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Research articles

scientific literature research topics

Sandwich-type double-layer piezoelectric nanogenerators based on one- and two-dimensional ZnO nanostructures with improved output performance

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Assessment of health risks associated with heavy metal concentration in seafood from North-Western Croatia

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Fresh and frozen cardiac tissue are comparable in DNA methylation array β -values, but formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may overestimate DNA methylation levels

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Quality of life and mental health outcomes: the role of sociodemographic factors in the Palestinian context

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Network analysis to estimate central insomnia symptoms among daytime workers at-risk for insomnia

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First report of molecular identification of Phytophthora infestans causing potato late blight in Yemen

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Data correction and verification of thermal simulation experiments under the influence of bulging belly

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Severe level of photochemical oxidants (O x ) over the western coast of Japan during autumn after typhoon passing

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Renoprotective potential of concomittant medications with SGLT2 inhibitors and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in diabetic nephropathy without albuminuria: a retrospective cohort study

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Müller matrix polarimetry for pancreatic tissue characterization

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Choroidal morphology and microvascular structure in eyes of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus before and after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery

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Establishment and effectiveness evaluation of pre-test probability model of coronary heart disease combined with cardiopulmonary exercise test indexes

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Experimental study on the axial tensile properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete

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Abnormal basement membrane results in increased keratinocyte-derived periostin expression in psoriasis similar to wound healing

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Texture-based brain networks for characterization of healthy subjects from MRI

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Correlation of elemental hyperaccumulation among the succulent and non-succulent halophytes of Gujarat, India

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Reduced length of nodes of Ranvier and altered proteoglycan immunoreactivity in prefrontal white matter in major depressive disorder and chronically stressed rats

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Identification of herpesvirus transcripts from genomic regions around the replication origins

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Skin microbiota secretomes modulate cutaneous innate immunity against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s

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scientific literature research topics

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Literature Topics and Research

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This handout provides examples and description about writing papers in literature. It discusses research topics, how to begin to research, how to use information, and formatting.

What kinds of topics are good ones?

The best topics are ones that originate out of your own reading of a work of literature, but here are some common approaches to consider:

  • A discussion of a work's characters: are they realistic, symbolic, historically-based?
  • A comparison/contrast of the choices different authors or characters make in a work
  • A reading of a work based on an outside philosophical perspective (Ex. how would a Freudian read Hamlet ?)
  • A study of the sources or historical events that occasioned a particular work (Ex. comparing G.B. Shaw's Pygmalion with the original Greek myth of Pygmalion)
  • An analysis of a specific image occurring in several works (Ex. the use of moon imagery in certain plays, poems, novels)
  • A "deconstruction" of a particular work (Ex. unfolding an underlying racist worldview in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness )
  • A reading from a political perspective (Ex. how would a Marxist read William Blake's "London"?)
  • A study of the social, political, or economic context in which a work was written — how does the context influence the work?

How do I start research?

Once you have decided on an interesting topic and work (or works), the best place to start is probably the Internet. Here you can usually find basic biographical data on authors, brief summaries of works, possibly some rudimentary analyses, and even bibliographies of sources related to your topic.

The Internet, however, rarely offers serious direct scholarship; you will have to use sources found in the library, sources like journal articles and scholarly books, to get information that you can use to build your own scholarship-your literary paper. Consult the library's on-line catalog and the MLA Periodical Index. Avoid citing dictionary or encyclopedic sources in your final paper.

How do I use the information I find?

The secondary sources you find are only to be used as an aid. Your thoughts should make up most of the essay. As you develop your thesis, you will bring in the ideas of the scholars to back up what you have already said.

For example, say you are arguing that Huck Finn is a Christ figure ; that's your basic thesis. You give evidence from the novel that allows this reading, and then, at the right place, you might say the following, a paraphrase:

According to Susan Thomas, Huck sacrifices himself because he wants to set Jim free (129).

If the scholar states an important idea in a memorable way, use a direct quote.

"Huck's altruism and feelings of compassion for Jim force him to surrender to the danger" (Thomas 129).

Either way, you will then link that idea to your thesis.

Learn more about how the Cal Poly Humboldt Library can help support your research and learning needs.

Stay updated at Campus Ready .

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Searching the Scientific Literature

Literature of science.

  • Initial Planning
  • Subject Searching
  • Citation Searching
  • Scientific Subject Headings
  • AND, OR, NOT (Boolean Operators)


Scientific literature is the principal medium for communicating the results of scientific research and, as such, represents the permanent record of the collective achievements of the scientific community over time. This scientific knowledge base is composed of the individual "end products" of scientific research and discovery and continues to grow as new research builds on earlier research. This new research may add to, substantiate, modify, refine or refute existing knowledge on a specific topic. As a cycle new research and discovery in the laboratory or field is dependent on the existing scientific knowledge base which, in turn, becomes valuable when the new research is incorporated into the scientific knowledge base.

Scientific literature composing the scientific knowledge base is often divided into two basic categories:

  • Primary literature -- publications that report the results of  original  scientific research. These include journal papers, conference papers, monographic series, technical reports, theses, and dissertations.
  • Secondary literature -- publications that synthesize and condense what is known on specific topics. These include reviews, monographs, textbooks, treatises, handbooks, and manuals. These take time to produce and usually cite key "primary" publications on the topic.

Scientific Research/Publication Cycle

The following chart illustrates common steps involved in the scientific research process (inner circle), the dissemination of research results through the primary and secondary literature (outer circle), and the personal assimilation of this information resulting in new ideas and research (inner circle):

Scientific Journals, Magazines and Series

Scientific serials can be grouped into the following three categories.  Journals - Scholarly or Popular?  summarizes the differences between different types of journals and popular magazines.

Journal papers are the basic "molecular" unit of scientific knowledge base and are the most important "primary" source in the sciences. More than  80%  of the scientific research literature is published in this format. Annually 1.5 million articles are published in over 25,000 peer reviewed journals. Cumulatively there have been more than 50 million peer reviewed papers published since the first scientific journal was published in  1665 .

  • Magazines and Newsletters  -- Articles appearing in these publications tend to be popular in format and scope. They may contain news and perspectives of professional societies and environmental organizations, report on research published in scholarly journals, report on environmental problems and new political initiatives, or contain articles aimed at the layperson.
  • They are published by government agencies, universities or professional organizations. See  Natural Resources Agency Government Documents and Reports  for additional information.
  • The  series has a distinctive name. Typical names include  Bulletin ,  Special Report ,  Special Paper , Technical Report , and  Technical Paper .
  • Individual issues are consecutively numbered, e.g. Technical Paper No. 36.
  • Each issue has a distinctive author and title.
  • There is no regular publication schedule.

A typical example is:

Wheeler, W.E., R.C. Gatti, & G.A. Bartlett.(a) 1984.  Duck Breeding, Ecology and Harvest Characteristics on Grand River Marsh Wildlife Area .(b) Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources(c) Technical Bulletin(d) No. 145(e). where a=individual author; b=individual title; c=series author; d=series title; e=series number

To Find Individual Papers:  Use databases listed in  Articles and Databases  to find individual papers published in scientific journals, magazines and series. Databases typically can be searched by subject, taxonomic category, habitat, time period, chemical substance, geographic area or author. In addition the websites of many journal and magazine publishers contain searchable databases of articles published in their publications.

To Find Print and Fulltext Availability:  See the  Journal and Newspaper Finder  for specific holdings and available formats of journal, magazine and series titles available through the HSU Library. Enter the title of the publication, not the article title. In addition some series are cataloged by individual author and title in the  HSU Library Catalog . In addition directories listed in  Fulltext Journal Directories  include some fulltext journals that are not in our  Journal and Newspaper Finder .

To Find Abbrevations of Scientific Publications:  Many scientific journal and series titles are abbreviated in the literature.  Journal Title Abbreviations  lists both general abbreviation sources and more specific discipline sources in the sciences.

To Find Important Journals by Subject:  See ,  Journals Ranked by Impact  (Sci-Bytes), SCImago Journal & Country Rank  and - Ranking and Mapping Scientific Knowledge .

Conference Papers

Papers presented at national and international conferences, symposia, and workshops are another source of "primary" scientific information . For many conferences the presented papers are eventually published in a "proceedings" or "transactions" volume. Papers with no published proceedings may be refined and reworked for formal publication in a journal. Proceedings available in the HSU Library are listed in the  HSU Library Catalog under both author (generally the name of the conference, individual editor or sponsoring organization) and title.

Many discipline databases included in  Articles and Databases  index individual conference papers by subject, taxonomic, geographic, and author. The  Conference Papers Index  and  PapersFirst  databases only index conference papers.

Theses and Dissertations

The outcome of graduate study conducted at universities is commonly a master's thesis or doctoral dissertation. In addition to the formal thesis or dissertation, research results are often communicated in other "primary" literature formats, such as the journal paper.

See  Theses and Dissertations  for how to find and acquire 1) HSU masters theses; and 2) theses and dissertations produced at other universities that are available in other libraries and on the Internet.

Scientific Monographs

Scientific monographs are book length works written by specialists for the benefit of other specialists. As defined by the  National Research Council  they attempt to "...collect, collate, analyze, integrate, and synthesize all relevant contributions to the archival literature of the scientific and engineering journals and to add original material as required". They are different from textbooks which are pedagogical works and scientific popularizations for the general public.

Monographs are listed in the  HSU Library Catalog  and in  other library catalogs .

Government Documents and Technical Reports

Scientists at federal and state government agencies conduct research that is sometimes published officially  by the government as a  government document . Other research is published in the "open" scientific literature as journal articles and other publications.

The HSU Library is an official " depository library " for federal and state govenment documents and annually receives approximately 6,000 government documents in either paper or microfiche format. In addition 80% of all recently published federal publications are available on the Internet.

Research projects conducted  for  government agencies are frequently published as  technical reports . They are usually produced in response to a specific information need with research either 1) conducted "in-house" by state or federal research labs, or 2) contracted out to universities, consulting firms, research institutes, or private industry.

Progress and final reports typically are used directly by the sponsoring agency with limited distribution beyond the organization. As a result technical report literature is sometimes called "gray literature" because of its difficulty to identify and acquire.

The format of technical reports is more flexible in organization and tends to contain more of the scientific data collected. Research first reported in a technical report may be reworked and published in other "primary" literature formats.

The  Natural Resources Agency Government Documents and Technical Reports  research guide contains further information on govenment documents and technical reports issued by federal and California State agencies, including their organization in the HSU Library and indexes to their content. The focus is on agencies responsible for managing and conducting research in natural resources.

Scientific Data

Scientific data are numerical quantities or other factual attributes derived from observation, experimentation or calculation. They are the raw material and the building block for scientific research. Through data analysis and interpretation new scientific information is generated.

The archiving of data collected and used in scientific research is important for future replication, repurposing based on new ideas or exploration of new analysis methodologies. Many funding agenices and scientific journals require authors of scientific papers to archive and share data utilized in their studies.

Data repositories archive and make data available to the scientific community. They may contain 1) data that has been collected as part of massive mission-oriented projects, e.g., atmospheric, hydrological, or oceanographic, or genomic; or 2) original data or data extracted from larger datasets that are associated with specifc published research studies.

Following are major directories of data repositories:

  •  (United States Government) Browse or search for datasets available from US government executive agencies.
  • Data Files  (Association of College and Research Libraries. Science and Technology Section) Lists federal, state and foreign goverment data repository directories.
  • DataCite  (British Library, BioMed Central and Digital Curation Centre) Arranged alphabetically.
  • Global Change Master Directory  (Goddard Space Flight Center) Browse by broad subject area or search by keyword.
  • Open Access Directory: Data Repositories  (Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Simmons College) Arranged by broad subject.
  • Next: Initial Planning >>

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  • How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates

How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates

Published on January 2, 2023 by Shona McCombes . Revised on September 11, 2023.

What is a literature review? A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research that you can later apply to your paper, thesis, or dissertation topic .

There are five key steps to writing a literature review:

  • Search for relevant literature
  • Evaluate sources
  • Identify themes, debates, and gaps
  • Outline the structure
  • Write your literature review

A good literature review doesn’t just summarize sources—it analyzes, synthesizes , and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.

Table of contents

What is the purpose of a literature review, examples of literature reviews, step 1 – search for relevant literature, step 2 – evaluate and select sources, step 3 – identify themes, debates, and gaps, step 4 – outline your literature review’s structure, step 5 – write your literature review, free lecture slides, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions, introduction.

  • Quick Run-through
  • Step 1 & 2

When you write a thesis , dissertation , or research paper , you will likely have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. The literature review gives you a chance to:

  • Demonstrate your familiarity with the topic and its scholarly context
  • Develop a theoretical framework and methodology for your research
  • Position your work in relation to other researchers and theorists
  • Show how your research addresses a gap or contributes to a debate
  • Evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of the scholarly debates around your topic.

Writing literature reviews is a particularly important skill if you want to apply for graduate school or pursue a career in research. We’ve written a step-by-step guide that you can follow below.

Literature review guide

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Writing literature reviews can be quite challenging! A good starting point could be to look at some examples, depending on what kind of literature review you’d like to write.

  • Example literature review #1: “Why Do People Migrate? A Review of the Theoretical Literature” ( Theoretical literature review about the development of economic migration theory from the 1950s to today.)
  • Example literature review #2: “Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines” ( Methodological literature review about interdisciplinary knowledge acquisition and production.)
  • Example literature review #3: “The Use of Technology in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Thematic literature review about the effects of technology on language acquisition.)
  • Example literature review #4: “Learners’ Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Chronological literature review about how the concept of listening skills has changed over time.)

You can also check out our templates with literature review examples and sample outlines at the links below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic .

If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions .

Make a list of keywords

Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question. Include each of the key concepts or variables you’re interested in, and list any synonyms and related terms. You can add to this list as you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search.

  • Social media, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, TikTok
  • Body image, self-perception, self-esteem, mental health
  • Generation Z, teenagers, adolescents, youth

Search for relevant sources

Use your keywords to begin searching for sources. Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:

  • Your university’s library catalogue
  • Google Scholar
  • Project Muse (humanities and social sciences)
  • Medline (life sciences and biomedicine)
  • EconLit (economics)
  • Inspec (physics, engineering and computer science)

You can also use boolean operators to help narrow down your search.

Make sure to read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question. When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources.

You likely won’t be able to read absolutely everything that has been written on your topic, so it will be necessary to evaluate which sources are most relevant to your research question.

For each publication, ask yourself:

  • What question or problem is the author addressing?
  • What are the key concepts and how are they defined?
  • What are the key theories, models, and methods?
  • Does the research use established frameworks or take an innovative approach?
  • What are the results and conclusions of the study?
  • How does the publication relate to other literature in the field? Does it confirm, add to, or challenge established knowledge?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?

Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.

You can use our template to summarize and evaluate sources you’re thinking about using. Click on either button below to download.

Take notes and cite your sources

As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review.

It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism . It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.

A faster, more affordable way to improve your paper

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To begin organizing your literature review’s argument and structure, be sure you understand the connections and relationships between the sources you’ve read. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:

  • Trends and patterns (in theory, method or results): do certain approaches become more or less popular over time?
  • Themes: what questions or concepts recur across the literature?
  • Debates, conflicts and contradictions: where do sources disagree?
  • Pivotal publications: are there any influential theories or studies that changed the direction of the field?
  • Gaps: what is missing from the literature? Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed?

This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and (if applicable) show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.

  • Most research has focused on young women.
  • There is an increasing interest in the visual aspects of social media.
  • But there is still a lack of robust research on highly visual platforms like Instagram and Snapchat—this is a gap that you could address in your own research.

There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies (for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically).


The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.

Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.

If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.

For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.


If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:

  • Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research
  • Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship
  • Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources


A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework . You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts.

You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.

Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion . What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.

The introduction should clearly establish the focus and purpose of the literature review.

Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.

