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How to Write an Essay Introduction | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on February 4, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 2, 2023.

A good introduction paragraph is an essential part of any academic essay . It sets up your argument and tells the reader what to expect.

The main goals of an introduction are to:

This introduction example is taken from our interactive essay example on the history of Braille.

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Table of contents

Step 1: hook your reader, step 2: give background information, step 3: present your thesis statement, step 4: map your essay’s structure, step 5: check and revise, more examples of essay introductions, frequently asked questions about the essay introduction.

Your first sentence sets the tone for the whole essay, so spend some time on writing an effective hook.

Avoid long, dense sentences—start with something clear, concise and catchy that will spark your reader’s curiosity.

The hook should lead the reader into your essay, giving a sense of the topic you’re writing about and why it’s interesting. Avoid overly broad claims or plain statements of fact.

Examples: Writing a good hook

Take a look at these examples of weak hooks and learn how to improve them.

The first sentence is a dry fact; the second sentence is more interesting, making a bold claim about exactly  why the topic is important.

Avoid using a dictionary definition as your hook, especially if it’s an obvious term that everyone knows. The improved example here is still broad, but it gives us a much clearer sense of what the essay will be about.

Instead of just stating a fact that the reader already knows, the improved hook here tells us about the mainstream interpretation of the book, implying that this essay will offer a different interpretation.

Next, give your reader the context they need to understand your topic and argument. Depending on the subject of your essay, this might include:

The information here should be broad but clearly focused and relevant to your argument. Don’t give too much detail—you can mention points that you will return to later, but save your evidence and interpretation for the main body of the essay.

How much space you need for background depends on your topic and the scope of your essay. In our Braille example, we take a few sentences to introduce the topic and sketch the social context that the essay will address:

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how to write an introduction for an article

Now it’s time to narrow your focus and show exactly what you want to say about the topic. This is your thesis statement —a sentence or two that sums up your overall argument.

This is the most important part of your introduction. A  good thesis isn’t just a statement of fact, but a claim that requires evidence and explanation.

The goal is to clearly convey your own position in a debate or your central point about a topic.

Particularly in longer essays, it’s helpful to end the introduction by signposting what will be covered in each part. Keep it concise and give your reader a clear sense of the direction your argument will take.

As you research and write, your argument might change focus or direction as you learn more.

For this reason, it’s often a good idea to wait until later in the writing process before you write the introduction paragraph—it can even be the very last thing you write.

When you’ve finished writing the essay body and conclusion , you should return to the introduction and check that it matches the content of the essay.

It’s especially important to make sure your thesis statement accurately represents what you do in the essay. If your argument has gone in a different direction than planned, tweak your thesis statement to match what you actually say.

To polish your writing, you can use something like a paraphrasing tool .

You can use the checklist below to make sure your introduction does everything it’s supposed to.

Checklist: Essay introduction

My first sentence is engaging and relevant.

I have introduced the topic with necessary background information.

I have defined any important terms.

My thesis statement clearly presents my main point or argument.

Everything in the introduction is relevant to the main body of the essay.

You have a strong introduction - now make sure the rest of your essay is just as good.

This introduction to an argumentative essay sets up the debate about the internet and education, and then clearly states the position the essay will argue for.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

This introduction to a short expository essay leads into the topic (the invention of the printing press) and states the main point the essay will explain (the effect of this invention on European society).

In many ways, the invention of the printing press marked the end of the Middle Ages. The medieval period in Europe is often remembered as a time of intellectual and political stagnation. Prior to the Renaissance, the average person had very limited access to books and was unlikely to be literate. The invention of the printing press in the 15th century allowed for much less restricted circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation.

This introduction to a literary analysis essay , about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein , starts by describing a simplistic popular view of the story, and then states how the author will give a more complex analysis of the text’s literary devices.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale. Arguably the first science fiction novel, its plot can be read as a warning about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. In this reading, and in popular culture representations of the character as a “mad scientist”, Victor Frankenstein represents the callous, arrogant ambition of modern science. However, far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to gradually transform our impression of Frankenstein, portraying him in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

The “hook” is the first sentence of your essay introduction . It should lead the reader into your essay, giving a sense of why it’s interesting.

To write a good hook, avoid overly broad statements or long, dense sentences. Try to start with something clear, concise and catchy that will spark your reader’s curiosity.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

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Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

Journal Article: Introduction

When to write the introduction.

Your paper’s introduction is an opportunity to provide readers with the background necessary to understand your paper : the status of knowledge in your field, the question motivating your work and its significance, how you sought to answer that question (methods), and your main findings. A well-written introduction will broaden your readership by making your findings accessible to a larger audience.

Introduction Formula

Clarity is achieved by providing information in a predictable order.  Successful introductions are therefore composed of 4 ordered components which are referred to as the “introduction formula”.

Tip: Give your readers the technical details they need to understand the system –nothing more. Your purpose is not to showcase the breadth of your knowledge but instead to give readers all the tools they need to understand your results and their significance.

This content was adapted from from an article originally created by the  MIT Biological Engineering Communication Lab .

Resources and Annotated Examples

Annotated example 1.

Introduction from an article published in Science Translational Medicine . 4 MB

Annotated Example 2

Introduction from an article published in Cell . 2 MB

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How to write an article: An introduction to basic scientific medical writing

Anil sharma.

Department of Minimal Access, Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Institute of Minimal Access, Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Max Healthcare Institute Ltd., Saket, New Delhi, India

An original scientific article published in a peer-reviewed professional journal of repute provides great personal satisfaction, adds stature and endows professional respectability to contributing authors. Various types of surgical publications that exist nowadays are case report, cohort study, case–control study, randomised controlled trial narrative review, systematic review, Cochrane review, meta-analysis, editorials and leading articles. A study/research protocol is a standardised document, common to all research projects that typically comprise study objectives, study design, selection of participants, study intervention, study evaluations, safety assessments, statistics and participant rights committees. Once the study protocol is completed and reviewed, it is submitted to the local Institutional Review Board/Institutional Ethics Committee for approval. An outline of the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation is available from the Centre for evidence-based medicine at the University of Oxford. A standardised, structured template exists for scientific presentations in the field of medicine which is also followed in medical writing and publications Introduction Methods Results And Discussion (IMRAD). Instructions to authors would normally include reference to International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines for good and ethical publication practice. It is strongly advised to follow the recommended guidelines appropriate for the published study.


The impact of the published article in a scientific journal of repute is powerful and protracted for as Kenneth Rothman states, ‘The written word reaches the widest audience and constitutes the archival message’. Authorship in a scientific journal implies that the authors have critically analysed and presented a scientific work of merit. ‘Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man’, (Francis Bacon). With scientific publishing, surgeons make their contributions to the profession for wide dissemination within their community and in the process create intellectual property that will be preserved down the ages. ‘The universal object of men of letters is reputation’, said John Adams.

A majority of practicing surgeons would not write and would remain engaged in busy surgical practices, bread winning and increasing administrative responsibilities. However, an increasing segment of surgeons in training and academic surgeons now feel the need to write and publish. The reasons for writing and publishing are both egoistic and altruistic.[ 1 ] Egoistic motives are the desire to progress academically and professionally, improve status and develop professional contacts. Altruistic motives are dissemination of knowledge and a moral obligation to publish a significant novel observation in the larger interest of better patient care. In several institutions, for academic appointments and promotions, the pressures to publish are sometimes inordinate. In many teaching institutions, to progress academically to whatever academic title one aspires, one's published output must constantly grow in number and quality. However, good-quality writing and publishing are not just in the domain of academic institutions. Several astute clinicians with clarity of vision from non-academic institutions have made significant contributions to surgical literature. It is imperative that contributions to surgical literature are derived from surgeons (academic and non-academic) at various locations (different continents, regions and nationalities) and workplaces (urban, semi-urban and rural). Such literature would be more relevant to the real world as opposed to surgical practice in highly sophisticated ivory towers. In the final analysis, an original scientific article published in a peer-reviewed professional journal of repute provides great personal satisfaction adds stature and endows professional respectability to contributing authors.


‘You don’t write because you want to say something; you write because you have something to say’, (Scot Fitzgerald). The essence of fine surgical writing is to write what you as a surgeon would want to read. Enumerated below is a list of various types of surgical publications that exist nowadays arranged in the order of increasing complexity.

Case report

Cohort study (non-randomised, observational study), case–control study (non-randomised, observational study).

Narrative review

Systematic review and cochrane review, meta-analysis.

Letter/communication to the editor

This would be with reference to an article that has previously been published. The letter should be polite, constructive and should provide comments that offer a novel perspective of the published article. The comments should add, detract or critically review the contents of the published article in a fair and reasonable manner. The objective is to closely focus on and examine critical issues that may not have been appropriately addressed.

