, baseline predictors of good response to treatment were sensitization and exposure to cockroach allergen, sensitization to house dust mite allergens, a serum IgE level of more than 100 IU per milliliter, a BMI of 25 or more, and a history of at least one unscheduled medical visit in the previous year [ 68 ].
Several studies have assessed the long-term safety of omalizumab in children and adults. A pooled analysis of 67 RCTs conducted over 2 decades on 4254 children and adults treated with omalizumab showed no association between omalizumab treatment and risk of malignancy [ 75 ]. In an RCT evaluating 225 school-aged children, omalizumab was well tolerated, there were no serious adverse events, and the frequency and types of all adverse events were similar to the placebo group [ 9 ]. These results have been further confirmed by a recent systematic review of RCTs that concluded that treatment with omalizumab does not result in increased risk of malignancy or hypersensitivity reactions [ 72 ].
While the rationale for long-term treatment with omalizumab is supported by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models [ 76 ], the duration of treatment is still under discussion. Results from published studies suggest that omalizumab should be continued for > 1 year [ 77 , 78 ]. In a retrospective study of adults and children with uncontrolled severe asthma treated with omalizumab, the response to treatment was ‘excellent’ in 52.5% of patients, particularly in the subgroup of children aged 6 to 11 years [ 77 ]. After the discontinuation of treatment, loss of asthma control was documented in 69.2% of the patients who had received omalizumab for < 1 year, 59.1% of the subjects treated for 1–2 years, and 46.1% of the cases treated for > 2 years. Time to loss of control was shorter in younger children and longer in patients with an ‘excellent’ response compared with patients with a ‘good’ response. No early loss of control (within 6 months) was observed among patients with > 3.5 years of continuous treatment with omalizumab. Finally, 20% of patients in whom omalizumab was re-prescribed because of loss of control did not respond to the treatment anymore [ 77 ]. Despite these encouraging findings, the impact of omalizumab on the natural history of severe asthma in children deserves to be further investigated by long-term studies that will also define the criteria and timing for discontinuing the treatment.
It is well known that asthma pharmacotherapy is effective in controlling symptoms and bronchial inflammation, but cannot affect the underlying immune response, thus leading to the possibility of symptom reappearance after its discontinuation [ 79 ]. In this scenario, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been proposed as the only therapeutic method that can modulate the underlying immune pathophysiology in allergic asthma [ 80 ].
AIT is currently indicated in children and adults with mild-moderate allergic asthma that is completely or partially controlled by pharmacotherapy and with the evidence of a clear relationship between symptoms and exposure to a specific allergen [ 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 ]. However, according to recent guidelines, the efficacy of AIT in asthmatic subjects is limited, and its potential benefits must be weighed against the risk of side effects and the inconvenience and costs of the prolonged therapy [ 5 ]. Moreover, severe or uncontrolled asthma (regardless of its severity) is a major independent risk factor for non-fatal or even fatal adverse reactions, thus representing a contraindication for AIT [ 85 , 86 , 87 ]. Finally, children with severe asthma are often sensitized to multiple allergens, thus making AIT prescription even more complicated [ 88 ].
In subjects with uncontrolled and/or severe allergic asthma, a combination of omalizumab and AIT has been proposed [ 88 ]. Surprisingly, only a few studies have addressed this issue [ 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 ]. However, pre-treatment with omalizumab seems to improve the efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous AIT in children and adults with severe allergic asthma both during omalizumab treatment and after its discontinuation [ 89 , 91 , 92 ]. Omalizumab has also been successfully used as a supplementary treatment to AIT in order to improve asthma control in children ≥6 years with severe persistent allergic asthma [ 90 ]. Given the scarcity of studies on AIT plus omalizumab in children with severe allergic asthma, further research is warranted to assess risks and benefits of the combined treatment.
Children with severe asthma require a detailed and individualized approach including re-assessment for differential diagnoses, comorbidities and contributory factors, environmental triggers, lung function and inflammation, adherence and response to therapy, and QoL. Treatment of pediatric severe asthma still relies on the maximal optimal use of corticosteroids, bronchodilators and other controllers recommended for moderate-to-severe disease. However, the management of asthma is becoming much more patient-specific, as more and more is learned about the biology behind the development and progression of asthma.