As you write, you can follow these tips:

  • Summarize and synthesize: give an overview of the main points of each source and combine them into a coherent whole
  • Analyze and interpret: don’t just paraphrase other researchers — add your own interpretations where possible, discussing the significance of findings in relation to the literature as a whole
  • Critically evaluate: mention the strengths and weaknesses of your sources
  • Write in well-structured paragraphs: use transition words and topic sentences to draw connections, comparisons and contrasts

In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.

When you’ve finished writing and revising your literature review, don’t forget to proofread thoroughly before submitting. Not a language expert? Check out Scribbr’s professional proofreading services !

This article has been adapted into lecture slides that you can use to teach your students about writing a literature review.

Scribbr slides are free to use, customize, and distribute for educational purposes.

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If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question .

It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation , or research paper , in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge.

There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:

  • To familiarize yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic
  • To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done
  • To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address
  • To develop your theoretical framework and methodology
  • To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic

Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.

The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your thesis or dissertation . After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology .

A literature review is a survey of credible sources on a topic, often used in dissertations , theses, and research papers . Literature reviews give an overview of knowledge on a subject, helping you identify relevant theories and methods, as well as gaps in existing research. Literature reviews are set up similarly to other  academic texts , with an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion .

An  annotated bibliography is a list of  source references that has a short description (called an annotation ) for each of the sources. It is often assigned as part of the research process for a  paper .  

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McCombes, S. (2023, September 11). How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved September 25, 2023, from

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Selecting a research topic: overview.

  • Refine your topic
  • Background information & facts
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Here are some resources to refer to when selecting a topic and preparing to write a paper:

  • MIT Writing and Communication Center "Providing free professional advice about all types of writing and speaking to all members of the MIT community."
  • Search Our Collections Find books about writing. Search by subject for: english language grammar; report writing handbooks; technical writing handbooks
  • Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation Online version of the book that provides examples and tips on grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and other writing rules.
  • Select a topic

Choosing an interesting research topic is your first challenge. Here are some tips:

  • Choose a topic that you are interested in! The research process is more relevant if you care about your topic.
  • If your topic is too broad, you will find too much information and not be able to focus.
  • Background reading can help you choose and limit the scope of your topic. 
  • Review the guidelines on topic selection outlined in your assignment.  Ask your professor or TA for suggestions.
  • Refer to lecture notes and required texts to refresh your knowledge of the course and assignment.
  • Talk about research ideas with a friend.  S/he may be able to help focus your topic by discussing issues that didn't occur to you at first.
  • WHY did you choose the topic?  What interests you about it?  Do you have an opinion about the issues involved?
  • WHO are the information providers on this topic?  Who might publish information about it?  Who is affected by the topic?  Do you know of organizations or institutions affiliated with the topic?
  • WHAT are the major questions for this topic?  Is there a debate about the topic?  Are there a range of issues and viewpoints to consider?
  • WHERE is your topic important: at the local, national or international level?  Are there specific places affected by the topic?
  • WHEN is/was your topic important?  Is it a current event or an historical issue?  Do you want to compare your topic by time periods?

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  • Last Updated: Jul 30, 2021 2:50 PM
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The COVID-19 research landscape: Measuring topics and collaborations using scientific literature


  • 1 Institute of Medical Information, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
  • 2 Digital China Health Technologies Co. Ltd., Beijing, China.
  • PMID: 33120818
  • PMCID: PMC7581087
  • DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022849

Objectives: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused heavy burdens and brought tremendous challenges to global public health. This study aimed to investigate collaboration relationships, research topics, and research trends on COVID-19 using scientific literature.

Method: COVID-19-related articles published from January 1 to July 1, 2020 were retrieved from PubMed database. A total of 27,370 articles were included. Excel 2010, Medical Text Indexer (MTI), VOSviewer, and D3.js were used to summarize bibliometric features.

Results: The number of the COVID-19 research publications has been continuously increasing after its break. United States was the most productive and active country for COVID-19 research, with the largest number of publications and collaboration relationships. Huazhong University of Science and Technology from China was the most productive institute on the number of publications, and University of Toronto from Canada ranked as Top 1 institute for global research collaboration. Four key research topics were identified, of which the topic of epidemiology and public health interventions has gathered highest attentions. Topic of virus infection and immunity has been more focused during the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak compared with later stage. The topic popularity of clinical symptoms and diagnosis has been steady.

Conclusions: Our topic analysis results revealed that the study of drug treatment was insufficient. To achieve critical breakthroughs of this research area, more interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, and global research collaborations are needed.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Betacoronavirus*
  • Bibliometrics*
  • Biomedical Research / trends*
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Searching the scientific literature can be challenging – thinking of the best keywords and concepts, finding the best resources, and accumulating a strong set of articles is a process that takes time and practice.

So what is "scientific literature" anyway? 

Literature  is a term used frequently in academic and library circles that just means "the stuff that's been published on a topic." 

There are three basic “levels” of literature, each reflecting a different stage of the ongoing creation, discussion, and reevaluation of research that is the essence of scholarly publishing.

Primary Literature :  accounts of original research, written by the researchers who performed it. Sometimes also called empirical research , since it is concerned with measuring, evaluating, and testing hypotheses. Primary literature must provide enough information to allow another researcher (with the right skills) to reproduce the experiment. Examples : journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, and patents.

Secondary Literature : This type of literature refers to the primary sources, in some cases synthesizing information from primary sources to draw new conclusions, or repackaging it in a new form. Generally, secondary literature provides some new information or criticism on the topics discussed. Examples : monographs (a fancy word for books), encyclopedias, some textbooks, and annual reviews.

Tertiary Literature : Tertiary literature is primarily used as a finding aid for primary and secondary literature, and does not usually provide any new information. Examples : directories, indexes, and bibliographies

In terms of locating the latest information on a research area, the most important type is primary literature . Secondary and tertiary literature are there to assist you in locating and understanding the primary literature, but it is the first-hand accounts of actual research that let you know what has been done, and what researchers have discovered.

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scientific literature

The body of scientific publications that contain firsthand reports of research, often reviewed by experts. The scientific literature provides the cumulative, permanent record of scientific research that can be consulted to learn about research in a field. Because science is ongoing and builds on itself, scientists often consult the scientific literature in order to figure out what is already known about a particular topic and to keep up with new ideas and findings in their fields.

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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, 113 great research paper topics.

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One of the hardest parts of writing a research paper can be just finding a good topic to write about. Fortunately we've done the hard work for you and have compiled a list of 113 interesting research paper topics. They've been organized into ten categories and cover a wide range of subjects so you can easily find the best topic for you.

In addition to the list of good research topics, we've included advice on what makes a good research paper topic and how you can use your topic to start writing a great paper.

What Makes a Good Research Paper Topic?

Not all research paper topics are created equal, and you want to make sure you choose a great topic before you start writing. Below are the three most important factors to consider to make sure you choose the best research paper topics.

#1: It's Something You're Interested In

A paper is always easier to write if you're interested in the topic, and you'll be more motivated to do in-depth research and write a paper that really covers the entire subject. Even if a certain research paper topic is getting a lot of buzz right now or other people seem interested in writing about it, don't feel tempted to make it your topic unless you genuinely have some sort of interest in it as well.

#2: There's Enough Information to Write a Paper

Even if you come up with the absolute best research paper topic and you're so excited to write about it, you won't be able to produce a good paper if there isn't enough research about the topic. This can happen for very specific or specialized topics, as well as topics that are too new to have enough research done on them at the moment. Easy research paper topics will always be topics with enough information to write a full-length paper.

Trying to write a research paper on a topic that doesn't have much research on it is incredibly hard, so before you decide on a topic, do a bit of preliminary searching and make sure you'll have all the information you need to write your paper.

#3: It Fits Your Teacher's Guidelines

Don't get so carried away looking at lists of research paper topics that you forget any requirements or restrictions your teacher may have put on research topic ideas. If you're writing a research paper on a health-related topic, deciding to write about the impact of rap on the music scene probably won't be allowed, but there may be some sort of leeway. For example, if you're really interested in current events but your teacher wants you to write a research paper on a history topic, you may be able to choose a topic that fits both categories, like exploring the relationship between the US and North Korea. No matter what, always get your research paper topic approved by your teacher first before you begin writing.

113 Good Research Paper Topics

Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.


  • Discuss the main differences in art from the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance .
  • Analyze the impact a famous artist had on the world.
  • How is sexism portrayed in different types of media (music, film, video games, etc.)? Has the amount/type of sexism changed over the years?
  • How has the music of slaves brought over from Africa shaped modern American music?
  • How has rap music evolved in the past decade?
  • How has the portrayal of minorities in the media changed?


Current Events

  • What have been the impacts of China's one child policy?
  • How have the goals of feminists changed over the decades?
  • How has the Trump presidency changed international relations?
  • Analyze the history of the relationship between the United States and North Korea.
  • What factors contributed to the current decline in the rate of unemployment?
  • What have been the impacts of states which have increased their minimum wage?
  • How do US immigration laws compare to immigration laws of other countries?
  • How have the US's immigration laws changed in the past few years/decades?
  • How has the Black Lives Matter movement affected discussions and view about racism in the US?
  • What impact has the Affordable Care Act had on healthcare in the US?
  • What factors contributed to the UK deciding to leave the EU (Brexit)?
  • What factors contributed to China becoming an economic power?
  • Discuss the history of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies  (some of which tokenize the S&P 500 Index on the blockchain) .
  • Do students in schools that eliminate grades do better in college and their careers?
  • Do students from wealthier backgrounds score higher on standardized tests?
  • Do students who receive free meals at school get higher grades compared to when they weren't receiving a free meal?
  • Do students who attend charter schools score higher on standardized tests than students in public schools?
  • Do students learn better in same-sex classrooms?
  • How does giving each student access to an iPad or laptop affect their studies?
  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Montessori Method ?
  • Do children who attend preschool do better in school later on?
  • What was the impact of the No Child Left Behind act?
  • How does the US education system compare to education systems in other countries?
  • What impact does mandatory physical education classes have on students' health?
  • Which methods are most effective at reducing bullying in schools?
  • Do homeschoolers who attend college do as well as students who attended traditional schools?
  • Does offering tenure increase or decrease quality of teaching?
  • How does college debt affect future life choices of students?
  • Should graduate students be able to form unions?


  • What are different ways to lower gun-related deaths in the US?
  • How and why have divorce rates changed over time?
  • Is affirmative action still necessary in education and/or the workplace?
  • Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
  • How has stem cell research impacted the medical field?
  • How can human trafficking be reduced in the United States/world?
  • Should people be able to donate organs in exchange for money?
  • Which types of juvenile punishment have proven most effective at preventing future crimes?
  • Has the increase in US airport security made passengers safer?
  • Analyze the immigration policies of certain countries and how they are similar and different from one another.
  • Several states have legalized recreational marijuana. What positive and negative impacts have they experienced as a result?
  • Do tariffs increase the number of domestic jobs?
  • Which prison reforms have proven most effective?
  • Should governments be able to censor certain information on the internet?
  • Which methods/programs have been most effective at reducing teen pregnancy?
  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Keto diet?
  • How effective are different exercise regimes for losing weight and maintaining weight loss?
  • How do the healthcare plans of various countries differ from each other?
  • What are the most effective ways to treat depression ?
  • What are the pros and cons of genetically modified foods?
  • Which methods are most effective for improving memory?
  • What can be done to lower healthcare costs in the US?
  • What factors contributed to the current opioid crisis?
  • Analyze the history and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic .
  • Are low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets more effective for weight loss?
  • How much exercise should the average adult be getting each week?
  • Which methods are most effective to get parents to vaccinate their children?
  • What are the pros and cons of clean needle programs?
  • How does stress affect the body?
  • Discuss the history of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
  • What were the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Trials?
  • Who was responsible for the Iran-Contra situation?
  • How has New Orleans and the government's response to natural disasters changed since Hurricane Katrina?
  • What events led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
  • What were the impacts of British rule in India ?
  • Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary?
  • What were the successes and failures of the women's suffrage movement in the United States?
  • What were the causes of the Civil War?
  • How did Abraham Lincoln's assassination impact the country and reconstruction after the Civil War?
  • Which factors contributed to the colonies winning the American Revolution?
  • What caused Hitler's rise to power?
  • Discuss how a specific invention impacted history.
  • What led to Cleopatra's fall as ruler of Egypt?
  • How has Japan changed and evolved over the centuries?
  • What were the causes of the Rwandan genocide ?


  • Why did Martin Luther decide to split with the Catholic Church?
  • Analyze the history and impact of a well-known cult (Jonestown, Manson family, etc.)
  • How did the sexual abuse scandal impact how people view the Catholic Church?
  • How has the Catholic church's power changed over the past decades/centuries?
  • What are the causes behind the rise in atheism/ agnosticism in the United States?
  • What were the influences in Siddhartha's life resulted in him becoming the Buddha?
  • How has media portrayal of Islam/Muslims changed since September 11th?


  • How has the earth's climate changed in the past few decades?
  • How has the use and elimination of DDT affected bird populations in the US?
  • Analyze how the number and severity of natural disasters have increased in the past few decades.
  • Analyze deforestation rates in a certain area or globally over a period of time.
  • How have past oil spills changed regulations and cleanup methods?
  • How has the Flint water crisis changed water regulation safety?
  • What are the pros and cons of fracking?
  • What impact has the Paris Climate Agreement had so far?
  • What have NASA's biggest successes and failures been?
  • How can we improve access to clean water around the world?
  • Does ecotourism actually have a positive impact on the environment?
  • Should the US rely on nuclear energy more?
  • What can be done to save amphibian species currently at risk of extinction?
  • What impact has climate change had on coral reefs?
  • How are black holes created?
  • Are teens who spend more time on social media more likely to suffer anxiety and/or depression?
  • How will the loss of net neutrality affect internet users?
  • Analyze the history and progress of self-driving vehicles.
  • How has the use of drones changed surveillance and warfare methods?
  • Has social media made people more or less connected?
  • What progress has currently been made with artificial intelligence ?
  • Do smartphones increase or decrease workplace productivity?
  • What are the most effective ways to use technology in the classroom?
  • How is Google search affecting our intelligence?
  • When is the best age for a child to begin owning a smartphone?
  • Has frequent texting reduced teen literacy rates?


How to Write a Great Research Paper

Even great research paper topics won't give you a great research paper if you don't hone your topic before and during the writing process. Follow these three tips to turn good research paper topics into great papers.

#1: Figure Out Your Thesis Early

Before you start writing a single word of your paper, you first need to know what your thesis will be. Your thesis is a statement that explains what you intend to prove/show in your paper. Every sentence in your research paper will relate back to your thesis, so you don't want to start writing without it!

As some examples, if you're writing a research paper on if students learn better in same-sex classrooms, your thesis might be "Research has shown that elementary-age students in same-sex classrooms score higher on standardized tests and report feeling more comfortable in the classroom."

If you're writing a paper on the causes of the Civil War, your thesis might be "While the dispute between the North and South over slavery is the most well-known cause of the Civil War, other key causes include differences in the economies of the North and South, states' rights, and territorial expansion."

#2: Back Every Statement Up With Research

Remember, this is a research paper you're writing, so you'll need to use lots of research to make your points. Every statement you give must be backed up with research, properly cited the way your teacher requested. You're allowed to include opinions of your own, but they must also be supported by the research you give.

#3: Do Your Research Before You Begin Writing

You don't want to start writing your research paper and then learn that there isn't enough research to back up the points you're making, or, even worse, that the research contradicts the points you're trying to make!

Get most of your research on your good research topics done before you begin writing. Then use the research you've collected to create a rough outline of what your paper will cover and the key points you're going to make. This will help keep your paper clear and organized, and it'll ensure you have enough research to produce a strong paper.