Many esteemed surgical writers, even journal editors, began a literary career with a time-honoured case report.[ 2 ] The humble case report would probably be the first step that an aspiring surgeon takes in surgical writing. Unfortunately, pressure of space and editorial policies directed at enhancing the impact factor of individual journals have reduced the opportunities for publication of case reports.[ 3 ]

The cohort study, case–control study and RCT constitute ‘original articles’ in surgical publications. The narrative review, systematic review and meta-analysis are ‘review articles’.

A cohort study is when patients are followed forward and assessed from time of exposure until time of consequences of exposure (target outcome). An example is ‘initial experience with single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.’

A case–control study is when patients are selected once they have the target outcome or not and researchers look backward to try to determine the factors of exposure. An example is ‘bile duct injury with single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.’

Randomised controlled trial

An RCT is performed when investigators want to assess treatment effects, usually considered to be beneficial. An example is ‘an RCT comparing recurrence rates between laparoscopic hernioplasty and Shouldice repair for groin hernias’.

A cohort study is feasible when randomisation of exposure is not possible. A case–control study overcomes temporal delays and may only require small sample size. However, both these studies are susceptible to bias and therefore have limited validity. The advantage of an RCT is that it provides the highest level of evidence. It is therefore useful to disprove efficacy which is important in the present era of technology-driven surgery. There is immense pressure from the manufacturers to use devices and procedures, many of which may not measure up to the scientific scrutiny of a well-conducted RCT. The design and execution of an RCT in surgery, however, is fraught with several difficulties and challenges. The nature of treatment by surgical intervention may lead to ethical issues that make design of the study difficult. Moreover, surgical skills and competence may vary from one hospital and surgeon to another making comparison odious. In most surgical studies, blinding of procedure from assessor is very difficult, and therefore, bias is inevitable.

A narrative review is usually written by invitation to an expert. The expert objectively reviews the subject in a concise and impartial manner. He/she addresses new developments and summarises recent literature. A narrative review leaves an imprint of the approach and thought process of the expert on the subject.

A systematic review involves more rigorous compilation of evidence. A systematic review is designed to present complete and unbiased evidence on the subject that presently exists in the literature. Strict adherence to follow and complete all components of a clearly defined protocol is mandatory.

A meta-analysis is a type of systematic review that uses statistical methods to combine and summarise the results of clinical trials. A meta-analysis must always include a formal examination of heterogeneity as an indicator of similar or divergent results.

Editorials and leading articles

These are usually written by invitation on a specific research area. The opinion and judgement of the editor do not only be based on review of literature but also carry the imprimatur of his/her personal beliefs and experience.


We live in an era of evidence-based medicine where increasingly an evidence-based approach to surgical practice would dictate the refining of systems and processes of patient care. Evidence-based practice is the, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients’.[ 4 ] An outline of the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation is available from the Centre for evidence-based medicine at the University of Oxford[ 5 , 6 ] Table 1 describes the levels of evidence for therapeutic studies.[ 7 ]

Levels of evidence for therapeutic studies


‘If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough’, (Albert Einstein).

At the outset, formulation of the study/research protocol is required. The study/research protocol is a standardised document, common to all research projects that should be available in teaching institutions. The protocol template typically comprises the following.

Once the study protocol is completed and reviewed, it is submitted to the local Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) for approval. Written consent is obtained and the study is registered at the Clinical Trial Registry of India at www.ctri.in .

‘If you don’t know where you are going, you will end up someplace else’, (Yogi Berra).

A standardised, structured template exists for scientific presentations in the field of medicine, and this is also followed in Medical writing and publications Introduction Methods Results And Discussion (IMRAD).

Enumerated below are the constituent segments and contents therein in an original article of a scientific medical manuscript.

Introduction (two paragraphs)

The Introduction commences with a brief lesson on the subject as described in literature. Current knowledge, insights and recent developments on the subject are briefly stated. A lacuna or gap in knowledge or incomplete information on some aspect of the subject forms the basis and reason to perform the present research/study. The last line in the Introduction section normally reads ‘The aim of this study was…’, ‘We report… or ‘We reviewed…’.

Methods (seven paragraphs)

The Methods section narrates the story of what the authors did. The narration is arranged in a logical framework of time. A logical sequence for presentation is ethical approval, patient selection, surgical intervention, outcome assessments and statistical methods employed.

Results (six paragraphs)

The Results Section is an overall description of the major findings of the study. The Results section presents measurements and data on all stated end-points (primary and secondary) of the study. Data presentation should be clear and concise.

Discussion (seven paragraphs)

The Discussion section summarises the article and presents a perspective of the message in the article. The first paragraph provides a summary of the main aim, methods and results of the study. The last paragraph provides a tentative answer to the research question posed in the study and also a suggestion for future research in a related area of the study. The limitations of the present study are discussed (e.g. nature of study, numbers of patients and limited follow-up). The strengths of the present study, if any, may be enumerated. Similar studies in the literature are discussed and how the present study fits in is analysed. The implications of the present study are discussed in terms of future research, change in patient management policies and suggested amendments to clinical practice.

The title should be descriptive yet concise while conveying the essential features of the contents of the article. The title should contain words that will make the article accessible to workers in the field. Clarity, brevity and above all human interest are the hallmarks of a good title.

Titles and abstracts are freely available to browse across a wide array of databases on the Internet. An attractive title and a concise abstract serve to attract the attention of readers. The abstract serves as a stand-alone summary that describes the major contents and message of the article. The abstract is structured (IMRAD) with a strict word limit. It serves as a quick reference and shortcut for busy researchers.

Keywords are short phrases that capture the main topics of the article. These follow the abstract in the article. Keywords assist in cross-indexing and literature search.

Most journal editors subscribe to guidance from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)[ 8 ] also known as the Vancouver group. Contributors who meet all four of the below-mentioned criteria qualify for authorship.


Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged and their contributions should be specified (e.g., ‘served as scientific advisors’, ‘critically reviewed the study proposal’, ‘collected data’, ‘provided and cared for study patients’ and ‘participated in writing or technical editing of the manuscript’).[ 8 ]

Conflict of interest

The ICMJE states that ‘a conflict of interest exists when professional judgement concerning a primary interest (such as patient's welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain)’. Public trust in the scientific process and the credibility of published articles depend in part on how transparently conflicts of interest are handled during the planning, implementation, writing, peer review, editing and publication of scientific work. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership or options, honoraria, patents and paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and science itself.[ 8 ]

A reference to articles serves to guide readers to a connected body of literature. Conference abstracts should not be used as references. They can be cited in the text, in parentheses, but not as page footnotes. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as ‘in press’ or ‘forthcoming’. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as ‘unpublished observations’ with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a ‘personal communication’ unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.[ 8 ]


It is mandatory to read and follow ‘Instructions to Authors’ provided by the journal where the manuscript is being sent for evaluation. Journals require electronic submission of manuscripts through specially designed editorial software (e.g. edition manager, manuscript central). The instructions provide detailed submission guidelines to Authors for submission of manuscripts. Instructions would normally include reference to ICMJE what an editor expects…pg 1124[ 9 ] and Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Guidelines[ 10 ] for good and ethical publication practice.


It is strongly advised to follow recommended guidelines appropriate for the published study. These guidelines set international standards for reporting different types of research studies. A good checklist is provided for preparing the publication. The guidelines standardise trial design, facilitate accurate reporting and correct interpretation of results [ Table 2 ].[ 11 ]

Reporting guidelines for main study types


The biostatistician provides invaluable input, advice and suggestions in construction of the manuscript. He/she should be consulted right from the concept and planning stage. He/she assists in protocol development with study design and study evaluations. He/she plans data management by confirming assessment of data on primary and secondary end-points of the study. He/she supervises data collection, archival and analysis. He/she implements and monitors the study on a periodic basis to its conclusion. Finally, the biostatistician assists with reporting results during writing of the manuscript.


Data management is the strategy used for collecting, organising and analysing data. The ultimate aim of conducting a study is to generate data to provide answers to the research question. The quality of data generated plays an important role in the outcome of the study. It follows that if primary data collection and entry are not considerate and meticulous, subsequent data analysis for outcome measures would not be satisfactory. Data need to be ultimately stored in electronic data capturing systems for ease of data management and analysis.

Several data analysis software systems are available that provide statistical results when data are fed into then in a predetermined format (Analyse-it, SPSS, WINKS SDA, Stata, Vitalnet).


An effective writing style is easy to read and simple to understand. The connoisseur writer filters out unnecessary details and distills the essence of his/her communication in the manuscript. A short manuscript presented clear and lucidly is the most effective. Simple sentences in straightforward language convey the most information. A short sentence is easier to read and comprehend than a long rambling one, short, simple and familiar words are more reader-friendly than longer complicated phrases (replace ‘illustrate’ with ‘show’, ‘fundamental’ with ‘basic’ and ‘remainder’ with ‘rest’). A spell check and grammar check are mandatory after completing the manuscript.

New information is provided in a new paragraph. The main point appears at the start and should be clear, succinct and easy to find. The author consciously needs to avoid elitism/triumphalism in the article (the first report, the only study, the largest cohort). Exclamation and quotation marks are avoided in a formal medical manuscript. Proper punctuation marks such as full stops and commas are mandatory.