In the current paper, we described the characteristics of four children with severe asthma in whom omalizumab was prescribed. A review of the relevant literature on the topic was also performed. Finally, we provided an algorithm for the diagnosis of difficult-to-treat and severe asthma in children and adolescents, based on the evidence from the literature review. As all algorithms, it is not meant to replace clinical judgment, but it should drive physicians to adopt a systematic approach towards difficult and severe asthma and provide a useful guide to the clinician.
The addition of omalizumab, the first targeted biological treatment approved for asthma, has led to renewed optimism of outcome improvements in patients with allergic severe asthma. As severe asthma is a heterogeneous condition consisting of different phenotypes, the future of asthma management will likely involve phenotypic and potentially even genotypic characterization in selected cases in order to determine appropriate therapy and thus to provide the highest possible benefit, especially if specific responder phenotypes can be identified and selected for this highly specific treatment.
Body mass index
Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75%
Forced expiratory volume in the first second
Intensive care unit
Long-acting β 2 -agonist
Oral leukotriene receptor antagonist
Quality of life
Randomized controlled trials
Short-acting β 2 -agonists
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The authors gratefully thank Dr. Marco Maglione for his contribution in the clinical assessment of the described cases. Medical writing assistance was provided by Stephen Walters on behalf of City Hills Proofreading.
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Mirra, V., Montella, S. & Santamaria, F. Pediatric severe asthma: a case series report and perspectives on anti-IgE treatment. BMC Pediatr 18 , 73 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1019-9
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Case 1 diagnosis: allergy bullying, clinical pearls.
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Case 1: A 12-year-old girl with food allergies and an acute asthma exacerbation
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Lopamudra Das, Michelle GK Ward, Case 1: A 12-year-old girl with food allergies and an acute asthma exacerbation, Paediatrics & Child Health , Volume 19, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 69–70, https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/19.2.69
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A 12-year-old girl with a history of asthma presented to the emergency department with a three-day history of increased work of breathing, cough and wheezing. She reported no clear trigger for her respiratory symptoms, although she had noted some symptoms of a mild upper respiratory tract infection. With this episode, the patient had been using a short-acting bronchodilator more frequently than she had in the past, without the expected resolution of symptoms.
On the day of presentation, the patient awoke feeling ‘suffocated’ and her mother noted her lips to be blue. In the emergency department, her oxygen saturation was 85% and her respiratory rate was 40 breaths/min. She had significantly increased work of breathing and poor air entry bilaterally to both lung bases, with wheezing in the upper lung zones. She was treated with salbutamol/ipratropium and received intravenous steroids and magnesium sulfate. Her chest x-ray showed hyperinflation and no focal findings.
Her medical history revealed that she was followed by a respirologist for her asthma, had good medication adherence and had not experienced a significant exacerbation for six months. She also had a history of wheezing, dyspnea and pruritis with exposure to peanuts, chickpeas and lentils; she had been prescribed an injectible epinephrine device for this. However, her device had expired at the time of presentation. In the past, her wheezing episodes had been seasonal and related to exposure to grass and pollens; this presentation occurred during the winter. Further history revealed the probable cause of her presentation.
Although reluctant to disclose the information, our patient later revealed that she had been experiencing significant bullying at school, which was primarily related to her food allergies. Three days before her admission, classmates had smeared peanut butter on one of her schoolbooks. She developed pruritis immediately after opening the book and she started wheezing and coughing later that day. This event followed several months of being taunted with peanut products at school. The patient was experiencing low mood and reported new symptoms of anxiety related to school. The review of systems was otherwise negative, with no substance use.