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CCF Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing

ChineseCSCW 2022: Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing pp 481–491 Cite as

Topic Discovery in Scientific Literature

  • Yujian Huang 13 ,
  • Qiang Liu 13 ,
  • Jia Liu 13 &
  • Yanmei Hu 13  
  • Conference paper
  • First Online: 13 May 2023

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Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS,volume 1681)

With the progress of society and science, various fields have achieved unprecedented development. Various research directions and problems have blossomed, and a huge amount of scientific literature has emerged. Scientific literature contains rich “knowledge”, e.g., research hotspots and topics. If those “knowledge” can be obtained from scientific literature, it would be of great practical significance to both government and researchers. The existing methods generally obtain “knowledge” by analyzing the semantics of scientific literature, which is complex and time-consuming. In this paper, we aim to explore new methods of research hot word extraction and research topic discovery from the perspective of network. Firstly, the word network is constructed based on the text of scientific literature. Next, a research hot word extraction method based on node centrality and a structural topic discovery method are proposed on the word network. Then, the consistency between structural topics and semantic topics is explored. Finally, the proposed methods are experimentally verified on a real dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed centrality based hot word extraction method can effectively extract research hot words, and the topics obtained by the structural topic discovery method are consistent with the semantic topics in some cases, providing a new way to textual knowledge discovery.

  • topic discovery
  • network structure
  • community discovery

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Huang, Y., Liu, Q., Liu, J., Hu, Y. (2023). Topic Discovery in Scientific Literature. In: Sun, Y., et al. Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing. ChineseCSCW 2022. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1681. Springer, Singapore.

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Top 10 Research Topics from 2022

Posted on December 9, 2022 by Frontiers Communications in Research topics , Top News // 0 Comments

scientific literature research topics

Find the answers to your biggest research questions from 2022. With collective views of over 3.2 million, researchers explored topics spanning from vaccine safety and psychedelic therapy to quaternary fossils and antiviral plants .

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scientific literature research topics

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A List of 580 Interesting Research Topics [2023 Edition]

In school and college, you will be required to write research papers. Yes — papers in the plural. And that’s the first reason you may want to turn to Custom Writing and seek help with research projects.

Our specialists will write a custom essay on any topic for 13.00 10.40/page

When assigned a paper, the very first undertaking is to choose from a list of research topics. This is a daunting, even intimidating task, one that many people would prefer to circumvent altogether.

The good thing is:

There are hundreds of exciting and fun research topics for high school or college students from which to choose. With a variety of options, you are likely to find some interesting things to research. When you have good ideas and help available, this task becomes less threatening and more engaging.

But first: Let’s verify you have a complete comprehension of what writing a research paper entails. After all, you can’t be creative with an idea if you don’t know how to write about it. Then, you’ll find numerous interesting research topics for your work.

  • 🔝 Top 10 Research Topics

❓ What Is a Research Paper?

  • ✍️ How to Find Topics to Write About

⭐ A List of Research Topics

  • 💻 IT Topics
  • 🏺 History Topics
  • 🧠 Psychology Topics
  • 🎓 Education Topics
  • 📺 Cultural Topics
  • 🗣️ Topics for an Argumentative Essays

🔬 Science Research Topics

💉 health topics for research papers.

  • 👔 Business Research Topics
  • 📚 Literature Topics
  • 🗳️ Political Topics

😂 Fun Research Topics

  • 👥 Sociology Research Papers

🎯 Specific Research Proposal Topics

  • 👩‍⚕️ Nursing Research Papers
  • 🎨 Art Topics
  • 🎼 Music Topics
  • ✍️ Creative Writing Topics
  • 🎈 Other Topics

🔝 Top 10 Research Topics for 2023

  • Maintaining social bonds via music
  • Use of AI in robotics
  • Narcissistic personality disorder: genetic factors
  • Mental effects of remote work
  • Use of infrared detectors in alarm systems
  • Cosmological simulations and machine learning
  • Achieving climate-positive agriculture
  • Emerging infectious diseases: detection and prevention
  • Technology-enhanced education in the post-COVID era
  • Disability inclusion in the workplace

If you aren’t clear on what a research paper is, then you won’t get very far when writing one. A research paper is just as its name suggests — a form of academic writing that necessitates the independent investigation of a specified topic and reports the unique results of that investigation.

Suny Empire State College provides a great and exhaustive explanation of what a research paper is.

In order to write a paper, you are required to formulate a research question. This is a question associated with your topic that acts as a guide during your research, enabling you to focus and provide unique arguments.

Before you can produce a research question, you have to choose from countless research topics available. Another useful thing to do would be checking out free sample research papers . With that in mind, let’s examine how you can discover some unique research paper topics.

✍️ How to Find Research Topics to Write About

The choice of a research paper topic can be influenced by a number of factors, including:

Receive a plagiarism-free paper tailored to your instructions.

  • The course for which the paper is assigned
  • Whether there is a topic assigned to you by the professor
  • Whether you are given a broad-spectrum subject area
  • How much freedom you are given to branch out and select a topic

Hopefully, you have been given some freedom of choice regarding academic paper topics. However, if you do have some choice in the matter, you might be speculating about how to narrow it down.

You are in luck!

6 surprised ways to find topicsю

There are a number of ways to effectively comb through the abundance of research paper topics and discover one that will work well for you. Here are some suggestions:

  • Ask your professor. Chances are your professor has some fabulous research paper ideas. You can also inquire with other university staff and graduate students for ideas. These people know your discipline well, which can work to your advantage.
  • Browse through scientific journals and research papers , but be sure to adhere to the most recent research possible. You will definitely find interesting ideas in published papers that would make great research paper topics.
  • Investigate other professional and government publications for research project ideas. Again, keep to the most recent publications within the last three to five years, if possible.
  • Browse through your library catalog to uncover the most interesting areas of study in your field.
  • Take notes everywhere you go! It doesn’t matter if you are in class listening to your professor, traveling, reading a magazine, or watching TV. Research paper ideas are absolutely everywhere! Write things down whenever you come across something unique and interesting, and you just might find a topic to pursue.

When it comes down to it, deciding on one of the many academic essay topics is the most substantial step of the process.

Once you have that narrowed down, you can focus your research and write a remarkable paper. Now, we want to give you some help. What follows is an extensive list of the most interesting research topics to get you started.

Just 13.00 10.40/page , and you can get an custom-written academic paper according to your instructions

Now that you have a good idea of how to search for college research paper topics, you are ready for some suggestions. You might like one of them right off the bat, or you might be inspired by a particular topic and write something related to it.

Want to know the best part?

By the time you are finished reading this academic topics list, you will feel much more equipped for writing your research paper. For even better result, have a brainstorming session with a research topic generator to introduce a bigger variety of options.

💻 IT Research Paper Topics

Perhaps some of the best college research topics these days are in the IT field. Explore one of these interesting ideas in your paper:

  • Has big data changed our lives for the better? Big data is a trendy study subject. Large IT companies use it for purposes such as advertising and logistics. However, it has also raised substantial privacy concerns over non-consensual data gathering. Are the benefits companies get by collecting your data worth them learning everything about you?
  • Neural networks are algorithms that can learn to solve problems. Both their name and method of learning are derived from how the human brain works. Can neural networks lead to the creation of a true AI? If so, how soon?
  • The current state of cryptography and how it may develop. The entire Internet’s security relies on a relatively small number of ciphers. If they were to be broken, the potential damage would be immeasurable. How likely is that to happen? What challenges are we likely to face in the future?
  • The pros and cons of transitioning to cloud technologies. Cloud services are very convenient for various purposes. They might not work as fast as physical devices, but they are portable, cheap, and very convenient. Should humanity switch entirely to cloud services?
  • What issues does automation raise, and how can they be solved? Robots don’t get tired and work very precisely. That’s why automation is great for business. Many manufacturing companies rely on robots heavily in their production. However, robots in the workplace mean fewer jobs for humans. When most blue-collar positions disappear, what will humanity do?
  • Should we keep using multi-factor authentication?
  • Are big tech companies monopolistic in their behaviors?
  • Is remote work the future of office jobs employment?
  • The pros and cons of software ownership vs. subscription models.
  • Explore the evolution of wireless communication standards and their implications.
  • Describe the Internet of things and its effects on security.
  • The issues of IPv4 and the adoption of IPv6.
  • How do computers manage to generate random numbers?
  • The infrastructure and contingencies of the World Wide Web.
  • Are computers entirely unbiased in their treatment of people?
  • Procedures to enhance IT security
  • New methodologies and challenges to IT management in health
  • Interrelation, patterns, and existing theories on behavior and IT
  • Common services center vs. community multimedia center: selecting the correct variety of IT service
  • Racial and gender issues in the IT domain
  • Innovative theories regarding computer imitation of a human being
  • The impact of digitization of medical records on the IT domain

🏺 Topics for your Research Project on History

Human history is full of exciting events, and despite what you might believe, not all of them have been explored. There are many incredible history research topics, such as:

  • The history of the Chinese Empire over the millennia. The Chinese Empire is rarely discussed in history classes as much as its Western counterparts. However, it existed for over two millennia, only falling in 1912. Many curious events happened in that time that merit discussion.
  • The Ottoman Empire and the Barbary slave trade. The word “barbarian” comes from the Barbary Coast in Africa. It was infamous for its pirates, who raided European vessels for loot and slaves. Only ending in the 19th century, this phenomenon can make for an interesting case study.
  • The rise and fall of Ancient Greek city-states. Ancient Greece is often viewed as mostly monolithic and united against threats. In fact, it was comprised of numerous city-states that fought as much as they cooperated. Research the region’s fascinating and nuanced history.
  • The effects of the printing press on the world. The printing press was invented in 1440 AD by Johannes Gutenberg. Before it, each copy of a book had to be written by hand. It limited the literature’s availability dramatically. What effects did mass production of books have on Europe and the world?
  • The fracturing of Christianity : causes and effects. Since its inception, Christianity has gone through multiple schisms. Some of them were remarkably violent. As a result, there are now three main Christian churches and a multitude of lesser ones. Explore what caused believers to split apart into Orthodox Christians, Catholics, and Protestants.
  • The underlying causes of the World War I.
  • Provide a detailed history of the Hundred Years’ War and its results.
  • Holy Roman Empire: from successor to the Romans to a Nazi symbol.
  • Liberalism in national politics: emergence and evolution.
  • The history of the world as a series of conquests.
  • Were the Crusades motivated purely by religious devotion?
  • Why did Texas secede from Mexico to the United States?
  • Apartheid in South Africa and its heritage.
  • Centers of scientific activity throughout history.
  • How did China’s geography influence its history?
  • Palestine and the Golan Heights
  • Premises, progression, and consequences of the cold war
  • The most remarkable revolutions in history
  • Has Slavery transformed the development of the western world?
  • Could damage from the bubonic plague have been diminished?
  • Strange medieval family laws and their influence on society
  • Life in London in the 15th century
  • Religious cults in ancient societies

🧠 Psychology Research Paper Topics

Psychology has to offer plenty of interesting ideas for you to research. Just look through the discoveries made over the past decades, and you can understand that the human mind holds as many mysteries as the deep ocean.

It is why we would like to suggest a list of great experimental research topics in psychology. The science of human behavior is even more exciting when you can try your theories on practice.

If you still can’t decide on the topic for your research paper or thesis, just look through this collection of compelling proposals to give yourself an inspirational boost.

  • What is the correlation between personality and taste in literature? It’s obvious that people with similar interests get in groups. Does it mean that they have similar personalities, though?
  • Conformity in college and high school: a scientific approach. Check how your course mates tend to agree with others and don’t forget to write it down!
  • Do men and women have different short-term memory mechanisms? It’s quite easy to conduct an experiment, but be careful approaching it in terms of gender issues.
  • Optical illusions from the perspective of people with creativity skills. What if people who tend to be artistic and creative can see something in the common optical illusions that others can’t?
  • The gut feeling: how do you feel when others stare at you? Some studies showed that you are more likely to wake up in the night because someone is staring at you. It’s creepy, though…
  • Tricking the taste buds: how does smell affect the taste? How much can the smell of an onion confuse your sense of taste while you are eating an apple?
  • What is the Stroop Effect, and how does age influence it? Check whether the age of the participants influences their ability to name the colors.
  • Does having a symmetrical face make us seem more attractive? It is very rare that someone has perfectly identical left and right sides of the face. But how noticeable is it?
  • Analyze the capacity of the short-term memory of your peers. The easiest way is to measure it by memorizing words and comparing the numbers later.
  • Do people eat more popcorn when watching movies of a specific genre? Chewing something is almost a must-do in the cinema. But what type of movies triggers this behavior more than others?
  • What signs of social media addiction are noticeable in public? Spend some time in the local coffee shop, watching people on their phones, and note any signs of addiction they show.
  • The psychological effects of having breakfast: learning performance. Check if your course mates who have breakfast are more successful in learning than those who don’t.
  • Music vs. body: how does your body respond? Measure different biomarkers while listening to different types of music. Maybe you’ll find perfect motivational beats!
  • What color should your room be to improve your learning outcome? Blue is more calming than red, which is often used in sports halls. But what about boosting your learning abilities?
  • Favorite color as a result of childhood attraction. Try to trace the childhood memories of your friends. Maybe their favorite color is pink because they had pink walls in their room.
  • Biomarkers and colors: what is the correlation? Check how seeing different colors can stimulate specific responses from the body, for example, in heart rate.
  • Colors and mood: can the color of your bedsheets make your day? The first thing you see in the morning is quite important. How would a specific color affect your mood?
  • What is the correlation between stress levels and procrastination? There is a relation for sure, but does procrastination cause stress or the other way around?
  • How much can we trust the long-term memory? Ask people to tell you about some random event from their past. Then, ask them to do the same later. Do the stories match?
  • Negative influences of sleep deprivation on social behavior. Track some students’ behavior when they don’t get enough sleep and see how it affects their relationship with others.
  • The origin of phobias and fears : engaging the monster within
  • Dreams : are they messages from within?
  • Mechanisms of thinking: it’s all in your head
  • Factors that influence behavior and character
  • Mechanisms of aggravating habits
  • The function of short- and long-term memory

Differences between long term short term and working memory.

  • Why people yearn for their past
  • What entices people to amass the most preposterous things?
  • Is autism a disease or a natural variation of the norm?
  • The impact and outcomes of social networks and mental health
  • How memory works: recalling the essential
  • How depression impacts the immune system

American psychiatric association Definition of depression.

  • A phenomenon-oriented approach to the study of depression
  • How to manage post-traumatic stress disorder in children
  • Depression as a cause of celiac disease
  • Fighting depression with techniques to relieve anxiety
  • The consequences of depression and relationship problems
  • Eating behaviors in different cultures
  • How behavioral patterns develop
  • How to forecast and shape behavioral patterns
  • Differences and similarities in the behavioral patterns of diverse cultures
  • Is there a genetic link to optimism that can shape behaviors and attitudes?
  • The causes and consequences of insomnia
  • How to combat child violence

Violence in the lives of children report.

  • How defense mechanisms and behavioral patterns work
  • How bilingualism works: the secret of processing mechanisms
  • How fear-related beliefs fit into the cognition process
  • Following the cognitive process involved in anxiety disorders
  • How to fight emotional distress
  • Unusual mental health cases and cognition deviations
  • Applying psychological approaches to ethical reality
  • How motivation plays a role in human development
  • The shared elements of self-affiliation and self-determination
  • An examination of the causes and results of drug and alcohol abuse
  • New ideas regarding the peculiarities of rational and social development
  • How practicing a healthy lifestyle cures disease and promotes wellness
  • Conflict solution in parent-child relationships
  • Evaluating the challenges of preterm development in children
  • How to battle cognitive deficit in Parkinson’s disease
  • Is attention deficit disorder a neuropsychological problem?
  • Examining the process of making decisions and taking risks
  • The impact of music genres on how the brain works
  • How to fight childhood disorders
  • Shattering long-standing myths about ADHD
  • Intellectually gifted people: how is it possible?