Text verbatim (copy and paste) from a previously published article or book must be marked as reference source. The author needs to follow the reference style required for submission to the journal. The Vancouver system[ 12 ] is the most commonly used. Abbreviations (INR – international normalised ratio, PT – prothrombin time) and acronyms (IMV – inferior mesenteric vein) should always be defined the first time they are used in the text. Abbreviations are useful to avoid unnecessary and frequent use of long phrases in the text. However, their use should be restricted in the text and never used in the title and abstract. In figures, abbreviations need to be explained in the legend and for tables in the footnote.

Tables and figures must be sufficiently clear, well labelled and interpretable without having to refer to the text. These should be placed in the text as near as possible to the place where they are referred to. Tables should not be used when data can be summarised in text (e.g. population sizes, sex ratios) or where data are better represented in graphs and figures. The legend carries descriptive information on the tables and figures to make them understandable as stand-alone segments. Table legends are placed above the body of the table, and figure legends are placed below the figures. Footnotes in a table explain abbreviations and P values.


The COPE was founded in 1997 as a voluntary body to attempt to define best practice in the ethics of scientific publishing. The COPE guidelines on good publication practice are useful for authors, editors, editorial board members, readers, owners of journals and publishers. They address study design and ethical approval, data analysis, authorship, conflicts of interest, peer-review process, redundant publication, plagiarism, duties of editors, media relations, advertising and how to deal with misconduct.

They may be personal, commercial, political, academic or financial. ‘Financial’ interests may include employment, research funding, stock or share ownership, payment for lectures or travel, consultancies and company support for staff

Financial support and sponsorship

Conflicts of interest.

There are no conflicts of interest.

Alexandra Cote 🚀

SaaS growth marketer

How to Start an Article – 100+ Examples of Article Introductions

writing article introductions

While I love writing articles , I just dread putting together the perfect introduction. I don’t believe in a universal formula that you can apply to make it easier for you to write an effective blog post introduction. However, I assume there are certain things good introductions have in common.

So I’m having a closer look at 100+ article introductions to see if there are any similarities we can learn from:

Here’s a video version of the article:

Getting people to imagine

Oh, the power of imagination . Works like a charm every time for article introductions.

article introduction

Introducing a common problem for a specific reader segment

common introduction for article

Some authors prefer to target niche audiences and make assumptions regarding their interest and problems from the start:

writing an introduction

Question in the article introduction

Question in introduction

This technique does appear to be overly used because it’s a certain way of helping readers make the connection between the article they’re about to read and their own issues :

asking about writing

Often the question is there just so the article can answer it. So you’re essentially going to read one extra long answer after the article’s introduction:

becoming a content marketer

Questions can also be used in article intros to take readers back to a past memory and create a sense of nostalgia :

nostalgic article

The general statement as the article’s intro

Just that and used much too often as we’re already expecting a similar into for most articles. Frankly, this type of post introduction doesn’t add much value besides setting the context or introducing one main topic.

general statement

Closely related to the general statement, there’s also the “here’s why you should keep on reading this article” phrase/paragraph where the importance of the topic is highlighted first:

must read

Here’s a mix of a quote and a question with the aim of making people relate to the quote :

introduction for article

Or perhaps you’d like to explain a quote or mantra by naturally inserting it into the first phrase:

blog introduction post

Take advantage of seasons, holidays, news, or recent events

introduction to blog

You can also take existing articles that are highly debatable, controversial, or just the ones that launch a new idea to discuss around:

content marketing

Straight to the point

Skip the fluff and tell or show readers what they’re looking for :

specific intro

Here are other similar example of article introductions:

what it takes to write a good introduction

The next blog post introduction takes advantage of various possible structures and text formatting you can use to create excitement around a launch or simply add some of your own brand’s personality:

writing for marketing

I’ve always been an advocate of using CTAs to their best and consider all conclusions should have one call-to-action at least, but I must admit that adding them to your article’s introduction can also be the right way to go if it leads to your main goal for that specific piece of content:

CTA in introduction

Giving a definition

article introduction

Never fail with studies

perfect introduction

Statistics work just as fine:


Every time actually.

writing content

And you can use the article’s intro to tease the results and make people want to read more like here :

introductory article

Another way of leveraging stats is by referencing past numbers and creating the expectation of improvement :

improving introduction for article

Putting the author first

how to write an introduction for an article

Here’s another article introduction example from Coach the Life Coach :

blog post writing

In this sample, the author is using her past experience to present a problem the reader might have and suggest that further reading the article will provide a solution:

writing sample

Of course, putting the author first often means bringing your brand or business to the front too :

how to write good articles

You’ll also occasionally come across the “here’s what we’re doing” type of posts:

evernote article

Or you can take the straight-forward way and boldly place what you’re promoting at the start of the article or directly create your blog post around that idea:

introducing an article

Sharing the experience of a brand or company is also highly valued:

how to write

Putting the reader first

In other words, repeated use of YOU or situations the reader might be familiar with .

writing template

Take a look at this example which puts emphasis on the reader while also getting him/her to imagine an existing or ideal reality :

introduction for content

Here’s a different way to appeal to the reader by making a typical assumption that you know what they’re thinking:

article writing introduction

Another introductory paragraph on Newsweek where the transition is slowly being made from the author (first person) to the reader (second person) :

transition paragraph

The third person

Or the go-to introduction for any interview and podcast .

blog introduction template

Success stories are also favorably viewed loved by all kinds of audiences and it’s only natural to start the article by putting the person you’re going to talk about (or talk to) at the beginning:

author for article

You’ve seen this in use all too often:

introducing interview

Of course, this technique (although almost a standard so to say) is a bit outdated since we’re so used to seeing this structure, so here’s a different way of approaching the introduction of the person the article is centered around:

repurposing content

Storytelling starts within the introduction


Now this is a story anyone would want to hear:

great article introduction

Making a promise

This is an ever-common way of ensuring you’re getting visitors to keep reading the article and not just move on to another one after reading the first 3 sentences.

how to write introduction paragraph

Everyone is following this trend:

introduction paragraph

A mix of promise and question to get brains moving:

ideal introduction

Brian Dean takes advantage of this technique to make some pretty strong promises, but in his case, he manages to deliver them fairly accurately. Here are three of those statements as placed in introductions:


The last one also offers readers assurance on the credibility of the author as he writes about things he managed to achieve himself.

And such examples are endless:

article writing for content marketing

Getting readers to think from the article’s intro

In this article introduction example from Scott H. Young , the author involves the reader by giving facts and asking a question that will get them to think and make their own assumptions before they read on:

how to write introductions

Making structure work for you

Notice how articles on bigger outlets (particularly those that focus on news) tend to have an introductory phrase, similar to a subtitle , which resumes the article or creates the premise for the topic to be discussed:

content introduction

Here’s another example, this time on Medium:

introduction subheading

And another such “introduction” on The Guardian :

structuring introductions for articles

Slack also does this with their blog posts, proving it’s not just a technique for the news outlets:

how to write an introduction

Repeat the title

writing great articles

Simply rephrasing the headline in the post’s introduction is a more natural way of essentially emphasizing the main idea of the article:

how to write articles

Breaking the article introduction into several short paragraphs

Another trend related to the form of the introduction is separating each sentence in the intro into multiple paragraphs with plenty of white space between them:

introduction form

Have any secrets to building a successful article introduction? Feel free to share them!

P.S.: I’m also doing a quick poll to see if people actually read and care about introductions or just skip them. If you have 3 seconds, cast in your vote:

By clicking submit, you agree to share your email address with the site owner and Mailchimp to receive marketing, updates, and other emails from the site owner.

Published by Alexandra Cote

Alexandra Cote is a SaaS content writer and strategist with a passion for workplace productivity, social media marketing wonders, conversion rate optimization, artificial intelligence, and keyword research (Hooray for SEO!). Reach out to her via LinkedIn or her blog. View more posts

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How to Write an Article Introduction

How to Write an Article Introduction That’s Irresistible

Have you ever come across an article and been immediately hooked? Perhaps the first few sentences snagged your attention and refused to let go or piqued your interest with new information about a topic you didn’t know about.

As a reader, coming across an irresistible blog is a dream. But as a writer, crafting one can feel like more of a nightmare. How do you create an introduction that will engage your reader and make them want to keep reading when you only have a few sentences in which to do it?

Below we’ll explore what makes an irresistible article introduction and tips you can use in your own writing.

The Purpose of an Introduction

A good introduction will provide a clear and concise overview of the main points to be discussed in the body of the work, and should have what the industry calls a “hook.” This is a bit of information or a question that intends to immediately capture the reader’s interest.

Additionally, this part of the article should provide context for the rest of the piece so readers will know what to expect from the rest of your article. This makes them more likely to stick around and read the blog through to the conclusion.