The patient's asthma exacerbation resolved with conventional asthma treatment. Her pulmonary function tests were nonconcerning (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 94% and 99% of predicted) after her recovery. The trigger for her asthma exacerbation was likely multifactorial, related to exposure to the food allergen as well as the upper respiratory infection. A psychologist was consulted to assess the symptoms of anxiety and depression that had occurred as a result of the bullying. During the hospitalization, the medical team contacted the patient's school to provide education on allergy bullying, treatment of severe allergic reactions and its potential for life-threatening reactions with exposure to allergens. The medical team also recommended community resources for further education of students and staff about allergy bullying and its prevention.
Allergy bullying is a form of bullying with potentially severe medical outcomes. In recent years, it has gained increasing notoriety in schools and in the media. Population-based studies have shown that 20% to 35% of children with allergies experience bullying. In many cases (31% in one recent study [ 1 ]), this bullying is related directly to the food allergy. From a medical perspective, there are little published data regarding allergy bullying, and many health care providers may not be aware of the issue.
Allergy bullying can include teasing a child about their allergy, throwing food at a child, or even forcing them to touch or eat allergenic foods. Most episodes of allergy bullying occur at school, and can include episodes perpetrated by teachers and/or staff ( 2 ).
Allergy bullying can lead to allergic reactions, which may be mild or severe (eg, urticaria, wheezing, anaphylaxis), but may also lead to negative emotional consequences (sadness, depression) ( 2 ) and an overall decrease in quality of life measures ( 1 ). Adolescents commonly resist using medical devices, such as injectible epinephrine devices, and bullying may be a contributing factor for this ( 3 ). Attempting to conceal symptoms in a bullying situation may place children at risk for a worse outcome.
Physicians can play a key role in detecting allergy bullying and its health consequences. In many cases, children have not discussed this issue with their parents ( 1 ). Given the prevalence of bullying, its potential to lead to severe harm, including death, and the lack of awareness of this issue, clinicians should specifically ask about bullying in all children and teens with allergies. Physicians can also work with families and schools to support these children, educate their peers and school staff, and help prevent negative health outcomes from allergy bullying.
www.anaphylaxis.ca − A national charity that aims to inform, support, educate and advocate for the needs of individuals and families living with anaphylaxis, and to support and participate in research. This website includes education modules for schools and links to local support groups throughout Canada.
www.whyriskit.ca/pages/en/live/bullying.php − A website for teenagers with food allergies; includes a segment that addresses food bullying.
www.foodallergy.org − Contains numerous resources for children and their families, including a significant discussion on bullying and ways to prevent it.
Allergy bullying is common but is often unrecognized as a factor in clinical presentations of allergic reactions.
Physicians should make a point of asking about bullying in patients with allergies and become familiar with resources for dealing with allergy bullying.
Physicians can play roles as advocates, educators and collaborators with the school system to help make the school environment safer for children with allergies who may be at risk for allergy bullying.
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Pediatric Case Study for Paramedics Answers: 7-Year-Old Female with Difficulty Breathing
Case Study Answers and Summary
1. What initial management is indicated for this child?
• 100% supplemental oxygen (via pediatric nonrebreathing mask)
- Though clearly experiencing respiratory distress, this patient’s respiratory effort is producing adequate air movement. Therefore, positive-pressure ventilation support is not needed at this time.
You must carefully monitor the child with respiratory distress and be prepared to provide positive-pressure ventilations if signs of respiratory failure develop. Signs of respiratory failure include, among others, reduced tidal volume and poor air movement, decreased level of consciousness, a low (> 90%) or rapidly falling oxygen saturation, and signs of physical exhaustion.
Failure of the respiratory system is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in the pediatric population. However, with frequent respiratory system assessments and prompt management, this potential catastrophe can often be prevented.
2. What is your field impression of this child?
You should suspect that this child is experiencing an acute asthma attack. In addition to the complaint of difficulty breathing, the following pertinent findings support this field impression:
• Expiratory wheezing, which is a hallmark sign of a mild to moderate asthma attack. Expiratory wheezing indicates impaired airflow during expiration and is indicative of bronchospasm.
- By no means is wheezing exclusive to asthma. Other conditions, such as pneumonia and toxic inhalations, cause wheezing as well. However, the clinical scenario involving this patient does not indicate a toxic exposure and the fact that she is afebrile (97.8°F) is not consistent with pneumonia or other infectious causes of respiratory distress.