🎓 Research Paper Topics on Education

Research project ideas around education are always changing. This has resulted in a wide range of research topics, such as:

  • Computers in classrooms : useful tool or obstacle to equality? Computers have proved to be capable of improving many aspects of our lives. For instance, they allow children to interact with content instead of just consuming it. However, computers further the disparities between those who can and cannot afford one. Explore these factors in your research paper.
  • A review of potential methods for solving America’s education crisis. The US invests a substantial portion of its budget into education. However, the system’s equality is average at best. You can study proposals on how we may change its design for the better. Choose the most promising ones, or suggest one of your own.
  • Individualized vs. group learning : which is better suited for current reality? Every child’s learning should be tailored to their specific situation. Unfortunately, there are far more children than teachers. Answer these questions: is group learning the only available option despite its drawbacks? Can we reduce its shortcomings by blending the models?
  • Are standardized tests helpful or damaging to children’s education? Standardized tests are convenient from a bureaucratic standpoint. They convert children’s learning into numbers that are easy to work with. But the practice is often criticized for prioritizing memorization over understanding. Should standardized tests be abandoned?
  • How should the education system approach children with special needs? Special needs children have experienced a broad range of treatment throughout history. What are the current ideas on how to teach them? What are their special needs in an educational context, and how can schools satisfy them?
  • Are the world’s best education systems based on similar foundations?
  • How can schools help children maintain their mental health?
  • What does equality of opportunity mean in the context of the school?
  • Review how the essential qualities of a teacher evolved since 2000.
  • Should every school student aim for higher education ?
  • What traits define an excellent teacher, and can they be cultivated?
  • Is homeschooling a viable alternative to public schools?
  • The school choice debate in the US: arguments for and against.
  • Authoritative sources: what qualities make information available on the Internet valid?
  • Is cheating on tests an expression of an educational failure?
  • Where theory encounters reality in gender issues
  • Test anxiety with regard to contemporary methods of teaching
  • The effects of contemporary teaching methods
  • The mental process behind human learning
  • The interpretation of IQ test results
  • Should children be rebuked when they misbehave?
  • How to prevent bullying and harassment in schools

It is estimated that 160 000 children miss school every day due to fear of attack or intimidation by other students.

  • The creation of particular learning methods for blind children
  • Positives and negatives of contemporary methods of teaching and state-of-the-art innovations
  • The function of technology in lesson planning
  • Is there a one-size-fits-all strategy for education?

📺 Cultural Research Topics for Papers

Perhaps there is nothing more complex than human culture and how people have interacted with each other throughout history. For this reason, these cultural topics might be of interest to you:

  • Harlem Renaissance: how a single neighborhood created modern African American culture. In the 1920s, numerous African Americans moved to the Harlem neighborhood of New York. Influenced by the ideas of thinkers such as W. E. B. Du Bois , they built the foundations of Black culture and art. How did this happen?
  • Is third-wave feminism still a movement for equality? First-wave feminism gave women equal rights with men. Then the second wave started the fight with discrimination. However, third-wave feminism claims that the second wave failed, especially with regards to matters such as race and ethnicity. Are its claims valid, and what does it work to achieve?
  • Is the Western way of thinking the only correct one? Non-Western civilizations lay claim to different schools of thought that emphasize different viewpoints. Should Westerners adopt aspects of non-Western philosophical thought?
  • Are the factors that informed the Constitution still relevant? The Constitution was created in a different time than now. Some of its provisions, notably the Second Amendment , have been challenged repeatedly in recent years. Explore if the ideas of the Founding Fathers still apply today.
  • Should the postmodern school of art be considered art? Postmodern art is challenging to define in plain terms. Many people are confused when a seemingly random series of brush strokes sells for millions of dollars. Think of how such artworks fit into the history of art movements.
  • The impact of advertisements and commercials on how people comprehend the world
  • The implicit messages of mass media: what you see is what you get
  • How the most remarkable cultural achievements of the 20 th century influenced contemporary art
  • The repetition of cultural tendencies: the Greeks did it first
  • Social roles adults endorse to children via toys
  • Social models mass media bestows on teenagers and adults
  • Eating habits in dissimilar cultures
  • The origin of racial discrimination
  • The segmentation and integration of humans
  • The impact of AIDS on mankind
  • A new comprehension of past events
  • Unearthing a common language: divorce prevention and family therapy
  • Painting a portrait of the average American family
  • The roots of antisemitism and how it manifests today
  • A case against cruelty to living beings
  • An examination of the current job market and unemployment

🗣️ Argumentative Essay Topics

It is easy to find unique argumentative research paper topics. After all, we live in a crazy world in which all kinds of interesting things happen. Here are some suggestions:

  • Is the Electoral College a better system than the popular vote? The United States uses the unique Electoral College system for its presidential elections. Over the centuries, calls have been made to change it to the popular vote approach. So far, these attempts have been fruitless. In this debate, whose position has more merit?
  • Should the continued expansion of the government be reversed? Starting small, governments around the world took on more and more functions. As a result, they now guarantee the operation of many services. They also collect massive taxes and demonstrate bureaucratic inefficiencies. Is there a valid argument for privatizing most public services?
  • Should the US continue acting as the world’s peacekeeper? The US’s military is present in many areas around the world. Usually, they take the form of military bases and peacekeeping forces. However, its efforts often fail, with Iraq as a recent example . Should the nation continue spending its resources abroad?
  • Does the public or private healthcare produce better results for the cost? The US’s healthcare system is often criticized for its massive costs and underwhelming quality. There have been calls to both make it more private and more public. Which of the two approaches ensures a more affordable, efficient system?
  • Is teenage gender transition ethical? Recently, medical professionals in the US have started transitioning teenagers with gender dysphoria . Yet, some of them de-transition later. Should the practice continue regardless?
  • Political commitment and television
  • Should marijuana be legalized?
  • Can people of different races ever understand each other
  • Abusive relationships : where to draw the line on what relationships should Be allowed to exist
  • Are there realistic limitations on abortion ?
  • The many guises of violence in society
  • The impact of women on world history

Contributions women fact.

  • Are social interactions possible without lies?
  • Dealing with overpopulation : can it be accomplished ethically?
  • Torture : is it ever acceptable?
  • The ethics of using animals in research
  • Human dependence on computers: beneficial or harmful
  • Post-9/11 security measures : an invasion of privacy or good sense

Science is always bursting with new and exciting topics as we delve deeper into the mysteries of the universe and technology. Here are a few topic suggestions:

  • The potential of space resources and the technologies for extracting them. Space contains a vast quantity of resources, many of which are rare or expensive on Earth. Plans to use them have been arising for a long time. Can we implement any of them in the near future, and do they justify the costs?
  • Recent promising developments in cancer treatment and their validity . Cancer is a significant concern for humanity largely because it cannot be treated without harming the body. However, ideas such as targeted medications and imitations of whale biology have promised an end to this problem. Research them and assess their validity.
  • Large-scale recycling methods and their effectiveness in reducing waste. Most of the resources humanity uses are still on the planet in the form of waste. Some, such as fossil fuels, cannot be recovered, while metals and many others can. Is it possible to address resource scarcity through large-scale recycling? Is it economically viable?
  • Advantages and disadvantages of proposed thorium nuclear reactor designs. Thorium has been touted as the solution to the problems of uranium-based atomic reactors. It’s not as dangerous and produces less waste. Is it indeed superior, or should its issues prevent its use?
  • Potential benefits and issues of genetic modification . Genetic modification is broadly used but also criticized by many. It has its benefits, but critics argue that overreliance may lead to unexplored side effects. Are there reasons to believe these claims?
  • What cloning has in store for humanity : altering the personality
  • How nanotechnology will impact modern science
  • Will uranium isotopes precipitate the next scientific revolution?
  • How psychoactive drugs influence the central nervous system
  • Deafness and using echolocation
  • The role of erythropoietin and calcitriol in the human body
  • The process of feeling pain: treatment and pain relievers of the future
  • Is nuclear energy too hazardous to use?
  • Nuclear weapons: a responsibility for which no country is prepared
  • People’s impact on climate change: the cost of a technological breakthrough
  • Key issues and potential solutions for toxic waste disposal
  • Are the effects of global warming reversible?
  • The future of NASA
  • Endangered species : causes and concerns
  • Black mold: the bathroom invasion

Just like science, health care is always changing, particularly as technology advances. With new discoveries in disease research and new technology being developed every day, the following topics are great examples of what you can write about in your paper:

  • Race and ethnicity-based differences in normal health indicators. People of different races and ethnicities tend to have varying normal health indicators. For example, African Americans tend to have a higher blood pressure than average. What causes such differences? Why do medical workers need to understand them?
  • The effects of the Affordable Care Act on American healthcare. The Affordable Care Act, colloquially known as Obamacare , was introduced to improve health insurance’s affordability for disadvantaged people. However, the costs of insurance have grown since through premiums. Did Obamacare cause this increase, or did it happen independently?
  • Strategies for prevention of obesity and associated heart disease risks. Heart disease is a leading cause of death in the United States. Obesity, which is also prevalent in the nation, is associated with the condition. How can the healthcare system reduce the rates of obesity and associated heart disease?
  • For- or non-profit hospitals: which offer superior treatment? Both for- and non-profit hospitals are private entities. The former operate as businesses, while the latter only seek to cover their costs. Is the former’s drive to compete and lower prices preferable to the latter’s not charging a profit margin?
  • Mental health in the United States: issues and proposed solutions. Mental healthcare is a complicated topic. Many conditions are difficult to diagnose, and some are associated with stigma . Conflicts of interest often arise among psychiatrists, incentivizing them to diagnose fake conditions. How can mental health be improved in the US?
  • Should medicine be more focused on the prevention of illnesses or their treatment?
  • Is it possible to eliminate a disease forever?
  • The development of prosthetics: current technologies and promising ideas
  • Barriers to the adoption of electronic health systems and how to overcome them.
  • Sedentary behavior and sports: what are the health outcomes?
  • Psychological treatment for adolescents: how to address their needs.
  • Caring for seniors: current problems and potential solutions.
  • US nursing shortage: causes and potential effects on the nation’s health.
  • The effects of circumcision on the health of newborn infants.
  • Analyze the experiences of children with autism in school and at home.
  • Should image scan radiation be reduced to a minimum level?
  • Health care and insurance : concerns and problems
  • The most likely outcomes of recent health care reform
  • Old theories and new methods of sports injury rehabilitation
  • A look at celebrities who have battled cancer
  • A comparison of conventional and alternative cancer treatments
  • How clean needle programs benefit society
  • The need for education on nutrition in school
  • The impact of diet on health

👔 Business Research Paper Topics to Write About

Business is a broad field, so there are plenty of topics you can write about, such as:

  • Best contemporary practice in green supply chain management for businesses. Green supply chain management aims to overturn the stereotype of polluting factories. Companies that adopt it seek to generate as little waste as possible and require their suppliers to do the same. What policies do researchers currently recommend for this purpose?
  • Corporate social responsibility: theoretical framework and practical implementations. Corporate social responsibility is an approach where a company seeks to give back to the community where it works. It’s a popular concept, often discussed in business schools. But how does it translate into practice?
  • The effects of different office arrangements on the productivity of employees . Offices have evolved substantially over the 20th century. Cubicles replaced isolated rooms, and today open offices are popular. Is there a meaningful difference between these different arrangements? Are the changes improvements or lateral movements?
  • Remote work and its effects on the operations of businesses. Remote work is more popular than ever. It seems convenient for workers, but some companies worry that they will stop being productive without oversight. Are their concerns reasonable?
  • A cross-cultural comparison of leadership styles. In the West, a number of leadership style theories have crystallized that are considered best. However, other regions use distinct approaches that work for them. They’re also not rushing to change to the Western model. Do Western styles work best everywhere, or are they limited to the appropriate mindset?
  • Social media marketing strategies and the determinants of success.
  • Compare the functions of administration and management.
  • Prevention of organizational misconduct: barriers and strategies.
  • Review the latest developments in performance management theory and practice.
  • What is the future of e-commerce business environments ?
  • Innovation in the workplace: current thought and generation methods.
  • How does outsourcing influence business performance?
  • Describe the effects of kaizen and total quality management on performance.
  • Discuss economic viability in corporations that operate at a loss.
  • Overtime work, employee well-being, and company performance.
  • Deliberating in the secrets of effective leadership
  • How time management influences the prosperity of a company
  • How to resolve a conflict between staff and management
  • The function of diversity in the workplace of the 21 st century
  • Management by walking around: effective or fruitless?
  • Should businesses be regulated: pros and cons
  • Social media and word-of-mouth in the digital age
  • How the digital age has transformed small businesses
  • How mobile technology is altering the workplace
  • The future of the franchise
  • How the millennial employee is transforming the workplace

📚 Literature Research Paper Topics

Sometimes, there is no surrogate for a great paper on literature, and with the changing world, there are always innovative ways to observe literature, even the classics. Here are a few topic suggestions:

  • The depiction of the American Dream in The Great Gatsby . Jay Gatsby first appears as an example of the American Dream. Starting poor, he becomes wealthy and popular in the city. However, he does not achieve his desires and stays unhappy. You can research how the novel criticizes the concept while also reinforcing its idea.
  • The evolution of Japanese literature in the Meiji Era. The Meiji Era began after the end of Japanese isolationism. Due to encountering new cultures, its art evolved rapidly. Writers such as Akutagawa Ryunosuke and Dazai Osamu created unique works. From what context did they emerge?
  • The traits of 20th century dystopian works. The worlds of Aldous Huxley, Ray Bradbury, George Orwell , and others are bleak. However, they are all substantially different. Can you distinguish unifying themes in the stories that these writers tell?
  • How does literature reflect contemporary social issues ? Writers often try to draw attention to problems of their time. Dickens wrote about the exploitation of the poor, and Langston Hughes discussed racial discrimination. Can this trend be traced across most literature?
  • Classic vs. modern poetry. Classical poetry follows a variety of rules, such as rhymes and stanza organization. Contemporary poets often reject these constraints and create works that are closer to prose in form. What caused this change?
  • Study the Four Great Works of Chinese Literature as cultural reflections.
  • Examine the influence of romantic tendencies on Walther Scott’s works.
  • What issues are raised in contemporary African literature?
  • Analyze Milton’s interpretation of Biblical myth in Paradise Lost .
  • What characterizes the depiction of war in Heller’s Catch-22 ?
  • Discuss real and fake loyalty in King Lear .
  • How was grotesque used in 19th century American Gothic fiction?
  • The Old Man and the Sea : Hemingway’s depiction of the unconquerable spirit.
  • How were gender issues depicted in 19th and 20th-century feminist literature?
  • Compare the themes of The Iliad and The Odyssey.
  • The innovative era: poets of the 21 st century
  • A dissection of the most illustrious novels in history
  • The hunger games: over and above pulp fiction
  • The future of copyright
  • An examination of racism in novels from the 1960s and 1970s
  • The perception of exile in literature
  • Culture and literature: which affects which?
  • An examination of homosexuality in literature

🗳️ Political Research Topics

The world of politics is ever-changing. Understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate our lives is challenging. That’s why a research paper is a great way to clarify the matter. Whether you’re interested in global or local affairs, this section has got you covered.