Elements of a Good Introduction

There are several components of a well-written article introduction. These are important to include because readers expect content to flow logically and be easily readable and understandable, no matter the topic.

Hooks to Use in Your Introduction

Statistics make a great hook, but make sure whatever you choose is interesting and relevant to your topic .  A good statistic can be a great way to make your readers care about something they might not have ordinarily thought much about, but a boring or irrelevant statistic will only serve to turn readers away. Instead, find a fact they aren’t likely to know that will pique their curiosity and make them want to find out more about what you have to say.

Asking a question in your introduction is another great way to get the attention of your target audience. This technique is especially effective if you can ask a question that most people would answer “no” to.

By posing a question, you can get readers thinking about the topic and how it affects them personally. If you’re not sure what questions to ask, try brainstorming with a friend or family member or browsing online. Make sure you answer the question asked in the introduction in the body of your article though — your readers will be looking for it.

The longer you go without answering the initial question that interested readers in the first place, the higher the risk that they will lose that interest and stop reading before they reach the end.


Defining key terms in your introduction can be a helpful way to orient readers who may not be familiar with the topic. This is especially important if you’re writing for a specialized audience or using jargon that might not be familiar to everyone. This can help avoid confusion and frustration later on. By defining these terms upfront, you can ensure that everyone is on the same page from the start.

How to End Your Introduction

Make sure to conclude your introduction with a strong and persuasive statement. The end of your introduction should first and foremost invite your audience to continue reading.

It should also leave them with a strong impression of your argument or purpose. Let readers know that you intend to elaborate on statistics or answer questions in the article and they can find the information they want by continuing to read. This will help to ensure that your readers are engaged from beginning to end.

Learn How to Write An Article Introduction With McDougall Interactive

As you can see, writing a good introduction isn’t as difficult or intimidating as it might seem at first glance. By following the steps outlined above and including elements such as a hook and context, you can write an irresistible introduction that will engage your reader and persuade them to keep reading.

Contact McDougall Interactive today at 877-623-4291 for more writing tips or to sign up for expert content marketing help.

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 How to write an Introduction to an academic article

The introduction to an academic article is the first section of the paper, immediately following the abstract. One of the most important functions of an introduction is to answer the question ‘why?’: why was the study performed, and why is it interesting and/or important? Given that the introduction is the beginning of the paper, it also serves to tell the reader why they should read the rest of the paper and prepares them to understand the importance and implications of the results.

To clearly establish the context for the study, the introduction contains four main components:

General background information

Specific background information.

This information should ideally be presented in a ‘funnel’ format, flowing from the most general information at the beginning of the section to more specific information as the text continues. Let’s take a closer look at each of these elements in turn.

The first paragraph of the introduction establishes the broad context for the study by providing a general introduction to the field. How broad this paragraph is depends on your target journal and audience. If you choose to submit to a general journal with a wide scientific readership, it is a good idea to start with some fairly general information, as not all readers will necessarily be familiar with your specific field. If you plan on submitting to a highly specialized journal, however, you can begin this section with a much more specific and focused description of the background, as most of your readers will already be familiar with the context of the study.

Let’s say, for example, that your study addresses MAPK signalling in triple negative breast cancer in a specific population. If you are submitting your paper to a journal with a broad focus, it could be useful to begin this section with a brief introduction to breast cancer in general. If, however, you choose to submit to a breast cancer–specific journal, it would be reasonable to start the introduction by discussing triple negative breast cancer, or even the role of MAPK signalling in triple negative breast cancer.

Once the general context of the study has been established, the next part of the introduction should go into more detail about the main topic of the study. This is the part of the introduction that provides a literature review, in which other studies that have addressed similar themes are discussed in detail, to provide readers with a clear picture of what is already known about the topic. The point of this section is to present a complete picture of the state of the field, as this will help explain how your study builds on previous work. Describing the current state of the field helps readers understand your thought process in designing the study, and the logical steps that led you to formulate the main question addressed by your study.

Continuing with the example outlined above, if submitting to a journal with a general readership, this would be the appropriate place to present more detail about triple negative breast cancer and the role of MAPK signalling. In the case of a more specialized journal, in our example this could be a good place to go into more detail about the specific population you studied.

Gap in knowledge

The description of closely related previous studies, as discussed above, should clearly outline a specific gap in our knowledge or understanding of a specific question or phenomenon in the field. Sometimes this is accomplished simply by describing the work that has recently been done to investigate related questions; for example, if risk factors for a disease have been investigated in African and European populations, but not in Asian populations, describing what is already known about this disease in those populations will help readers understand the logic behind exploring the same question in an underexplored population. In other cases, it may be appropriate to (respectfully) point out shortcomings or drawbacks of similar studies to highlight the way in which your study improves on this earlier work. For example, if previous studies have designed computational models that account for some, but not all, of the properties of a specific reaction, you could point out the importance of incorporating additional properties to explain the need for the new computational model described in your study.

While the part of the introduction that describes the specific context for your study should lead naturally to an understanding of the gap in our knowledge that the study addresses, it is often useful to state this explicitly, for the sake of clarity. It is common to do so by including a sentence just prior to the last paragraph of the introduction that begins: ‘However, it remains unclear…’ or ‘However, it is still unknown…’.

Statement of study aim

The final element of the introduction is a clear statement of the primary objective of the study. In some cases, this will be the main overarching question the study sought to answer; in other cases, this may be a formal hypothesis; and in yet other cases, this may be a goal. Regardless of the form it takes, it is important to state the study aim clearly, ideally in the final paragraph of the introduction, to help ensure that readers clearly understand the specific purpose of the study before going on to read about it in greater detail in the sections that follow. Keep in mind that this statement of the study aim should closely mirror the statement of the study aim in the abstract, to present a cohesive and consistent message about the purpose of the study.

In some cases, it is appropriate to conclude the introduction with a summary paragraph that provides a very concise overview of the key findings and overall conclusion. This brief paragraph can help remind readers of the key points of the study within the context of the background information provided in the rest of the introduction, and provide a structure for understanding the rest of the text.

What should be left out of the introduction?

As discussed above, the primary purpose of the introduction is to provide adequate background information for readers to understand the context and importance of the study. For this reason, we recommend leaving out any background information that is not related directly to the main topic of the study. For example, if mutations in the protein you investigated have been linked to both cardiovascular disease and cancer, but your study only looked at cancer, discussing mutations found in patients with cardiovascular disease could distract and confuse readers. For this reason, we suggest reviewing the text of the introduction carefully to ensure that all of the information it presents has a direct logical link to the main focus of your study.

In addition, the introduction is generally not the best place to discuss the methodology used in your study, as this section should primarily be dedicated to explaining why the study was performed, not how it was performed. An exception to this rule is if the main purpose of the study was to develop or test a novel methodology, in which case it would of course be appropriate to discuss other techniques and the rationale behind the design of the new technique developed in your study. Similarly, if the main novelty of your study is the method used to investigate the central question, then this would also be a case in which it would be appropriate to discuss the methodology in the introduction.

In summary, a well-written introduction sets the tone for your paper by providing readers with all of the information they need to understand why you performed your study, what makes it different from other similar studies, and why the findings are interesting and important.

If you are seeking additional support in writing an effective introduction, we are here to help. Charlesworth Author Services provide expert English language editing and publication support services. Why not get in touch with a member of our Charlesworth Author Services team for more information.

Our academic writing and publishing training courses, online materials, and blog articles contain numerous tips and tricks to help you navigate academic writing and publishing, and maximise your potential as a researcher. You can find out more about our Free author training webinar series by clicking here.

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A step-by-step guide to writing a compelling article introduction.

Published on July 25, 2016

Image of pen writing

Wouldn’t it be great if every single person who clicked on one of your articles read it from start to finish, unable to pull their eyes away from the screen?

I think we both know the answer to that question.

To achieve this goal, however, you must master the art of writing intriguing introductions.

Wait a second , you’re thinking. Writing introductions? Isn’t that kind of a small detail of a 2,000-word article?

Your article intro is not a small detail.

The introduction to your article is often the difference between engaging readers and having a bounce rate high enough to make a click-baiter cringe .

Think about it. If you don’t grab your readers right away, you’ll lose them.

You went through all that work of writing a killer article, right? You worked hard at it. You spent a lot of time on it. You did a ton of research.

But if your introduction sucks, your efforts will be all for nothing.

You lost before you even got started!

If you want to write great content , improve the success of your marketing campaigns, and increase the loyalty of your fans, you must master writing introductions.

Let me show you how.

5 Steps to Write an Article Introduction

Here’s how you write a blog introduction that doesn’t stink:

Step 1 – Master the Opening Line

To have a strong introduction, you need to open with a strong first sentence.

The millisecond your reader hits the page, they have an extremely high likelihood of leaving the page.

Data graph of probability of leave the page vs time visiting the page so far in seconds.

Data says so.

The first sentence has one single purpose: to entice the reader to read the next sentence. In doing so, it sets the tone for the rest of the article, hooking the reader in, one step at a time.