• Cold air exposure, which is a common precipitant to an asthma attack. Like any other smooth muscle, the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchiole constricts when exposed to cold air.
• Prescribed medications, which indicate the presence of an episodic disease that requires periodic treatment. Other respiratory illnesses, such as croup, bronchitis, and pneumonia, are typically treated with a trial of medications, and usually resolve without the need for ongoing treatment.
• The nature of onset, which, in this patient, was coughing. As the bronchioles become irritated, the patient often begins to cough, sometimes violently. Then, as bronchospasm progresses, respiratory distress develops.
Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease, affecting approximately 5 million American children over 1 year of age. Nearly half of all pediatric asthma deaths occur in the prehospital setting.
Asthma is a chronic but reversible condition, characterized by bronchospasm, mucous plugging, and edema in the lower airways. Asthma is commonly referred to as reactive airway disease (RAD) — a nonspecific condition in which intrinsic or extrinsic factors cause bronchospasm — at least initially, until a physician determines that the patient has met all of the diagnostic criteria for asthma.
An acute asthma attack is commonly precipitated by factors such as an allergen exposure, stress, exercise, recent upper respiratory infections, and exposure to cold air or passive cigarette smoke. In response to the precipitating event, a series of reactions occur in the lower airway. First, the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchiole begins to spasm, resulting in bronchoconstriction. Secondly, mucous glands and cells that line the lower airway secrete excessive mucous, which accumulates in the bronchioles, creating a plug. Finally, fluid shifts into the walls of the lower airway, resulting in edema that further decreases the diameter of the bronchiole. The net result is a narrowing of the small airways with increased resistance to airflow.
These three factors — bronchospasm, mucous plugging, and airway edema — result in a ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In other words, the pathophysiologic changes associated with asthma cause some alveoli to become hyperinflated due to air trapping, while other alveoli collapse (atelectasis). Hypoxemia develops because the collapsed alveoli are still being perfused, but are unable to participate in gas exchange. Therefore, the blood flowing through the capillaries adjacent to the collapsed alveoli returns to the left side of the heart, still unoxygenated. This condition is referred to as intrapulmonary shunting.
In between attacks, the child with asthma is typically asymptomatic. However, during an acute attack, varying degrees of difficulty breathing, tachypnea, tachycardia, and wheezing are present.
As a baseline, an acute asthma attack presents with some degree of respiratory distress. The presence of wheezing often characterizes the severity of the attack, and thus, the degree of bronchoconstriction. In a mild to moderate asthma attack, wheezing is typically audible at the end of expiration, indicating increased resistance to expiratory airflow. Oxygen saturation levels may be normal or slightly low. During a more severe asthma attack, wheezing may be audible during inspiration and expiration. Oxygen saturation levels typically reflect mild hypoxemia, with readings that usually range from 91% to 94%.
Status asthmaticus, the most severe exacerbation of asthma, is a life-threatening condition that often requires multiple modalities of frequent or continuous treatment to improve. The child with status asthmaticus presents with air hunger (struggling to breathe). However, because of the profound bronchoconstriction and minimal airflow through the bronchioles, wheezing is either faint or completely absent. Oxygen saturation levels often reflect severe hypoxia, with readings well below 90%. As hypoxemia worsens, hypercarbia (increased arterial CO2 levels) develops and the child may become unresponsive.
3. Are the child’s vital signs and SAMPLE history consistent with your field impression?
According to the following formula, this child’s blood pressure of 96/56 mm Hg is consistent with her age:
• Age [in years] 3 2 1 70 5 systolic blood pressure
Her heart rate and respiratory rate, however, indicate respiratory distress. Additionally, her oxygen saturation of 93% indicates mild hypoxemia.
Although she cannot remember the name of her medication, the fact that she has prescribed medications is an indicator of an episodic disease that requires periodic treatment, such as asthma. Additionally, she has confirmed that her doctor told her that she has a “breathing problem.”
As previously discussed, her episode of coughing prior to developing respiratory distress is a fairly common finding in patients with asthma.
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