  • What is the origin and purpose of powers separation in government ? Most modern governments are separated into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Thus they limit each other to avoid government overreach. How was this system founded, and how does it work?
  • The structure of the legislation approval process in the US . Every bill has to be approved by the Congress , the Senate, and the President. What factors can hinder the process?
  • A comparison between the two-party system and multi-party nations. The US is often critiqued for its two-party system by nations that have numerous parties. With that said, a common counterargument is that American parties made of people with diverse views. How do the political climates of the US and multi-party democracies differ in practice?
  • The purpose and effectiveness of term limits for government positions. Some government positions, such as that of the President, are limited to a specific number of years. At the same time, jobs in the Congress and Senate are not. Discuss the purpose of term limits and say if they’re effective.
  • Pros and cons of globalism as a political philosophy. The concept of globalism requires worldwide bodies that supersede governments. It looks past nations and ignores their interest in favor of global benefits. Is this approach valid, or are there problems with it?
  • How does the European Union membership affect its countries?
  • Review the evolution of China’s political system in the 20th-21st centuries.
  • The threat of terrorism in a world without ISIS.
  • Discuss the issue of mass incarceration in the United States.
  • What were the causes of the Soviet Union’s collapse ?
  • Write about violations of human rights worldwide and their causes.
  • Examine the critiques of capitalism.
  • What are the political aims of the Black Lives Matter movement?
  • Review the methods for effectively combating governmental corruption.
  • The issues of democracy and how to overcome them.
  • The American policy of intervention
  • The future of the European union
  • Causes of world hunger
  • Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction
  • The Justice system and juvenile criminals
  • Afghanistan—success or stalemate ?
  • Was media coverage of SARS adequate
  • The new world war: fighting terrorism
  • Same-sex marriage: are laws keeping up with changing attitudes?
  • BREXIT: good or bad?

Who says you can’t combine academia and entertainment? Great conclusions can come from fun research. The most important thing is to ask the right questions. Check out the following prompts and get inspired:

  • Parallel universes, their origins, and potential organizations. Numerous authors have imagined parallel universes. Even some quantum physics theories assert their existence. Are parallel universes slightly different versions of our world, or are they entirely distinct?
  • The theories and paradoxes of various time travel mechanisms. Time travel is a popular science fiction trope. It’s also associated with multiple contradictions, such as the grandfather paradox . How do science fiction authors try to overcome these problems?
  • The attempts to create the theory of everything. Physicists are trying to develop an approach that would explain everything in the universe. It doesn’t exist yet, as general relativity and quantum physics often contradict each other.
  • What are the possibilities and problems of interstellar travel ? Without a method to travel much faster than light, expansion beyond the Solar System is impossible. If it becomes feasible, what possibilities can it offer?
  • The history of the moon landing conspiracy theory. The moon landing conspiracy theory asserts that the Apollo 11 mission didn’t occur, and the evidence was filmed on Earth. It tries to find various flaws in this evidence and use them to prove its illegitimacy. How did it emerge, and does it still exist?
  • Are people who claim to have extrasensory perception frauds?
  • Research stories of the supernatural based on facts.
  • What is the origin of the modern Santa Claus?
  • If an afterlife exists, what form does it take?
  • Does meditation have benefits for physical and mental health?
  • Did Nostradamus’s prophecies come to pass?
  • Why do some people believe the Earth is flat?
  • Does Murphy’s Law always work?
  • Examine 19th-century occultism and its prominent leaders.
  • Alchemy and the quest for the Philosopher’s Stone.
  • How people are affected by the death of a game character
  • Challenges faced by people creating their own cartoon
  • Beloved comic strip characters and their influence on society
  • An examination of UFOs: fact or fiction
  • What if aliens do exist: the impact on humanity
  • Is there a differentiation between déjà vu and precognition?
  • The existence of spirits and how to communicate with them
  • Theories regarding the Bermuda triangle
  • Investigating alternative cosmology theories
  • Does fortune telling have a scientific basis?
  • Law of attraction: fact or fiction?
  • Men and women’s brain: what’s the difference?

👥 Sociology Research Paper Topics

As an additional interest for studies, a sociology research paper can be written with the purpose of learning this or that aspect of society’s life. You may use personal experience or continue the research started by other authors. Interesting research projects in this area can be based on the following topics:

  • Problems of the marriage and family: a divorce research paper . This article can study the relationship in different families and problems that can arise.
  • Observance of public behavior standards as the feature of the civilized society. You can describe modern social ideals.
  • Comparison of sociological laws in different historical epochs. In your paper, study the attitudes towards various social phenomena.
  • The influence of personality on public development and progress. You can describe the power of the personality and what one person can do to contribute to social development.
  • Opportunities for searching optimal criteria for the personality socialization . Such a paper aims at revealing the ways of how people can uncover their potential.
  • The society’s attitude to global problems : a global warming research paper and the impact of this phenomenon on people’s way of life. Describe this well-known ecological problem in your paper.
  • Cultural formation of the personality in the context of modern public reality. This type of work can be connected with describing the ways of people’s cultural development.
  • Attempts to socialize adolescents and people with deviant behavior. A research paper on this relevant topic should describe how people who are prone to criminal behavior can correct their way of life.
  • Ways of improving the microclimate in the work collective and creating conditions for comfortable work. The theme aims at finding optimal techniques to improve relationships among employees.
  • Equality problems in society . A paper on this topic should uncover modern problems connected with inequality and various forms of racism.
  • Explore the causes of poverty in disadvantaged communities around the US.
  • Review the health and education outcomes of children raised in single-parent families.
  • What are the effects of social media on users’ mental well-being?
  • Look into the presence of gender stereotypes in popular culture.
  • What are the effects of mass immigration on communities and nations?
  • Study the effects of lockdown-related social isolation on mental health.
  • Is the Internet an adequate replacement for face-to-face communication?
  • Research the causes of bullying and potential strategies for its prevention.
  • What’s the status of LGBT communities in nations around the world?
  • The effects of juvenile convictions on one’s life prospects.
  • Write about the American population’s views on the dangers of pollution.
  • Explore the stigma and social acceptance issues associated with transgender status.
  • How does cyberbullying affect one’s health?
  • Review the Internet’s influence on education.
  • Assess the rationale of policies that restrict citizen reproduction.
  • Research your community’s views on the concept of privacy.
  • Health and education outcomes of children raised in same-sex families.
  • Explore intergenerational differences in views on social topics.
  • How do views on freedom of speech vary among people of different social categories?
  • Make a case study on the prevalence of workplace gender discrimination in your community.

It is essential to remember that a good research paper on the subject of sociology will be appreciated by readers if you study a specific social phenomenon in detail, carry out statistical analysis, and perform a number of important procedures. The purpose of a research paper in this field is to cover current public issues, reveal important aspects of various problems, and, if possible, offer optimal solutions. This science requires concrete and well-grounded answers. Any deviations and ambiguous arguments can be regarded as an author’s incompetent attempt to investigate a complex topic.

With all of these topics at your disposal, you might still be feeling a little overwhelmed. However, they are divided into categories to make choosing one easier. It might also be helpful to look at some great research paper samples .

Composing a research proposal can sometimes be a part of a big study. If you not only want to describe a specific problem or to convey an idea to your readers, but also expect to promote your personal theory and receive the approval of a respected scientific community, it’s necessary to choose a topic which allows you to present your own ideas. Different types of writing can be included in this category: an analytical research paper, work on identifying the best ways and techniques for a particular topic, etc. The preparation of research proposal articles has some nuances, and the following topics can be studied:

  • The way to conduct optimal trade relationships. Review appropriate techniques and offer specific methods to improve the situation in a particular company.
  • The advantages of electronic management systems. This theme will be connected with describing the merits of modern ways of managing specific spheres of production.
  • Useful innovations in modern life . Research paper subjects can be different: medicine, sociology, business, etc.
  • The best management techniques: methods of control . A paper on this topic should describe the behavioral features of successful managers.
  • The implementation of nursing theories in practice . The research paper proposal should have an appropriate scientific basis and describe corresponding medical issues.
  • Best practice in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis .
  • What challenges are associated with the nationwide adoption of the DNP standard?
  • Research current developments in palliative care for senior patients.
  • Are there differences in leadership and management styles between genders?
  • Assess the effects of tutoring on the educational attainment of school children.
  • Compare the preferred management styles in different cultures.
  • How do different states’ populations view the legalization of marijuana?
  • Write about the underlying causes of Ancient Rome’s fall.
  • Challenges in the adoption of electronic health records in medical facilities.
  • What are the potential vulnerabilities of the AES-256 encryption standard?
  • Research the link between loyalty to a company and career growth.
  • How did Dante’s Inferno influence Christian depictions of Hell?
  • A case study of Singaporean government and its economic policies.
  • Review the financial environment and economic growth of Hong Kong.
  • Causes and implications of the human waste issues in San Francisco.
  • Assess the prevalence of smoking in the United States.
  • Study the beneficial effects of early childhood musical education on later development.
  • The philosophical and political underpinnings of the French Revolution .
  • What are the effects of successful social media marketing campaigns on videogame sales?
  • How did Confucian writings influence Chinese political thought?

The video below provides detailed instructions on how to write a research proposal. It is crucial to follow these rules so that the article to be up-to-date and properly formatted. Any attempts to bring something new are generally welcome; however, it is important not to forget about established rules.

👩‍⚕️ Nursing Research Paper Topics

A nursing research paper is an academic article that has specific format requirements. Citation rules in particular are very important, for example, an APA research paper format . In order to write a perfect paper and conduct high-quality research, follow the formatting rules and use any of these topics:

  • Nursing techniques to care for patients in intensive care units. The summary of your research paper can include a description of the best practical methods.
  • How do you implement nursing theories? Your paper can consist of the enumeration of specific nursing theories and the ways of their implementation in practice.
  • Patients’ education and useful materials. The theme aims at discovering the best educational materials that would be suitable for patients.
  • Ideas on how to achieve a better quality of nursing care. You can offer various interpretations of this topic in your research paper.
  • Experienced researchers’ opinions on improving the state of nursing in hospitals. Use the ideas of different authors and don’t forget to follow the citation rules.

Lois Capps american politician quote.

  • Patient-oriented type of care and its advantages. This scientific research essay can reveal the merits of a specific nursing approach.
  • Potential risks for nurses in the workplace. Both a junior research paper and a senior research paper of this theme should competently describe all possible dangers that medical employees can face.
  • Care for people of different social backgrounds. If this research paper is written in English, it should uncover the ways how to care for people speaking other languages and having different cultural and social levels of development.
  • Do nurses need additional stimuli to improve their qualifications? You can write many interesting research papers on this topic, and all of them can include lists of possible bonuses and incentives for nurses.
  • The necessity for nurses’ additional education. A paper on this topic can describe subjects suitable for nursing education.
  • How do you promote healthy eating practices in disadvantaged communities through educational programs?
  • Research ways of providing preventative care for veterans affected by PTSD .
  • Review the strategies of organizing nurse shifts to maximize the quality of care in understaffed conditions.
  • Study cases of patient violence toward nurses in the intensive care unit.
  • Preventing pressure ulcers in patients with mobility issues.
  • Ways of implementing quality improvement in nursing units.
  • What cultural competencies and challenges are typically encountered in nursing care?
  • Review the methods for controlling delirium in the intensive care unit.
  • Propose adjustments in sexual education to spread awareness of STD risks in same-sex relationships.
  • Suggest interventions to prevent falls in patients staying at home.
  • What are the issues of advanced practice nursing in different countries?
  • Strategies for remaining productive under pressure as a nurse.
  • Research alternatives to prescribing patients with infections antibiotics that bypass resistance.
  • How to design effective interventions for child obesity rates reduction.
  • Explore using exercise to maintain the physical well-being of hospital patients.
  • What interventions can reduce alcoholism rates in your community?
  • Analyze the implementation of evidence-based practice in nursing facilities.
  • Ethical standards and issues that arise in the nursing profession.
  • Review the methods of providing holistic care to patients.
  • The dangers associated with telemedicine in medical-surgical nursing.

The compliance with the specific research project ideas will allow you to write a high-quality paper and will give you the opportunity to conduct research at a high level. Having completed the document, you can summarize and identify its crucial points. Following the rules of formatting is an integral part of working on any academic text.

🎨 Research Project Topics on Art

In the process of writing research articles, it is necessary to adhere to a certain topic. You can choose any theme you want. A research paper will be successful if you stick to your topic and provide a real search for optimal ways of solving a particular issue. There are a few suggestions that can be helpful in the process of writing. If we talk about such an interesting sphere as the world of art, themes can be as follows.

  • How is ideology reflected in architecture? Naturally, ideologies are largely represented in media, but they also influence architecture in many ways. You can study this topic at several points in time.
  • How does photography represent reality? In this paper, you can discuss if photography reflects reality, interprets it, or constructs it.
  • The significance of linear perspective. If you draw a linear perspective on a flat surface, you will create the illusion of depth. Discuss how this magic trick works in your paper!
  • Art and the unconscious mind. It’s an excellent topic that lets you explore psychology. Try to answer the questions of how the unconscious mind influences the creation and perception of art.
  • The evolution of horror films. This film research paper topic covers everything from silent films to modern horror movies. You can discuss the influence of film noir on the genre, literary works that influenced it, the concept of “suspense,” and so on.
  • Physiological aesthetics in Surrealism. It is a known fact that Surrealists were inspired by psychoanalysis and dream imagery. You can explore this topic in a paper or use it for a presentation!
  • Deconstruction in architecture. The philosophical movement of deconstructivism influenced many spheres of life and art, including architecture. It allowed the creation of seemingly nonsensical forms and environments.
  • Sociology of fine art. This is a relatively new branch of sociology, which deals with arts and social structures of their production. It also includes political trends that influence art, consumerism, and other social phenomena.
  • Jewelry as sculpture. This topic lets you explore fantastic avant-garde jewelry and how contemporary artists such as Jeff Koons use it to create sculptures.
  • The discourse of Modernist painting in the 1950s. This topic covers experimental and abstract paintings of artists who rejected the realistic approach. Mention political agendas that influenced modernism in the ’50th.
  • Abstract Expressionism. Here you can discuss postwar artists such as Rothko and Pollock, as well as their predecessors Ernst and Kandinsky.
  • Andy Warhol’s influence on art. This art research paper topic covers not only pop art, but also films, music, aphorisms, the concept of “superstars,” and other aspects of Andy Warhol’s influence.
  • The art of street photography. Street photography is usually spontaneous, which helps to create realistic and powerful imagery. Write about the art of photographing urban landscapes and the most influential candid photographers.
  • The history of animation. Techniques preceding animation have existed long before the invention of cinematography. Puppetry, shadow play, magic lantern – all these things relate to animation in one way or another.
  • Are video games art? This idea seemed impossible in the past, but now many video games are considered art for their use of imagery, music, and compelling narrative.
  • Art as a form of protest. This includes protests against tradition or political causes. You may also talk about the role of art in bringing about a change in society.
  • Renaissance sculpture. This topic is just as interesting as the Renaissance painting. During that period, the art of sculpture had reached its peak. Sculptors of the Renaissance were influenced by Ancient Greek statues, as well as by Humanism.
  • Relationship between architecture and environment. Here you can discuss eco-friendly or “green” architecture.
  • Modern ceramics as an art form. In the last decade, ceramics became a very popular art form. From prehistoric pottery to intricate porcelain forms – ceramics is a great medium that can often be compared to sculpture.
  • Science fiction in cinema. The earliest science fiction films were created back in the late 19th century by Georges Melies. In 1927, Fritz Lang’s silent film Metropolis revolutionized science fiction cinema. Explore it in your research paper!
  • The peculiarities of Da Vinci’s masterpieces. The paper will reflect the talent of the great European master and describe his Best Works.

5 most famous artworks by Leonardo Da Vinci.