If you fail at this, you readers won’t scroll.

This is a histogram showing how far people scroll through Slate article pages. Each bar represents the share of people who stopped scrolling at a particular spot in the article. (An article is assumed to be around 2000 pixels long; if the top of your browser window gets to the 2000-pixel mark, you're counted as scrolling 100 percent through the article. The X axis goes to 120 percent because on most pages, there's usually stuff below the 2000-pixel mark, like the comments section.) This graph only includes people who spent any time engaging with the page at all--users who "bounced" from the page immediately after landing on it are not represented. The graph shows that many Slate readers do not scroll at all. That's the spike at the 0 percent mark, representing about 5 percent of readers. Most visitors scroll about halfway through a typical Slate story. The spike near the end is an anomaly caused by pages containing photos and videos -- on those pages, people scroll through the whole page.

And if they don’t scroll, they won’t engage.

Check out this article by Dilbert author Scott Adams to see how the first sentence is done.

Dilbert.blog by Scott Adams example.

He writes this:

I went from being a bad writer to a good writer after taking a one-day course in “business writing.”

That’s a great opening line.

Why? Because it makes me want to know  more!

Adams nailed it. He drew us in by making us ask questions.

If you don’t know how to craft an intriguing first sentence, the remaining 980 words of your article will be a complete waste.

Save your writing introduction ideas in one place across all the document apps you use.

Luckily for you, with a few simple tricks, writing a phenomenal first sentence can be quite easy.

The first thing to keep in mind is that you want to keep the first sentence short. This makes it easy for the reader to digest the first bits of information and prevents them from losing interest quickly.

But there is more to it than that.

You have to make sure that the first sentence grabs the reader’s attention and holds it for the rest of the article.

Here are a couple of tried-and-true tactics that make for super compelling first lines.

Ask the reader a question

This is an easy way to get the reader’s attention and get them engaged without a whole lot of effort on your part.

For example, if you are writing an article on quitting your job and starting your own company, you could open with the question: “Did you know that almost 70% of Americans report being actively disengaged from their careers?”

Why does this work?

It has to do with the brain’s “ limbic reward system .”

The Limbic Reward System lights up when curiosity is piqued.

When this system is activated, dopamine is released. And dopamine gives us a sense of reward and pleasure.

When we are intrigued by a question, i.e., experience a sense of curiosity, the limbic reward system lights up. And that’s why we want to keep reading—it’s rewarding to satisfy curiosity.

Writer Olga Khazan asks a question that’s on everyone’s mind, causing the reader to be instantly interested.

Making the Brain Less Racist by Olga Khazan introduction to article example

We want to know the answer to that question, so we keep reading.

That’s why a question is a great opening line. You can even use the question as the article title.

Tell a story

The brain also lights up when it encounters a story.

According to the theory of neural coupling, certain  portions of the brain are activated when a reader thinks about the same mental and physical activity that a character in a story is doing.

How storytelling affects the brain informational image.

James Clear usually starts his blog articles with a story, often a true story.

How long does it actually take to form a new habit? (backed by science) article by James Clear introduction to article example.

The story makes his readers interested in the article and keeps them reading to the very end.

Use a shocking quote

Another great way to start your article is to use an attention-grabbing quote.

Let’s say you are writing an article on world travel. A great way to introduce the article would be with the quote from Helen Keller:

“Life is a daring adventure or nothing at all.”

Tell the reader to imagine

Sparking the imagination is an instant way to draw the reader into the experience of the article.

Notice how this article from Wired For Story begins:

Example of the word, "imagine" being used in introduction to article.

The reader tries to obey the imperative by imagining. This effort compels the reader to read further, drawing them into the article.

Writers for The Atlantic are experts at their craft. This writer does the same thing—asking the reader to imagine.

Why You Should Believe in the Digital Afterlife by Michael Graziano use of the word "imagine" in introduction to article example.

Share an interesting fact

In a day and age when the Internet is so rife with crappy information and fraudulent “gurus,” people are skeptical. They have every reason to be.

Opening your article with a relevant fact or statistic is a great way to establish trust and authority from the first sentence and let readers know you’ve done your research.

Step 2 – Have Something Unique to Say

Okay, so you’ve crafted an excellent first sentence, and you have your reader’s interest.

Now, you have to hold that interest by having something interesting and uncommon to say.

Very few people take the time and energy to regularly produce new, thought-provoking content. If you do, you’ll set yourself apart from the herd in a big way.

Forget re-purposing of old articles or rewriting stuff from other people’s websites. If you want to have the reader’s respect and attention, you have to say something they’ve never heard before.

Unfortunately, a lot of the stuff you read today has been regurgitated 28 times before.

Let’s imagine you run a travel blog. Based on my advice, you write a number of 3,000-word  comprehensive “How-To Guides.”

Whenever a reader opens your guide on financing their first around the world trip, they’ll expect to read all about airline rewards programs, frugality, and credit card points.

And that information is great, but it is also very generic.

A better introduction would be something like this:

How would you like to save up enough money in the next 6 months to spend all of 2017 traveling the world? That would be pretty epic, right? Well, this is entirely possible, and in today’s article, I am going to show you how you can do this. It’s not by skipping your morning latte or spending thousands of dollars with your credit cards on a few hundred miles either. I am going to show you how you can create a life of mobility and freedom by leveraging the skills you already have, tactically selecting your destinations, and using a little known tax secret that will save you thousands of dollars! Sound good? Let’s get to it.

It’s hard to be different. I realize that.

Sometimes, in order to create unique stuff, we simply have to work harder, think longer, and research more than our competition.

Here are some ways you can develop that unique voice in your article introduction:

Unique isn’t easy . But it’s worth it.

Step 3 – Keep it Simple

We live in a world where most people have an attention span of only a few seconds.

Apparently, our attention span is getting shorter!

Average attention span infographic by Bloomberg.

After a few seconds, we get bored and move on to the next shiny object.

If you want your readers to make time in their days to read what you have to say, make sure you present things as simply as possible .

Longer articles, of course, deserve longer introductions. But it’s important to respect people’s time and attention. You can’t change what is (people’s short attention spans) by writing a long introduction based on what should be (longer attention spans).

Avoid rambling about how great your information is, and just share it already!

Step 4 – Speak Directly to the Reader

Whenever you are writing educational material for other people, you want to use the word “you” as much (and as naturally) as possible.

In this article, I’ve used some variation of the word you more than 100 times. Why? Because I’m talking to you! I want you to know this information. I want you to benefit from it.

By emphasizing the word “you” in your article, you show the reader you are directly addressing them and their situation and not just writing a generic article to the general populace.

But there’s another side to this. I should refer to myself as well. My goal is to convey a personal feel to this article. After all, it’s me talking to you, right? So it’s only natural that I would refer to myself too.

Step 5 – Explain What the Article is About

The point of an introduction is exactly that: to introduce the content that will be presented in an article.

I cannot tell you the number of times online articles left me confused even I after I’d read a few of their paragraphs.

I couldn’t tell whether the authors were teaching me how to run successful Facebook ads , or telling me a weird story about their childhood.

Take a few sentences, and clearly explain what the article is going to cover without giving away too many details.

This will build suspense around the subject matter while still letting your audience know what they may be in for.

A great example of this comes from the Buffer blog. Notice how the introduction poses a question and then proposes to answer that question.

Example blog by Ash Read introducing a question and then proposing to answer the question in the article.

Your curiosity stays high, but the introduction sets the stage.

Explain the importance of the article

Once you’ve explained what the article is, now it’s time to explain why people should care.

Everyone on the Internet approaches every new piece of information with a simple question: “ What’s in it for me ?”

Image of man holding a card that has WIIFM? written on it.

If you want to write introductions that hook the reader and help your content go viral , you have to master the art of explaining what the reader stands to gain from the information you are sharing—the benefits.

Anatomy of viral content infographic

How will it benefit your readers’ lives? How will it solve a problem they are facing? How will it cure a pain they are feeling?

If you understand how to quickly and efficiently answer these questions, you’ll keep your readers glued to your article till the last word.

Few things can make or break your article as easily as an introduction.

If you can master the art of the first few paragraphs, you’ll be able to increase reader engagement, improve sales, and earn a reputation as a phenomenal writer.

It’s not an easy skill to master, but like many things in Internet marketing, it’s fairly straightforward.

If you put in the work, you’ll get results.

What tactics do you use to create a compelling article introduction?

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How Do You Write An Introduction For An Assignment in Nursing?

how to write an introduction for an article

Nursing assignments are a common assignment subject in recent times. It is a complex assignment in nature. It becomes complex because of its multiple factors like neonatal care, nutrition, dietetics, and others. Most of the students faced difficulties to solve the Nursing assignment paper. Some of the students can write an assignment but there also face a struggle to write an introduction. So, keeping this thing in mind some nursing assignment helpers are available on the internet. You can take benefits from them. They can give you an idea of how to write the introduction to the nursing assignment. If you know the fundamental knowledge of nursing and medical domains you can write an introduction of nursing assignments. I am here to tell you everything about the introduction to the nursing assignment but we also give various kinds of dissertation and assignments help Australia through GotoAssignmentHelp Company.