  • The trends of art in Medieval Europe. The topic should uncover modern trends in the art of the Middle Ages and include the description of some styles; it can the article of any format, even a 10-page research paper. The main thing is to fully reveal all the distinctive features of that epoch.
  • The history of European Art in the 20th century . The research can be devoted to some trends in the previous century.
  • The most outstanding artists in the world’s history. The paper should tell about the most famous artists of all the epochs.
  • Why do people appreciate art? This article can include your own ideas concerning the subject.
  • How do artists reflect their talent today? Your task is to try to study the methods that modern artists use to attract the audience.
  • Skills that a professional artist should possess. The aim of this article is to study some skills that should be necessary for the work of the artist. Regardless of whether you write research papers for sale or not, you should try to express not only well-known ideas but also your personal point of view.
  • Is it possible to develop artistic talent? Try to express your ideas concerning the opportunity for mastering proper skills.
  • The benefits of cooperation with other artists. This topic touches upon probable advantages that artists can gain when cooperating with their colleagues.
  • Themes that are the best for the canvas. You can develop a number of research abstract topics on this theme and convey the best motives to paint that seem the most successful for you.
  • The absence of inspiration. The theme should reveal what authors should do to develop their inspiration.
  • Chronological order of art development in the world. It is a rather accurate paper that should mention the most significant stages of art development.
  • Do people appreciate the work of artists? You could try to study the audience’s attitude toward artists’ work.
  • The methods to attract young people to art. The topic is connected with a social issue and aims at popularizing art in masses.
  • Do artists need additional knowledge? This theme implies for describing the necessity of education among all the professions, including artists and other creative posts.

Statistics of arts.

🎼 Music Research Topics

Every culture has its distinct music. For many people, music is an integral part of everyday life. Film and theater productions use it to steer our emotions. When writing about music, you can choose from an endless number of ideas to research. Here are some examples:

  • Music as a ritual. Back in prehistoric times, music was considered to be a powerful ritualistic practice. Some mythologies even include stories about gods introducing the art of music to humans.
  • Early polyphony in Christian Europe. The earliest choral music was mostly performed in a single melodic line. See how it changed when more melodic lines were added.
  • Indian ethnomusicology. This interesting music research topic is concerned with the peculiarities of Indian music culture. You can include the discussion of how Indian music influenced psychedelic rock in the ’60s.
  • Jazz performance and improvisation. The element of spontaneity is very important in jazz performance, and improvisation is its key component.
  • Medieval troubadours and their legacy. Troubadours were poets who sang their own music and played instruments. Their performances differed greatly from the traditional church music of that time.
  • Ecomusicology of North America. This research topic allows you to discover the ways in which American landscape and nature influenced music, including Native American music, folk music, and modern songwriters.
  • Baroque music. During the Baroque era, many important features of modern music were introduced. You can choose this topic if you like grandiose, dramatic, or playful classical music.
  • The classical period in music. This period followed the after the Baroque and was very different from it. You can recognize it by simple structures and minimalistic arrangements. Many of the world’s greatest composers, such as Mozart and Beethoven, lived during the Classical era.
  • Classical music of the 20th century. Over the course of the previous century, the music styles were changing like never before. Still, classical music survived, while also transforming itself in accordance with times.
  • Music therapy for children. In this exciting music research topic, you can discover how music is used to help children with developmental dyspraxia, autism, ADHD, and other disorders.
  • Music and sound in film. Discover for yourself the art of scoring – from improvised piano arrangements of early movies to modern stereo surround sound.
  • The history of Italian opera . The Italian language played a key role in the formation of classical singing techniques. This includes opera – an art form that unites music and singing with storytelling.
  • The 20th-century music industry. This topic is centered on various ways of recording and selling music. Vinyl records, wax cylinders, cassette tapes, and CDs – 20th-century technology allowed turning music into a business.
  • The birth of pop music. The history of popular music begins in the 1950s. The term refers to the songs appealing to a large audience, as opposed to classical or jazz music. You can discuss the elements of early pop music that made it so accessible.
  • The ideology and aesthetics of punk rock. Punk rock was enormously influential in the 1970th. Its philosophy of anti-conformity appealed to young people of post-war Britain and the USA.
  • The musicology of electronic music. This exciting topic covers the earliest repetitive devices such as Hammond organ, early experimentations with electronics, the first use of computers and synthesizers in songwriting, and more!
  • Sampling in electronic music: context and aesthetics. Sampling is a very interesting technique that allows using audio fragments in different contexts. It can be used for aesthetic or political reasons, or as a cultural commentary.
  • What is a sound sculpture? A combination of an art object and music, sound sculptures are exciting to research. You can use this topic for presentation and demonstrate sound sculptures in action!
  • Dadaism and music. Dadaist ideas of randomness and paradox influenced art as well as music. Discuss the noise compositions and avant-garde sonic experiments that influenced the latter half of the 20th century.
  • Robotic musical instruments. You may think that robots playing music is a relatively new idea, but in fact, they date back to ancient times.

✍️ Creative Writing Research Topics

There are more rules to creative writing than one might think. For example, narratives should be coherent, and world-building has to follow certain logic. Analyzing these peculiarities brings you one step closer to becoming a better writer.

  • The role of reality within the psychological thriller genre. Psychological thrillers often aim at distorting or questioning reality. Study the ways in which this idea manifests in different narratives.
  • Graphic novels and their peculiarities. In modern times comic books are no longer considered to be just for entertainment, and graphic novel format is used to produce award-winning narratives.
  • Writing about the past: historical research and archaeology. When your narrative takes place in the distant past, you need to do extensive research to represent the time period properly. One way to do it is to turn to archaeology.
  • What is the role of landscape in supernatural narratives? Supernatural narratives rely on the atmosphere to evoke the feeling of uncanny. The setting and landscape are especially important to the writes of the supernatural genre.
  • How to write engaging crime fiction? This topic includes the ways of building suspense, the use of “red herrings,” complex character development, and other tips.
  • Digital storytelling. Here you can explore how to present your narrative in interactive digital form. It can be a video game, a visual novel, or a walking simulator.
  • Writing about the future. When you write about the past, you already know the characteristics of an epoch. But how do you invent the attributes of the future? Discuss it in your paper!
  • The influence of the author’s personal life on their writing. People often want to learn more about their favorite writers in the hope to understand their work better. But is there really such a connection between one’s personal and creative lives?
  • The role of diaries in creative writing. Almost all writers keep diaries. Sometimes the diaries are published and used in research or literary analysis. But how do authors themselves use their diary entries?
  • Creative writing for children. This excellent creative writing research topic deals with the ways of teaching children how to create their own narratives. You can discuss why writing is beneficial for children and how you can encourage them to be creative.
  • The art of teaching poetry. Poetry is one of the most exciting art forms that never gets old. However, not everybody appreciates poetry right away. See how you can change it!
  • What is the role of nature in romantic literature? Romantic artists and writers took lots of inspiration from nature, using it as a metaphor for one’s life and feelings.
  • The role of authorial intent. Some readers think that it’s essential to know what the author wanted to say in their literary work. Others believe that it’s one’s personal interpretation that matters the most.
  • A persona in poetry. The lyrical subject is someone who narrates a poem. Some people see it as the manifestation of the author, and others as a fictitious character. And what do you think?
  • Degrees of realism in fiction. When writing a work of fiction, some writers use excessive descriptions, while others keep things relatively minimalistic. Discuss the positive and negative sides of these approaches.
  • Forms of structure in films and novels: a comparison. Here you can compare different forms of narrative structures used in cinema and literature, such as linear and non-linear narratives, the use of flashbacks, and so on.
  • How to write a comedy. Comics say that making people laugh is much harder than to make them cry. Discuss what makes a literary work funny, and how one can write effective comedy.
  • The recontextualization of Hamlet. Recontextualization is a process by which something (e.g., a character) is taken from one context and introduced into another context. You can explore this notion through different recontextualizations of Shakespeare’s character Hamlet.
  • Writing a dystopia. See what techniques you can use when writing a narrative set in a bleak society.
  • Monomyth in literature. This exciting topic deals with the concept of “hero’s journey,” which serves as a basis for nearly all myths as well as countless works of fiction.

🎈 Other Research Paper Topics

You still haven’t found what you were looking for? This section might have what you need! Here you’ll find all kinds of topics. From psychology over physics to sociology, we compiled the most engaging ideas for you.

  • American teenagers–can they be called new species?
  • William Shakespeare: was this man the author of famous plays and sonnets?
  • Do you have any ideas about the field circles?
  • Black magic. Does it exist?
  • Censorship and its role in forming a society
  • The phenomenon of the penny press in the USA
  • Symbolism in literature
  • Alcatraz and its famous fugitives
  • Major sources of stress
  • Government grants–how do they work?
  • Election falsification: is it commonly used, and what are its main techniques?
  • Genetic engineering and your point of view on it
  • Stem cell research
  • What is a black hole?
  • Loch Ness monster and your attitude towards this mystery
  • Joan of Arc –did she manage to escape the fires of Inquisition?
  • Do some research on techniques of brainwashing
  • Who invented the radio?
  • There is a belief that American astronauts didn’t step on the Moon. Did they?
  • American international policy
  • Unique people who changed the world
  • Genius ideas that made their inventors famous and wealthy
  • Is education a necessary factor to become successful in today’s world?
  • Differences between the high school systems in the USA and Japan
  • Schindler’s list: the importance of moral roles over wealth
  • Educational programs’ impact on professional careers
  • Why do college students from all over the world come to the USA to pursue further education?
  • Examples of crop circles: Fake or real?
  • Humanity’s technological achievements in 2023

John Brunner quote: “It’s supposed to be automatic, but actually you have to push this button”

  • The importance of outlines in books and articles
  • Web-designers seem to be using the same template in their works
  • Exciting inventions of humankind in the nearest future
  • Modern students do not know how to do their homework without access to the Internet
  • The original cover page of the Holy Bible
  • The development of the MLA style
  • The cradle of psychology
  • Controversial policies of the USA and the USSR
  • How abortion affects a woman’s organism
  • What did Homer write about his lifestyle?
  • Famous people in the world’s history that did not exist
  • Would people have become what they are today without science?
  • Parts of the world that will always remain uninhabited
  • Philosophical questions that humanity cannot answer for centuries
  • Medical stereotypes around the world
  • Will global warming ruin America’s economic system?
  • The USA government should be thankful for the mass immigration
  • The majority of scientific works are useless
  • Things to research in the sphere of modern gadgets
  • Should sociology make people happier?
  • The lack of pure water sources on Earth
  • The environment’s impact on people’s health
  • Humanity’s steps towards eco-friendly products, cities, and vehicles
  • Sherlock Holmes’ analytical mind and deduction skills
  • Should parents teach their children how to make the world better for other people?
  • Is business the only way to become wealthy in Third World countries?
  • Analysis of William Shakespeare’s literary language
  • Does a title tell everything about a book’s context?
  • The Great Wall: A legendary monument or China’s income source?
  • Should families report to the police that their relatives are guilty of something?
  • The first websites, available on the World Wide Web
  • New challenges to the society introduced by social media
  • If you created your government, what would you do for your citizens?
  • What career options are prevalent in modern societies?
  • Chemistry in people’s everyday life
  • Is there any person on Earth, whose life is considered to be easy?
  • Is bribery acceptable for criminal justice?
  • The most popular sports in Britain
  • The population biology of India
  • Basic nursing knowledge of everyday life
  • Renaissance literature in France
  • Think of a technology that would make our atmosphere cleaner
  • Development of different animals after forty days on Noah’s Ark.
  • What will the food be like in a hundred years?
  • Socialization of children with autism
  • The medieval art of Scandinavian people
  • Different ways to save Earth’s environment from pollution
  • Depression in adolescents: reasons and outcomes
  • The importance of computer science in today’s world
  • Coca-Cola marketing strategies

Richard Roeper quote.

  • Express your opinion on people’s purpose in life on Earth
  • How do early childhood memories and experiences influence our lives?
  • The history of video games era
  • Regulation of bullying in schools by law
  • Drugs industry in California, New Mexico, and Texas
  • The most prevalent economic issues in Greece after joining the EU
  • China’s rapid growth: is it going to become the first country in the world?
  • Global dangers that influence our planet’s ecology
  • Significant changes in the American media since the 1970s
  • What makes medicine an interesting subject to study?
  • The main factors to consider while conducting qualitative research

There are so many resources out there that will help you choose a topic and write an outstanding paper. This video gives you a bunch of topics for research papers, which means you now have even more from which to choose!

There is no doubt that writing a research paper is a daunting task.

If you feel you need help, even if you have managed to choose a topic, you can always hire a custom writing service to help you produce a fabulous research paper of which you will be proud and will guarantee you a good mark.

Whether you choose to write it on your own or get some help, we wish you luck writing your paper!

🤔 Research Topics FAQ

There are literally thousands of topics to choose from. “Biomarkers and colors: what is the correlation?” is a great topic on psychology. Should businesses be regulated: pros and cons is an exciting business research topic. Finally, Art as a form of protest is an art research topic worth exploring.

The first option is to ask your professor. Then you can browse through scientific journals and take a look at your library catalog. The final option for those who search for a creative idea is to take notes everywhere. Write things down while traveling, watching TV, and reading.

The Big Bang theory, Dwarf galaxies, and Supernova Astronomy are just a few of numerous astronomy research topics. Genetically modified organisms, Neurobiology of sleep, and Rainforest conservation are exciting research biology research topics. Artificial intelligence, Computer modeling, and Voice recognition are trendy computer science topics.

There are numerous exciting topics in various education research areas. Some of them are: Ability grouping, Computer literacy, Early childhood education, Multiculturalism, Parental involvement, Sex education, Violence in schools, and Virtual classrooms.

You might also be interested in:

  • 280 Good Nursing Research Topics & Questions
  • 226 Research Topics on Criminal Justice & Criminology
  • 204 Research Topics on Technology & Computer Science
  • 178 Best Research Titles about Cookery & Food
  • 497 Interesting History Topics to Research
  • 180 Best Education Research Topics & Ideas
  • 110+ Micro- & Macroeconomics Research Topics
  • 417 Business Research Topics for ABM Students
  • 190+ Research Topics on Psychology & Communication
  • 512 Research Topics on HumSS
  • 281 Best Health & Medical Research Topics
  • 501 Research Questions & Titles about Science
  • Good Research Topics, Titles and Ideas for Your Paper

🔗 References

  • APA Sample Paper
  • Painting Movements in the 20th Century Topic
  • The Discovery Themes Initiative at The Ohio State University
  • Quantitative Research in Education
  • Quantitative Research Works, Indiana University
  • Organizing Academic Research Papers: Choosing a Title
  • Research Topics, The University of Arizona
  • Research Topic Ideas, University of Michigan-Flint
  • National Archives—Research by Topic
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory—Research Topics List
  • Global Health Research Topics
  • National Institute of Justice—Topics
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology—Topics
  • Research Topics at U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research & Development
  • National Institutes of Health—A to Z Topics Index
  • Evaluating Print Sources
  • Working With Sources
  • Developing a Thesis
  • Psychiatry: Medscape
  • Information Technology: NIST
  • Topics:
  • Research Programs: National Center for Education Research
  • Recent Computer and Education Articles: Elsevier
  • Basic Guide to Cross-Cultural Research: Yale University
  • Cultural Anthropology: Britannica
  • Top Physical and Tech News: Science Daily
  • Health Topics: National Institute of Mental Health
  • PhDs in Business & Management: Five Hot Research Topics: Top Universities
  • Research and Focus Areas in Business and Government: Victoria University of Wellington
  • Modern Literature: University of Portsmouth
  • Research Areas: Political Science: Florida University
  • Sociology Research Areas: Cornell University
  • Focus Areas: Nursing Research: Mayo Clinic
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Elicit is building a tool to automate scientific literature review

scientific literature research topics

For researchers, reading scientific papers can be immensely time-consuming. According to one survey, scientists spend seven hours each week searching for information. Another survey suggests that systematic reviews of literature — scholarly syntheses of the evidence on a particular topic — take an average of 41 weeks for a five-person research team.

But it doesn’t have to be this way.

At least, that’s the message from Andreas Stuhlmüller, the co-founder of an AI startup, Elicit , that’s designed a “research assistant” for scientists and R&D labs. With backers including Fifty Years, Basis Set, Illusion and angel investors Jeff Dean (Google’s chief scientist) and Thomas Ebeling (the former Novartis CEO), Elicit is building an AI-powered tool to abstract away the more tedious aspects of literature review.