The nursing and medical courses can enhance your skills and expertise in nursing. Here I am giving some tips for writing an introduction for a nursing assignment –

Read this Article too:- 6 Tips to Deliver a Successful Informative Speech

If you have the efficiency to inculcate all of the above mentioned tips, more than half of your job is done. Except these the others are only depending upon on your knowledge about this subject. One of the biggest mistakes done by students is not being able to distinguish between different types of nursing projects. There are many kinds of nursing projects like a nursing case study, nursing leadership, nursing reflection, etc. when you write an introduction for each of them, the basic tips remain common. Though the writing styles are different for the approach to the question every piece of nursing assignment is unique but, for more assurance always have a look at any nursing assignment sample. Nurses play a vital role in the health care or medical industry. They are the medical staffs who take care of the patients, administer medicines, keep check on their vitals, and communicate with doctors about the health statement of patients.

Nowadays nursing becomes a highly demanding career. Many roles and responsibilities are involved there. Writing an assignment about nursing can help you to learn how to organize information, document research, and management of your time. Nurses need the knowledge of how to communicate effectively when writing as they have to document a patient’s previous medical statement. A nursing assignment paper can assess your knowledge, research capabilities, and skills like other assignments. It may be expository or argumentative.

Introduction of a Nursing Assignment:

The introduction of a nursing assignment is as much important as a good introduction. A good introduction can encourage a reader to continue with the main parts of the assignment paper. A well written introduction can give you a chance of creating a beautiful first impression. If an introduction becomes disorganized and most of the information is not correct that makes a reader confused and disoriented. For writing an introduction you need to understand what the introduction of your nursing assignment paper should accomplish.

Read this Article too:- 7 Advantages of Assignments That Every Student Should Know

The Introduction of a Nursing Assignment Paper should Fulfill Some Responsibilities, Those are

Here is an Analysis of All of the Steps of an Introduction Needed in the Nursing Assignment:

Some people might not think that nursing could be a subject for an academic assignment but at this time nursing assignment is very important for those who are applying for nursing programs. A nursing assignment can be challenging to write because it needs proper research, knowledge, and the power of writing that can attract a huge audience. A nursing assignment is an academic paper related to nursing. It can be used either in the application process for a nursing school or in a nursing program to show your level of knowledge. Maybe you know how to write a nursing assignment as a professional nurse. This type of assignment is highly academic and always written for a knowledgeable audience.

Though nursing assignment is very different from the kinds of assignments you know it requires attention to detail, scientific accuracy, and thoroughly conducted research and communication ideas. If you can write an assignment for once while maintaining all these you can feel overwhelmed. Before starting an assignment based on nursing make sure that you understand exactly what is required from you. It usually will have a word count, expectations for the quality of sources, and citation style. After getting success about write a complete assignment doesn’t be afraid to change sections or add or remove information. There is a possibility to see better ways of presenting your research or new connections. Once you are 100% satisfied with your writing proofread the assignment paper for formatting errors, spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, etc.

A nursing assignment needs a strong paragraph. The body paragraph is the paragraph where you provide supporting information and create an assignment more interesting. Each of the body paragraphs should start with a topic that clearly states what about the paragraph is. In the next sentence, you have to explain how the information relates to the statement and for the rest of the body paragraph correctly cited evidence from reputable sources is needed. A body paragraph should end with a transition sentence to increase readability and cohesiveness. Each of the body paragraphs should explore one main supporting point. All of the information included in a body paragraph should be relevant.

In the conclusion, you have the opportunity to show the reader how everything in your assignment is connected. The summary of the leading points is the strongest thing. Don’t explain too much because it may be bad effective for your assignment paper. Your main conclusions should be self evident. Don’t bring any new theory or information regarding your assignment.

So, it is the complete package of information about nursing assignments. After reading the total blog if you are interested in our online assignment help  writing then check our official website. You can be very profitable from here. All of the academic writings are completely plagiarism free. The experts have professional experience for a long time so; you can rely on our service. Just login our website and place an order now .


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how to write an introduction for an article

ESSAY DRAFT: PLEASE NOTE :  The introduction provides an opening...



The introduction provides an opening sentence about the article PLUS a thesis statement/the main point for the article.

The 2 nd paragraph introduces the main author and article and begins supplying evidence to support the thesis statement.

The conclusion restates the thesis statement/main point for the chosen article.

ARTICLE: Birnbaum, M.ichael  (2023). There are 21,000 pieces of plastic in the ocean for each person on Earth. The Washington Post (Online), Washington, D.C.: WP Company LLC d/b/a The Washington Post. Mar 8, 2023. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/docview/2784703477/fulltext/2F3B89FDFCF14726PQ/1?accountid=39331

THESIS STATEMENT: The presence of plastic waste in the ocean is a grave problem that must be addressed to protect nature.


para. 1: Introduction to the dangers of plastic use worldwide. para. 2: The impact of plastic pollution on the environment and the ocean.

para. 3: Use of plastic all over the world is dangerous.

para. 4: New ways to control dumping into oceans.

para. 5: Stopping businesses from using plastics.

para. 6-7: Use of plastic poses significant risks to the environment and to human health.

para. 8: The scale of plastic pollution and its impact on marine ecosystems.

para. 9: The impact on marine life, ecosystems, and potential hazards posed by microplastics.

para. 10-12: The importance of raising awareness and taking action to address plastic pollution.

para. 13-14: This paragraph likely emphasizes the urgency of tackling plastic pollution and its detrimental effects.

para. 15-16: Highlights the need for immediate action to reduce plastic waste, implement effective recycling programs, and promote sustainable alternatives.


Identifies the article title, the full name of the author and a brief summary of what the author is discussing in this article.

3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , 6 th ,etc. paragraphs. USE KEY REVERSE OUTLINE PARA.POINTS FOR THE ESSAY DRAFT for analysis, evidence, and direct quotations or paraphrases from the chosen article.


"________________"NO PERIOD (O'Mara, 2020, para. 8). PERIOD

O'Mara (2020) states___________________ NO PERIOD (para. 8). PERIOD

According to O'Mara (2020), there is evidence that______________________ NO PERIOD (para. 8). PERIOD

O'Mara (2020) cites Obama who states________ (para. 8).

O'Mara (2020) quotes Obama who states________ (paras. 8-10).

NOTE : para. 6, paras. 10-12, paras. 13-14, paras. 14-16, etc.

Answer & Explanation

Introduction: Plastic waste has become a global concern with far-reaching consequences for the environment. In the article "There are 21,000 pieces of plastic in the ocean for each person on Earth" by Michael Birnbaum, published in The Washington Post, the author sheds light on the alarming scale of plastic pollution and its detrimental effects on nature. The thesis statement of this article is that the presence of plastic waste in the ocean is a grave problem that must be addressed to protect nature.

Paragraph 2: Michael Birnbaum, the author of the article, presents compelling evidence to support the thesis statement. He discusses the impact of plastic pollution on the environment, particularly the ocean. According to Birnbaum (2023), there are approximately 21,000 pieces of plastic in the ocean for each person on Earth. This staggering statistic highlights the pervasive nature of plastic waste and its detrimental effect on our planet's waters. Plastic pollution not only disrupts marine ecosystems but also poses risks to human health.

Paragraph 3: The widespread use of plastic across the globe exacerbates the dangers associated with plastic pollution. Birnbaum (2023) emphasizes the danger of plastic use in various contexts. From single-use plastics to microplastics released through industrial processes, plastic waste has permeated every corner of our lives. The author points out that these plastic products often end up in landfills or, worse, in the ocean, contributing to the growing crisis.

Paragraph 4: Addressing the issue of plastic waste requires implementing new strategies to control dumping into oceans. Birnbaum (2023) discusses the importance of adopting effective waste management systems and investing in infrastructure to prevent plastic waste from reaching the ocean. He highlights the need for stronger regulations and international cooperation to tackle this global problem.

Paragraph 5: In addition to addressing the dumping of plastic waste, it is crucial to encourage businesses to reduce their use of plastics. Birnbaum (2023) argues that industries should explore alternative materials and promote sustainable practices. By transitioning to eco-friendly alternatives, businesses can contribute to mitigating the environmental impact of plastic waste.

Paragraph 6-7: The use of plastic not only harms the environment but also poses significant risks to human health. Birnbaum (2023) highlights the potential dangers of plastic consumption and exposure. The author cites research linking plastic chemicals to various health issues, including hormonal disruptions and developmental problems. These findings underscore the urgency of addressing plastic pollution to safeguard human well-being.

Paragraph 8: The scale of plastic pollution and its impact on marine ecosystems cannot be underestimated. Birnbaum (2023) discusses the far-reaching consequences of plastic waste, including the destruction of habitats, the entanglement of marine life, and the ingestion of microplastics. The author emphasizes the need for immediate action to mitigate these devastating effects.