“Elicit is a research assistant that automates scientific research with language models,” Stuhlmüller told TechCrunch in an email interview. “Specifically, it automates literature review by finding relevant papers, extracting key information about the studies and organizing the information into concepts.”

Elicit is a for-profit venture spun out from Ought, a nonprofit research foundation launched in 2017 by Stuhlmüller, a former researcher at Stanford’s computation and cognition lab. Elicit’s other co-founder, Jungwon Byun, joined the startup in 2019 after leading growth at online lending firm Upstart.

Using a variety of models both first- and third-party, Elicit searches and discovers concepts across papers, allowing users to ask questions like “What are all of the effects of creatine?” or “What are all of the datasets that have been used to study logical reasoning?” and get a list of answers from the academic literature.

“By automating the systematic review process, we can immediately deliver cost and time savings to the academic and industry research organizations producing these reviews,” Stuhlmüller said. “By lowering the cost enough, we unlock new use cases that were previously cost-prohibitive, such as just-in-time updates when the state of knowledge in a field changes.”

But wait, you might say — don’t language models have a tendency to make things up? Indeed they do. Meta’s attempt at a language model to streamline scientific research, Galactica , was taken down only three days after launch, once it was discovered that the model frequently referred to fake research papers that sounded right but weren’t actually factual.

Stuhlmüller claims Elicit has taken steps to ensure its AI is more reliable than many of the purpose-built platforms out there, however.

For one, Elicit breaks down into “human-understandable” pieces the complex tasks that its models perform. This enables Elicit to know, for instance, how often different models are making things up when they generate summaries, and subsequently help users identify what answers to check — and when.

Elicit also attempts to compute a scientific paper’s overall “trustworthiness,” taking into account factors like whether the trials conducted in the research were controlled or randomized, the source of the funding and potential conflicts and the size of the trials.


Elicit’s search tool for AI literature. Image Credits: Elicit

“We don’t do chat interfaces,” Stuhlmüller said. “Elicit users apply language models as batch jobs … We never just generate answers using models, we always link the answers back to the scientific literature to reduce hallucination and make it easy to check models’ work.”

I’m not necessarily convinced that Elicit has solved some of the major issues plaguing language models today, given their intractability . But its efforts certainly appear to have garnered interest — and perhaps even trust — from the research community.

Stuhlmüller claims that more than 200,000 people are using Elicit every month, representing 3x year-over-year growth (starting from January 2023), from organizations including The World Bank, Genentech and Stanford. “Our users are asking to pay for more powerful features and to run Elicit at larger scales,” he added.

Presumably, it’s this momentum that led to Elicit’s first funding round — a $9 million tranche led by Fifty Years. The plan is to put the bulk of the new cash toward further developing Elicit’s product as well as expanding Elicit’s team of product managers and software engineers.

But what’s Elicit’s plan to make money? Good question — and one I asked Stuhlmüller point blank. He pointed to Elicit’s paid tier, launched this week, that lets users search papers, extract data and summarize concepts at a larger scale than the free tier supports. The longer-term strategy is to build Elicit into a general tool for research and reasoning — one that whole enterprises would shell out for.

One possible roadblock to Elicit’s commercial success are open source efforts like the Allen Institute for AI’s Open Language Model, which aim to develop a free-to-use large language model optimized for science. But Stuhlmüller says that he sees open source more as complementary than threatening.

“The primary competition right now is human labor — research assistants that are hired to painstakingly extract data from papers,” Stuhlmüller said. “Scientific research is a huge market and research workflow tooling has no major incumbents. This is where we’ll see entirely new AI-first workflows emerge.”

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100 best literary research paper topics for 2023.

literary research paper topics

Did you know that your professor will most likely award you bonus points simply because you came up with the most literary research paper topics? Or that writing essays on the best literary research paper topics is quicker than writing about other topics? Our list of literary analysis topics, literary analysis research paper topics and English literature topics is exactly what you need. All the topics are completely free to use and entirely original. We are working hard to update the list periodically to make sure we can help as many students as possible.

The Ultimate Literary Research Paper Topics List

Stop searching all over the Internet for excellent literary essay topics. Take a look at our list of literary topics and pick the one you like right now. We have plenty of topics for literary analysis split into different categories, so high school and college students can easily find what they are looking for, not matter if it’s rhetorical analysis essay or a paper related to specific period in literature. In addition, our literature topics are fresh. In other words, they are a great option in 2023. Get the best topics in literature in mere minutes right here (literary debate topics included).

Top 10 Literature Topics

Take a look at our list of the best 10 literary analysis essay topics ever and select the one you like. Remember, all these topics are original (at the time of writing):

  • Describe literature as a part of the modern culture.
  • Daoism in modern Chinese literature.
  • Feminism in contemporary literature.
  • Don Quixote’s most important personality traits.
  • How did literature help advance human culture?
  • 21st century poetry.
  • Charles Dickens and picture in the Victorian period.
  • Gender issues in European literature.
  • Difference between villains and antiheroes in modern literature.
  • Psychology and its link to literature.

British Literature Research Paper Topics

Are you interested in writing something interesting about British literature? If so, you may be interested in some of our amazing British literature research paper topics:

  • Cultures influenced by British literature.
  • Describe the peculiarities of the Orphans theme.
  • Compare two characters from 2 British literary works.
  • Utopian civilization in British literature.
  • Gender issues in British literary works.
  • What makes a book a classic?
  • Lake Poets and the Romantic Movement in British literature.
  • Oliver Twist: individualism and collectivism.

Interesting Literature Topics

Did you know that if you manage to surprise or impress your professor, you will most often get some bonus points? To achieve this, just choose one of these interesting literature topics:

  • Macbeth and the supernatural theme.
  • Social issues in modern literature.
  • Describe two masterpieces of contemporary literature.
  • Ethnicity in modem literature.
  • What is formalism in literature?
  • An in-depth Solomon Northrup biography.

Easy British Literature Essay Topics

We know, you want to write an interesting essay about British literature but don’t want to spend 4 days on it. Here are some easy British literature essay topics you will surely appreciate:

  • Discuss the Harry Potter books.
  • The loss of innocence motif (Lord of the Flies by William Golding)
  • Detective novels and their rise in popularity.
  • Analyze the three witches in Macbeth.
  • Describe the theme of class demarcation.
  • World War I: the use of violent imagery in novels.

Research Topics in English Literature

Do you want some of the best research topics in English literature on the Internet? You are in luck. We have some fresh topics that would work great in 2023:

  • Compare two of your favorite classis books.
  • What makes your favorite book so interesting?
  • Describe your favorite character in a book.
  • The best 5 authors in modern times.
  • Why has Harry Potter became so important?
  • Describe your favorite poet.

Western Literature Topics

Writing about Western literature can be a thrilling experience. Here are some topic ideas to choose from:

  • Compare and contrast 3 literary devices.
  • Artificial language in The Lord of the Rings.
  • The Bildungsroman genre: what is it?
  • Absalom, Absalom! by William Faulkner: Top 3 themes
  • Discuss the novel Tom Jones by Henry Fielding.
  • Paradise Lost’s influence on the modern novel

Literary Argument Topics

If you want to write a literary argument but don’t know where to start, we recommend you select one of these easy literary argument topics and start writing the paper today:

  • The Genesis myth in literature of the 17th century.
  • Analyze the poems by Thomas Hardy and identify the love and loss motifs.
  • Describe the peculiarities of rustic writing.
  • Gender in gothic novels.
  • Space age in literature of the 21st century.
  • Effects of mass print on Renaissance literature.

American Literature Research Paper Topics

Don’t postpone writing the American literature essay. We know you don’t know where to start, so we have put together a list of awesome American literature research paper topics just for you:

  • In-depth analysis of Colonial-period literature.
  • Puritan themes in Jonathan Edwards’ sermons.
  • Analyze Edith Wharton’s The Age of Innocence.
  • I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings: The power of education.
  • Ernest Hemingway’s Old Man and the Sea: unbreakable spirit
  • James Weldon Johnson’s The Creation: God’s humanity

Easy American Literature Topics

In case you want to write an essay about American literature but don’t want to spend too much time on it, we have some very interest and very easy American literature topics for students:

  • Discuss Latin American literature.
  • Top three literary devices in Moby Dick.
  • Discuss the main theme in Hamlet.
  • Eastern and Western literature: Similarities and differences
  • Discuss the contemporary literary theory.
  • Peculiarities of the personality of Don Quixote

Literary Analysis Paper Topics

Let’s face it: writing literary analysis essay can be a very difficult thing to do, especially if you don’t have academic writing experience. To make things easier for you, we’ve compiled a list of original literary analysis paper topics:

  • Analyze your favorite book.
  • Contrast two characters in your favorite literary work.
  • Analyze the historical context of your favorite book.
  • Analyze the main idea of a literary work of your choice.
  • An in-depth analysis of the cultural context of a book.
  • She significance of Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy.

European Literature

Are you interested in European literature? Don’t worry, we have some excellent topic ideas you can choose from right now:

  • Discuss Henrik Ibsen.
  • The peculiarities of Medieval European literature.
  • Analyze major divisions in literature in Europe.
  • The impact of European literature on modern literature.
  • Discuss The Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Discuss symbolism in European literature.

American Literature Research Topics for College

College students should pick more complex topics to write their essays about. Our skilled writers managed to create a list of American literature research topics for college students that are entirely original:

  • Compare American and European literature.
  • Compare American and Asian literature.
  • Women in American literature.
  • Critical issues in American literature.
  • Comedy in American literature.
  • War and peace in American literature.

Literary Journalism Topics

Interested in writing about literary journalism? We will make things as easy as possible for you. Just select one of these unique literary journalism topics and start working on your paper in minutes:

  • Adventure as a form of creative nonfiction.
  • Write a story about a famous crime.
  • Write the biography of your favorite writer.
  • Write a sporting story.
  • Discuss a political event.
  • Write about the history of an important invention.

World Literature Research Topics

It can be pretty tough to write a great essay on one of the many world literature research topics. Fortunately for you, we have some interesting ideas that don’t require extensive research:

  • Compare Chinese and Japanese literary works.
  • The differences between European and Chinese literature.
  • Similarities between Iliad and Odyssey,
  • Compare two Indian anti-British literary works.
  • How did Marx and Engels influence European literature?
  • Supernatural and spirituality in American literature.

Poetry Topics

Do you like poetry? If you do, you are most likely interested in writing an essay about it. Here are some great ideas that will get you started (all poetry topics are 100% original):

  • Discuss Sylvia Plath’s poems.
  • The Flowers of Evil by Charles Baudelaire
  • What is prose poetry?
  • Interesting features of the Sonnets (Shakespeare)
  • Allen Ginsberg’s influence on poetry
  • Allusions in modern poetry.

Eastern Literature

Eastern literature has some unique traits that you won’t find anywhere else. If you are intrigued about this and want to write about Eastern literature, pick one of the topics below:

  • A biography of Khalil Gibran.
  • Discuss peculiarities of Jewish literature.
  • Turkish literary devices.
  • Motifs in Aladdin.
  • Daoism philosophy in Chinese works.
  • Compare Arabic and Chinese poetry.

Need More Help?

We know that some students want even more interesting topics. Or perhaps you want some complex topics that will surprise your professor. Our writers are here to help you with anything you need. We can send you another list of literary research paper topics in no time. Each and every topic will be original, so you can safely use any of them without having to worry about plagiarizing anything.

In addition to literature research topics, we can help you with all sorts of writing, editing and proofreading services. Our experienced academic paper writers have written thousands of academic papers in any format and on any topic you can imagine. We have the skills and the experience to help you find complex literary topics for research paper and write an essay that will get you the A+ you need.

bible research paper topics

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Looking ahead: New cleared concepts for aging research September 27, 2023

Amy Kelley

Curious about potential new funding opportunities on NIA’s scientific horizon? Read on to learn more about our latest cleared concepts for aging research!

The following concepts, which were approved by the NIA National Advisory Council on Aging (NACA) earlier this month, have the potential to become future Notices of Funding Opportunities (NOFOs). While making it to the cleared concept stage doesn’t guarantee an award mechanism or funding allocation, many of NIA’s cleared concepts do indeed eventually become published NOFOs in the NIH Guide . If any of the topics below spark your interest, be sure to begin planning for a successful application, including taking inventory of required resources, staffing, and expertise.

NIA’s new cleared concepts are:

  • Centers on the Demography and Economics of Aging, Including Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease Related Dementias (AD/ADRD), and Coordinating Center
  • Coordinating Center To Support the Consortium for Neuroscience AD/ADRD in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
  • Consortium for Neuroscience AD/ADRD in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
  • Consortium for Palliative Care Research Across the Lifespan
  • Deriving Common Data Elements From Real-World Data for Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias
  • Exploring Proteogenomic Approaches To Unravel the Mechanisms of Mis-folded Protein Accumulation in Tauopathies
  • Limited Competition: Renewal of, and Revisions to, the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium
  • Multi-Scale Models Bridging Levels of Analysis in Aging and AD/ADRD
  • Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging (NSC)
  • Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging Coordinating Center (NSC3)
  • Open Measurement Coordinating Network for Non-Pharmacological AD/ADRD Primary Prevention Trials
  • Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Approach To Develop Predictive Models of Differential Responsiveness to Treatment
  • Re-issue: Alzheimer’s Clinical Trials Consortium (ACTC) Clinical Trials
  • Re-issue: Early and Late Stage Clinical Trials for the Spectrum of Alzheimer’s Disease/Alzheimer’s Related Dementias and Age-Related Cognitive Decline
  • Renewal of Aging Research Dissertation Awards To Increase Diversity
  • Renewal of NIA MSTEM: Advancing Diversity in Aging Research (ADAR) Through Undergraduate Education
  • Renewal of Summer Research Training in Aging for Medical Students
  • Renewal of Institutional Training Programs To Advance Translational Research on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and AD-Related Dementias
  • Research Collaboration Network in Structural Racism Measurement and Modeling
  • Safety and Early Efficacy Studies of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy for Chronic Pain in Older Adults
  • Small Research Grant Program for the Next Generation of Researchers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) for Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease and AD-Related Dementias Research
  • Small Business Transition Grant for New Entrepreneurs
  • Translational Bioinformatics and Experimental Approaches To Advance Drug Repositioning and Combination Therapy Development for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias

For more information on any of these concepts, please email the program officer(s) noted in the linked information or leave a question or comment below.

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scientific literature research topics

Grab 40 Top Literary Research Paper Topics and Ideas

English Composition 101 and Literature are the two subjects that high school, college, and university students can't avoid, no matter what their chosen field of study is. By taking a course in literature, students get to improve their skills in reading, comprehension, analysis, research, and writing. They also expand their outlook and learn a lot of things they didn't know about, thus boosting their overall social awareness.

Some students may ask: "What is a literary research paper?" This is a type of academic homework assignment meant to test the student's skills and knowledge learned during the course. Unlike the regular essay, the research project has a title page at the beginning of the paper followed by a table of contents and an introduction. An introduction should have an attention-grabbing hook sentence, some background information explaining the importance of the selected topic to write a literature research paper on, and a thesis statement, which is the main argument of the work.

Once you are done with the introduction, it is time to move on to the main part of your essay which is the body paragraphs. Each of the body paragraphs should start with a topic sentence related to the thesis statement and providing evidence from credible and trustworthy sources. It is important to add both direct and indirect in-text citations because this is the best way of proving your points. Using a direct citation requires the writer to insert an author's words in quotation marks; it is also possible to paraphrase the sentence you like, i.e., rewrite it in your own words. Whichever the case may be, you should reference all sources properly and create the Works Cited page (a full bibliography) at the end of your paper.

When working on a conclusion, restate the thesis and then briefly summarize the entire paper, providing a powerful concluding sentence in the form of an eye-catching hook (e.g., a rhetorical question).

The list of subjects to discuss in this kind of essay is a quite wide-ranging one: from literary research paper topics for British works to the questions about worldwide literature and history. Those are interrelated subjects, so keep that in mind, too.

Now that we've covered the basics, let's discuss some of the top literature topics for a research paper:

10 Literary Research Paper Topics for World Literature

  • Contemporary American literature.
  • Renaissance in the American literature.
  • Analysis of the Last of the Mohicans by Cooper.
  • Evaluation of Leaves of Grass by Whitman.
  • The roles of gender in the US literature.
  • Comparing 2 characters from the US literature.
  • Allusions in a specific novel.
  • Historical background of a chosen book.
  • Analysis of 2 different genres.
  • Symbolism in the books of the US authors.

10 English Literature Research Paper Topics

  • Female writers in the English literature.
  • The Imagist movement analysis.
  • Contributions made by Indian authors.
  • The socio-political context of a chosen book.
  • Scottish authors in the UK literature.
  • Famous authors from London.
  • The reasons why certain books get banned.
  • Representation of children in the UK books.
  • Challenges of studying English literature.
  • Peculiarities of the literary English language.

10 British Literature Research Paper Topics

  • Reasons to ban certain types of books.
  • Victorian age literature.
  • The image of Sherlock Holmes in the international arena.
  • Shakespeare's plays made into movies.
  • Origins of the British poems.
  • Old-English poems.
  • The Roman influences in the British literature.
  • The reflection of Viking raids in the British literature.
  • Early modern British literary works.
  • Cross-cultural impact of the British novels.

10 Research Paper Topics for World Literature

  • Contemporary literary theories.
  • Functions of world literature.
  • Chinese art in the middle of the 20th century.
  • The history of the African-American literature movement.
  • The Nobel Prize winners of the 21st century.
  • The contribution of Asian poets to world culture.
  • Another nation-shaping factor worldwide.
  • The main attributes of postmodern prose.
  • Literary scholars of the United States.
  • Main themes of the early American literature.

No matter whether you need world literature research topics or the US literary ideas, our tips will help you choose a subject for your essay. So, how do you go about developing an interesting and thought-provoking topic?

The first thing you should do is write down all possible ideas related to the studied course on a piece of paper. To save yourself the trouble of doing it on your own, you can get your peers, parents, or tutors to provide you with them. Those should be the latest literary research paper topics in English literature, so try and avoid writing on antiquated subjects.

Check the availability of information on the selected problem, making sure the sources are no older than five years, and the data is relevant and interesting for a modern audience. It is important to analyze what the current trends are and how your audience may react to various issues.

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REVIEW article

This article is part of the research topic.

Citizen Engagement and Innovative Approaches in Sustainable Urban Transitions

Understanding the Role of Cities and Citizen Science in Advancing Sustainable Development Goals across Europe: Insights from European Research Framework Projects

  • 1 Independent researcher, Norway
  • 2 Department of Environmental Impacts and Sustainability, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Norway
  • 3 Independent researcher, United Kingdom
  • 4 T6 Ecosystems S.r.I, Italy
  • 5 Department of Urban and Industrial Pollution, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway

The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon.

This paper examines the potential impact of citizen science on achieving SDGs in cities. The analysis focuses on projects funded through the European Research Framework Programmes that utilize citizen science practices to involve cities and citizens in addressing sustainability issues. We analysed a total of 44 projects active between 2016 and 2027, encompassing both ongoing and completed projects. Instead of relying solely on existing literature, we utilized a project database called CORDIS to gather project information. This approach allowed us to develop a comprehensive framework by utilizing uniformly classified data from the database, which is not typically available in literature. Using a four-stage framework analysis method, we assessed the projects’ thematic areas, goals, types of solution promoted or tested to address sustainability challenges, methodologies employed, and the impacts achieved or expected. Through this analysis, we identified successful collaborations between citizen science and cities, showcasing examples of effective practice where citizens and cities co-created and tested solutions that contribute to SDGs. This highlights the active role that citizens, as participants or citizen scientists, play in the transition towards SDGs. This study focuses on more than 100 European cities that have been involved in EU-funded research projects implementing and planning to conduct citizen science activities, which directly and indirectly link to various SDGs. Our findings reveal that citizen science practices in cities predominantly address SDG3 (Good health and wellbeing), 11 (Sustainable cities and communities), and 13 (Climate action). Cities that engage citizens in co-creating solutions can enhance their capacity to improve quality of life and reduce climate and environmental impacts. Citizen engagement at the city and community levels can bolster efforts towards achieving SDGs and monitoring progress on a city-wide scale. However, to fully integrate citizen science and its contribution to cities in achieving SDGs, further research is needed to align the SDGs formulated at the national level with those at the city level. This entails exploring how citizen science can align with SDGs indicators and the quantification of SDG targets. Such efforts will facilitate the mainstreaming of citizen science and its potential to drive progress towards SDGs in cities.

Keywords: citizen engagement, Citizens' observatories, citizen science, Living labs, Responsible research and innovation, Social science and humanities, Sustainable development goals, Urban sustainability

Received: 09 May 2023; Accepted: 25 Sep 2023.

Copyright: © 2023 Liu, Sohel, Passani and Bartonova. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Hai-Ying Liu, Independent researcher, Kjeller, Norway

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Impact of genes linked to neurodevelopmental diseases found

Combining two cutting-edge technologies, researchers revealed the impact of a multitude of genes that are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, but whose effects on human brain development were previously unknown.

September 27, 2023 - By Bruce Goldman


Forebrain assembloids: The human migrating interneurons are in green; nuclei are in pink.  Pasca lab

Stanford Medicine investigators and their colleagues sifted through a jumble of genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and identified dozens of disparate troublemakers with similar effects.

Because the method they used sorts defective genes by their function — or in this case, their dysfunction — the approach is likely to accelerate drug development for neurodevelopmental disorders.

Studies have implicated at least 500 genes in such disorders. But scientists have no idea exactly how defects in most of these genes impair brain function.

The research, which points the way toward creating order from this chaos, is described in a paper published online Sept. 27 in  Nature .  Sergiu Pasca , MD, the Kenneth T. Norris, Jr. Professor II of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, is the study’s senior author. The lead author is  Xiangling Meng , PhD, a postdoctoral scholar in Pasca’s group.

There are two main classes of neurons in the cerebral cortex: excitatory and inhibitory. Excitatory neurons fire impulses that activate other neurons, while inhibitory neurons’ firing blocks other neurons from firing. Inhibitory and excitatory neurons integrate to form circuits, shaping signaling activity in the brain.

In humans, as many as half of all cells in the cerebral cortex, the brain’s outermost and most recently evolved layer, are inhibitory. Scientists theorize that an imbalance in the number or function of inhibitory neurons compared with excitatory neurons might be at least partly responsible for autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy.

“If that’s true, you could find ways to alter the functional balance of these cells in the cortexas a therapeutic approach for these disorders,” Pasca said. But first, he wondered, how do you make sense of the enormous collection of genes that have been implicated in these conditions but whose impacts are largely unknown?

Does the existence of hundreds of genes associated with disease mean that there are hundreds of different types of neurodevelopmental disorders, each requiring a different remedy? Or might several different genes converge and lead to similar pathology, or some particular aspect of it?

“If it’s the latter, a cluster of gene defects that all produce a similar physiological deficit might be amenable to a single type of treatment,” Pasca said.

A new avenue of research

Until recently, there was no way to study early brain development in a human being. But Pasca, who is also the Bonnie Uytengsu and Family Director of the Stanford Brain Organogenesis Program, pioneered a technology that makes detailed exploration of the developing human brain possible. With special laboratory glassware; a combination of growth factors (substances that stimulate cell growth) and nutrients; and human induced pluripotent stem cells — or iPS cells, which can be generated from a simple skin biopsy — he can generate small clumps of neural tissue whose anatomical architecture and function closely resemble part of the brain, such as the human cerebral cortex. Pasca calls these clumps cortical organoids.

Sergiu Pasca

Sergiu Pasca

Adjusting the nutrients and growth factors in which iPS cells are bathed, Pasca has shown, generates organoids approximating another brain structure called the subpallium. Located deeper in the forebrain than the cortex, the subpallium plays a key role during fetal and infantile development: It produces inhibitory neurons, known as interneurons, that migrate to the cortex and elsewhere and join up with excitatory neurons to form functioning circuits capable of complex signal generation.

By placing subpallial organoids next to cortical organoids and waiting for several days, Pasca was able to observe , for the first time, how these two structures fuse together to form what he calls “assembloids” and to watch interneurons migrate from the subpallium to the cortex and hook up with excitatory neurons there.

In the new study, Pasca and his colleagues paired this cutting-edge technology with another: CRISPR.

CRISPR employs a molecular scissors and a molecular bloodhound. This enables researchers to snip out specific DNA sequences at will, so they can knock selected genes out of the genome and see what happens.

Pasca and his colleagues narrowed the neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes on their list down to 425 that are activated in interneurons. They created iPS cells that when differentiated into multi-celled organoids fluoresced only in those cells that had become interneurons. This way, they could generate subpallial organoids in which they’d be able to distinguish interneurons from all the other brain-cell types the subpallium produces.

They infected thousands of these cells — which had also been bioengineered to carry a gene whose protein product was the molecular scissors of CRISPR — with CRISPR “bloodhounds”: small strips of nucleic acids that are complementary to portions of one or another of the 425 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes of interest. Wherever such a strip affixed itself to a gene, the CRISPR “scissors,” an enzyme, would excise the DNA bound by the strip.

Tossing enough of these bloodhounds into a large enough pool of these cells made it statistically likely that each of the 425 suspect genes would get snipped out in at least hundreds of cells in the pool.

From those iPS cells, the researchers generated subpallial organoids. Some showed no fluorescence at all after 44 days in a dish, indicating their failure to generate interneurons. By sequencing the genomes of these organoids, the researchers could tell which gene had been disabled by the CRISPR scissors, resulting in defective interneuron generation. They identified 13 such genes.

To hunt for genes affecting interneuron migration, Pasca’s team placed subpallial organoids capable of generating interneurons beside healthy cortical organoids in numerous lab dishes. The two types of organoids in each dish fused to form assembloids. After about 30 days of organoid cohabitation, the researchers pulled out about 1,000 assembloids from different dishes and cut each of them apart at the fusion junction. Then they compared the fluorescing interneurons in each assembloid’s subpallial section with those that had crossed the finish line into that assembloid’s cortical section.

By sequencing the genomes of cells, the scientists could pinpoint genes in which a targeted deletion had impaired migration. They found 33 of them.

“The identification of 46 genes — close to 10% of all known neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes — whose dysfunction impairs interneuron development points to a subgroup of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by inadequate inhibition of excitatory cortical neurons,” Pasca said.

Some of these genes have been previously uncharacterized, and their function unsuspected, Pasca said.

But other genes have been identified in other studies. “This was a comfort factor,” Pasca said. “It meant we weren’t insane — this approach works.”

Researchers from the University of California, San Francisco, contributed to the work.

The study was funded by the Stanford Brain Organogenesis Program in the Wu Tsai Neuroscience institute and Bio-X, Kwan Funds, Senkut Funds, the Ludwig Foundation, the Mann Foundation, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, CZ BioHub, and the New York Stem Cell Foundation.

Bruce Goldman

About Stanford Medicine

Stanford Medicine is an integrated academic health system comprising the Stanford School of Medicine and adult and pediatric health care delivery systems. Together, they harness the full potential of biomedicine through collaborative research, education and clinical care for patients. For more information, please visit .

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Long COVID risks are 'distorted by flawed research', study finds

Researchers want to see "internationally established" diagnostic criteria when it comes to long COVID, as well as narrowly defined symptoms and the avoidance of the "umbrella term".

Tuesday 26 September 2023 01:13, UK

EMBARGOED TO 0001 TUESDAY JULY 4 File photo dated 20/10/20 of the entrance to one of five Covid-19 wards at Whiston Hospital in Merseyside. A "significant" number of doctors are still suffering with the "debilitating effects" of long Covid, according to a new report by the British Medical Association (BMA). Issue date: Tuesday July 4, 2023.

The risk of contracting long COVID may have been exaggerated due to flawed research, leading to unnecessarily high levels of anxiety about suffering from it, a new study has suggested.

"Major flaws" in the literature on the condition likely exaggerated the true threat of contracting it, the new research argues.

For most people with COVID-19 , they feel better within days or weeks, but some can have symptoms for longer than three months.

Fatigue, brain fog, chest pain and shortness of breath are reported as symptoms by those who have long COVID - which is officially known as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC).

Now, researchers from the UK, along with Denmark and the USA, say "many scientific publications" overestimated the prevalence of long COVID because of "overly broad definitions, lack of control groups, inappropriate control groups, and other methodological flaws".

Instead, the authors of the new study argue that the symptoms are common among upper respiratory viruses.

The research team said this lack of definition could end up leading to an increase in healthcare spending and more anxiety, as well as misdiagnoses and a diversion of funds.

More on Covid-19

scientific literature research topics

Molnupiravir: COVID drug linked to virus mutations, scientists say

Medical Hospital Research Lab: Black Female Neuroscientist Looking at TV Screen, Analyzing Brain Scan MRI Images. Pic: iStock

Long COVID can cause long-term damage to multiple organs, study finds

Under-the-tongue COVID vaccinations could be made available

Under-the-tongue COVID vaccine could be on the way after trial on monkeys

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Long COVID patient Tanysha Dissanayake

Concerns about too many symptoms and no required link to COVID

Published in the British Medical Journal's Evidence-Based Medicine, the new paper looked at the definition of the condition by several global health organisations - including the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

The study argues none of the definitions "requires a causal link" to COVID-19 infection, adding any symptoms that happen after a confirmed or suspected infection could be considered consistent with long COVID.

"In general, in the scientific literature, imprecise definitions have resulted in more than 200 symptoms being associated with the condition termed long COVID," the researchers said.

Researchers also said the studies in the early stages of the pandemic are more likely to have included fewer patients with mild or no symptoms, which could have led to a sampling bias.

They said: "Our analysis indicates that, in addition to including appropriately matched controls, there is a need for better case definitions and more stringent (long COVID) criteria, which should include continuous symptoms after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and take into consideration baseline characteristics, including physical and mental health, which may contribute to an individual's post-COVID experience."

Research in the future should include properly matched groups, the paper added, as well as "sufficient" follow-up time following infection.

Read more: Risk of long-term damage to multiple organs - study Patient says she lost 'identity, independence and joy' Doctors with long COVID forced to stop working or cut hours

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scientific literature research topics

The study's authors also want to see "internationally established" diagnostic criteria and called for future studies to avoid "umbrella terms" and instead "narrowly define" the symptoms.

"Ultimately, biomedicine must seek to aid all people who are suffering," the research team added. "In order to do so, the best scientific methods and analysis must be applied.

"Inappropriate definitions and flawed methods do not serve those whom medicine seeks to help.

"Improving standards of evidence generation is the ideal method to take long COVID seriously, improve outcomes, and avoid the risks of misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment."

COVID and flu vaccines are rolling out across England today having been brought forward after a new coronavirus variant emerged in the UK.  Ashish Joshi Reports from Bedford Care Home

Study criticised for 'some odd conclusions'

However, Dr Adam Jacobs, senior director of biostatistical science at Premier Research, said although the paper "makes some sensible points" it goes on "to draw some odd conclusions".

He added: "It is, of course, inevitable that much of this literature is imperfect.

"Long COVID simply didn't exist four years ago, so researchers have had to get to grips with a new and challenging topic at top speed.

"It is, therefore, not surprising that different studies have different estimates of the prevalence of long COVID, as studies have used different case definitions, different populations etc."

Dr Jacobs said a survey by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), which was discontinued in March, found that 1.9 million people in the UK had long COVID.

He said this was a "staggeringly high" number.

"We don't know how long those people will remain ill," he added. "If we are lucky, most of them will be healthy again within a year or two.

"If we are unlucky, a large number of them may have a permanent disability."

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September 28, 2023

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