Paragraph 9: Microplastics, in particular, pose a significant threat to marine life and ecosystems. Birnbaum (2023) highlights the hazards associated with microplastics, such as their ingestion by marine animals and the potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain. This underscores the urgent need to address microplastic pollution and its long-term consequences for marine ecosystems.

Paragraph 10-12: Raising awareness and taking action are essential in combating plastic pollution. Birnbaum (2023) emphasizes the role of education and public outreach in promoting sustainable practices and reducing plastic waste. By fostering a collective understanding of the issue, individuals, communities, and governments can work together to implement effective solutions.

Paragraph 13-14: This paragraph likely emphasizes the urgency of tackling plastic pollution and its detrimental effects. Birnbaum (2023) might discuss the potential long-term consequences if we fail to take action, including irreversible damage to ecosystems, threats to biodiversity, and compromised food security

Paragraph 15-16: Immediate action is imperative to reduce plastic waste, implement effective recycling programs, and promote sustainable alternatives. Birnbaum (2023) highlights the need for comprehensive policies that encourage responsible plastic use, invest in recycling infrastructure, and support research and development of eco-friendly materials. By prioritizing these actions, we can mitigate the negative impact of plastic waste and pave the way for a more sustainable future.

In conclusion, the presence of plastic waste in the ocean is a pressing problem that demands our attention and action. Michael Birnbaum's article sheds light on the alarming scale of plastic pollution and its detrimental effects on nature, emphasizing the urgent need to address this issue. To protect the environment, safeguard marine ecosystems, and ensure human well-being, it is crucial to implement strategies that reduce plastic waste, control dumping into oceans, and promote sustainable alternatives. By raising awareness, enacting regulations, and fostering international cooperation, we can work towards a future where plastic pollution is effectively mitigated, allowing nature to thrive.

The author of this essay draft uses a certain framework and strategy to establish their case on the serious issue of waste plastic in the ocean. This essay draft can be found here.

One of the initial sentences in the introduction presents the issue of plastic trash as a problem that affects people all around the world. It also contains the thesis statement, which concisely expresses the primary argument of the piece, which is that the accumulation of waste plastic in oceans is a serious issue that has to be addressed in order to preserve the natural world.

The primary author, Michael Birnbaum, and the article itself are both presented in the second paragraph of the article. The article's headline, "There are 21,000 pieces of plastic in the ocean for each person on Earth," is mentioned, and a concise synopsis of what Birnbaum covers in the article is provided.

The supplied reverse outline served as the basis for the organization of the subsequent paragraphs, beginning with the third paragraph and continuing ahead. Every paragraph of this paper addresses a single issue from the framework by providing an analysis, supporting evidence, and either direct quotes or paraphrases from Birnbaum's essay. The author indicates the origin of the material by using APA in-text citation styles, which include the author's last name, the publication year, and paragraph numbers in addition to utilizing the author's initials.

In the conclusion, the thesis statement or primary point of the piece is restated, and a summary of the most important arguments that were provided throughout the essay is given. It highlights the need of taking quick action to safeguard the environment and solve the problem of plastic pollution.

In general, the draft of the essay adheres to a logical framework and does a good job of properly incorporating evidence from the selected article to support the thesis statement. It exhibits a knowledge of the article's major ideas and expresses the necessity of taking action to combat plastic pollution in order to save the environment and marine ecosystems.  

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How to write an introduction section of a scientific article?


An article primarily includes the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. Before writing the introduction, the main steps, the heading and the familiarity level of the readers should be considered. Writing should begin when the experimental system and the equipment are available. The introduction section comprises the first portion of the manuscript, and it should be written using the simple present tense. Additionally, abbreviations and explanations are included in this section. The main goal of the introduction is to convey basic information to the readers without obligating them to investigate previous publications and to provide clues as to the results of the present study. To do this, the subject of the article should be thoroughly reviewed, and the aim of the study should be clearly stated immediately after discussing the basic references. In this review, we aim to convey the principles of writing the introduction section of a manuscript to residents and young investigators who have just begun to write a manuscript.

Keywords: Article; introduction; scientific.


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It’s the roadmap to your essay, it’s the forecast for your argument, it’s...your introduction paragraph, and writing one can feel pretty intimidating. The introduction paragraph is a part of just about every kind of academic writing , from persuasive essays to research papers. But that doesn’t mean writing one is easy!

If trying to write an intro paragraph makes you feel like a Muggle trying to do magic, trust us: you aren’t alone. But there are some tips and tricks that can make the process easier—and that’s where we come in. 

In this article, we’re going to explain how to write a captivating intro paragraph by covering the following info:  

Are you ready? Let’s begin!


What Is an Introduction Paragraph? 

An introduction paragraph is the first paragraph of an essay , paper, or other type of academic writing. Argumentative essays , book reports, research papers, and even personal  essays are common types of writing that require an introduction paragraph. Whether you’re writing a research paper for a science course or an argumentative essay for English class , you’re going to have to write an intro paragraph. 

So what’s the purpose of an intro paragraph? As a reader’s first impression of your essay, the intro paragraph should introduce the topic of your paper. 

Your introduction will also state any claims, questions, or issues that your paper will focus on. This is commonly known as your paper’s thesis . This condenses the overall point of your paper into one or two short sentences that your reader can come back and reference later.

But intro paragraphs need to do a bit more than just introduce your topic. An intro paragraph is also supposed to grab your reader’s attention. The intro paragraph is your chance to provide just enough info and intrigue to make your reader say, “Hey, this topic sounds interesting. I think I’ll keep reading this essay!” That can help your essay stand out from the crowd.

In most cases, an intro paragraph will be relatively short. A good intro will be clear, brief, purposeful, and focused. While there are some exceptions to this rule, it’s common for intro paragraphs to consist of three to five sentences . 

Effectively introducing your essay’s topic, purpose, and getting your reader invested in your essay sounds like a lot to ask from one little paragraph, huh? In the next section, we’ll demystify the intro paragraph format by breaking it down into its core parts . When you learn how to approach each part of an intro, writing one won’t seem so scary!


Once you figure out the three parts of an intro paragraph, writing one will be a piece of cake!

The 3 Main Parts of an Intro Paragraph

In general, an intro paragraph is going to have three main parts: a hook, context, and a thesis statement . Each of these pieces of the intro plays a key role in acquainting the reader with the topic and purpose of your essay. 

Below, we’ll explain how to start an introduction paragraph by writing an effective hook, providing context, and crafting a thesis statement. When you put these elements together, you’ll have an intro paragraph that does a great job of making a great first impression on your audience!

Intro Paragraph Part 1: The Hook

When it comes to how to start an introduction paragraph, o ne of the most common approaches is to start with something called a hook. 

What does hook mean here, though? Think of it this way: it’s like when you start a new Netflix series: you look up a few hours (and a few episodes) later and you say, “Whoa. I guess I must be hooked on this show!” 

That’s how the hook is supposed to work in an intro paragrap h: it should get your reader interested enough that they don’t want to press the proverbial “pause” button while they’re reading it . In other words, a hook is designed to grab your reader’s attention and keep them reading your essay! 

This means that the hook comes first in the intro paragraph format—it’ll be the opening sentence of your intro. 

It’s important to realize  that there are many different ways to write a good hook. But generally speaking, hooks must include these two things: what your topic is, and the angle you’re taking on that topic in your essay. 

One approach to writing a hook that works is starting with a general, but interesting, statement on your topic. In this type of hook, you’re trying to provide a broad introduction to your topic and your angle on the topic in an engaging way . 

For example, if you’re writing an essay about the role of the government in the American healthcare system, your hook might look something like this: 

There's a growing movement to require that the federal government provide affordable, effective healthcare for all Americans. 

This hook introduces the essay topic in a broad way (government and healthcare) by presenting a general statement on the topic. But the assumption presented in the hook can also be seen as controversial, which gets readers interested in learning more about what the writer—and the essay—has to say.

In other words, the statement above fulfills the goals of a good hook: it’s intriguing and provides a general introduction to the essay topic.

Intro Paragraph Part 2: Context

Once you’ve provided an attention-grabbing hook, you’ll want to give more context about your essay topic. Context refers to additional details that reveal the specific focus of your paper. So, whereas the hook provides a general introduction to your topic, context starts helping readers understand what exactly you’re going to be writing about

You can include anywhere from one to several sentences of context in your intro, depending on your teacher’s expectations, the length of your paper, and complexity of your topic. In these context-providing sentences, you want to begin narrowing the focus of your intro. You can do this by describing a specific issue or question about your topic that you’ll address in your essay. It also helps readers start to understand why the topic you’re writing about matters and why they should read about it. 

So, what counts as context for an intro paragraph? Context can be any important details or descriptions that provide background on existing perspectives, common cultural attitudes, or a specific situation or controversy relating to your essay topic. The context you include should acquaint your reader with the issues, questions, or events that motivated you to write an essay on your topic...and that your reader should know in order to understand your thesis. 

For instance, if you’re writing an essay analyzing the consequences of sexism in Hollywood, the context you include after your hook might make reference to the #metoo and #timesup movements that have generated public support for victims of sexual harassment. 

The key takeaway here is that context establishes why you’re addressing your topic and what makes it important. It also sets you up for success on the final piece of an intro paragraph: the thesis statement.

Elle Woods' statement offers a specific point of view on the topic of murder...which means it could serve as a pretty decent thesis statement!

Intro Paragraph Part 3: The Thesis

The final key part of how to write an intro paragraph is the thesis statement. The thesis statement is the backbone of your introduction: it conveys your argument or point of view on your topic in a clear, concise, and compelling way . The thesis is usually the last sentence of your intro paragraph. 

Whether it’s making a claim, outlining key points, or stating a hypothesis, your thesis statement will tell your reader exactly what idea(s) are going to be addressed in your essay. A good thesis statement will be clear, straightforward, and highlight the overall point you’re trying to make.

Some instructors also ask students to include an essay map as part of their thesis. An essay map is a section that outlines the major topics a paper will address. So for instance, say you’re writing a paper that argues for the importance of public transport in rural communities. Your thesis and essay map might look like this: 

Having public transport in rural communities helps people improve their economic situation by giving them reliable transportation to their job, reducing the amount of money they spend on gas, and providing new and unionized work .

The underlined section is the essay map because it touches on the three big things the writer will talk about later. It literally maps out the rest of the essay!

So let’s review: Your thesis takes the idea you’ve introduced in your hook and context and wraps it up. Think of it like a television episode: the hook sets the scene by presenting a general statement and/or interesting idea that sucks you in. The context advances the plot by describing the topic in more detail and helping readers understand why the topic is important. And finally, the thesis statement provides the climax by telling the reader what you have to say about the topic. 

The thesis statement is the most important part of the intro. Without it, your reader won’t know what the purpose of your essay is! And for a piece of writing to be effective, it needs to have a clear purpose. Your thesis statement conveys that purpose , so it’s important to put careful thought into writing a clear and compelling thesis statement. 


How To Write an Introduction Paragraph: Example and Analysis

Now that we’ve provided an intro paragraph outline and have explained the three key parts of an intro paragraph, let’s take a look at an intro paragraph in action.

To show you how an intro paragraph works, we’ve included a sample introduction paragraph below, followed by an analysis of its strengths and weaknesses.

Example of Introduction Paragraph

While college students in the U.S. are struggling with how to pay for college, there is another surprising demographic that’s affected by the pressure to pay for college: families and parents. In the face of tuition price tags that total more than $100,000 (as a low estimate), families must make difficult decisions about how to save for their children’s college education. Charting a feasible path to saving for college is further complicated by the FAFSA’s estimates for an “Expected Family Contribution”—an amount of money that is rarely feasible for most American families. Due to these challenging financial circumstances and cultural pressure to give one’s children the best possible chance of success in adulthood, many families are going into serious debt to pay for their children’s college education. The U.S. government should move toward bearing more of the financial burden of college education. 

Example of Introduction Paragraph: Analysis

Before we dive into analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of this example intro paragraph, let’s establish the essay topic. The sample intro indicates that t he essay topic will focus on one specific issue: who should cover the cost of college education in the U.S., and why. Both the hook and the context help us identify the topic, while the thesis in the last sentence tells us why this topic matters to the writer—they think the U.S. Government needs to help finance college education. This is also the writer’s argument, which they’ll cover in the body of their essay. 

Now that we’ve identified the essay topic presented in the sample intro, let’s dig into some analysis. To pin down its strengths and weaknesses, we’re going to use the following three questions to guide our example of introduction paragraph analysis: 

Now, let’s use the questions above to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of this sample intro paragraph. 

Does the Intro Have a Good Hook? 

First, the intro starts out with an attention-grabbing hook . The writer starts by presenting  an assumption (that the U.S. federal government bears most of the financial burden of college education), which makes the topic relatable to a wide audience of readers. Also note that the hook relates to the general topic of the essay, which is the high cost of college education. 

The hook then takes a surprising turn by presenting a counterclaim : that American families, rather than students, feel the true burden of paying for college. Some readers will have a strong emotional reaction to this provocative counterclaim, which will make them want to keep reading! As such, this intro provides an effective opening sentence that conveys the essay topic. 

Does the Intro Give Context?

T he second, third, and fourth sentences of the intro provide contextual details that reveal the specific focus of the writer’s paper . Remember: the context helps readers start to zoom in on what the paper will focus on, and what aspect of the general topic (college costs) will be discussed later on. 

The context in this intro reveals the intent and direction of the paper by explaining why the issue of families financing college is important. In other words, the context helps readers understand why this issue matters , and what aspects of this issue will be addressed in the paper.  

To provide effective context, the writer refers to issues (the exorbitant cost of college and high levels of family debt) that have received a lot of recent scholarly and media attention. These sentences of context also elaborate on the interesting perspective included in the hook: that American families are most affected by college costs.

Does the Intro Have a Thesis? 

Finally, this intro provides a thesis statement that conveys the writer’s point of view on the issue of financing college education. This writer believes that the U.S. government should do more to pay for students’ college educations. 

However, the thesis statement doesn’t give us any details about why the writer has made this claim or why this will help American families . There isn’t an essay map that helps readers understand what points the writer will make in the essay.

To revise this thesis statement so that it establishes the specific aspects of the topic that the essay will address, the writer could add the following to the beginning of the thesis statement:

The U.S. government should take on more of the financial burden of college education because other countries have shown this can improve education rates while reducing levels of familial poverty.

Check out the new section in bold. Not only does it clarify that the writer is talking about the pressure put on families, it touches on the big topics the writer will address in the paper: improving education rates and reduction of poverty. So not only do we have a clearer argumentative statement in this thesis, we also have an essay map!  

So, let’s recap our analysis. This sample intro paragraph does an effective job of providing an engaging hook and relatable, interesting context, but the thesis statement needs some work ! As you write your own intro paragraphs, you might consider using the questions above to evaluate and revise your work. Doing this will help ensure you’ve covered all of your bases and written an intro that your readers will find interesting!


4 Tips for How To Write an Introduction Paragraph

Now that we’ve gone over an example of introduction paragraph analysis, let’s talk about how to write an introduction paragraph of your own. Keep reading for four tips for writing a successful intro paragraph for any essay. 

Tip 1: Analyze Your Essay Prompt

If you’re having trouble with how to start an introduction paragraph, analyze your essay prompt! Most teachers give you some kind of assignment sheet, formal instructions, or prompt to set the expectations for an essay they’ve assigned, right? Those instructions can help guide you as you write your intro paragraph!

Because they’ll be reading and responding to your essay, you want to make sure you meet your teacher’s expectations for an intro paragraph . For instance, if they’ve provided specific instructions about how long the intro should be or where the thesis statement should be located, be sure to follow them!

The type of paper you’re writing can give you clues as to how to approach your intro as well. If you’re writing a research paper, your professor might expect you to provide a research question or state a hypothesis in your intro. If you’re writing an argumentative essay, you’ll need to make sure your intro overviews the context surrounding your argument and your thesis statement includes a clear, defensible claim. 

Using the parameters set out by your instructor and assignment sheet can put some easy-to-follow boundaries in place for things like your intro’s length, structure, and content. Following these guidelines can free you up to focus on other aspects of your intro... like coming up with an exciting hook and conveying your point of view on your topic!

Tip 2: Narrow Your Topic

You can’t write an intro paragraph without first identifying your topic. To make your intro as effective as possible, you need to define the parameters of your topic clearly—and you need to be specific. 

For example, let’s say you want to write about college football. “NCAA football” is too broad of a topic for a paper. There is a lot to talk about in terms of college football! It would be tough to write an intro paragraph that’s focused, purposeful, and engaging on this topic. In fact, if you did try to address this whole topic, you’d probably end up writing a book!

Instead, you should narrow broad topics to  identify a specific question, claim, or issue pertaining to some aspect of NCAA football for your intro to be effective. So, for instance, you could frame your topic as, “How can college professors better support NCAA football players in academics?” This focused topic pertaining to NCAA football would give you a more manageable angle to discuss in your paper.

So before you think about writing your intro, ask yourself: Is my essay topic specific, focused, and logical? Does it convey an issue or question that I can explore over the course of several pages? Once you’ve established a good topic, you’ll have the foundation you need to write an effective intro paragraph . 


Once you've figured out your topic, it's time to hit the books!

Tip 3: Do Your Research

This tip is tightly intertwined with the one above, and it’s crucial to writing a good intro: do your research! And, guess what? This tip applies to all papers—even ones that aren’t technically research papers. 

Here’s why you need to do some research: getting the lay of the land on what others have said about your topic—whether that’s scholars and researchers or the mass media— will help you narrow your topic, write an engaging hook, and provide relatable context. 

You don't want to sit down to write your intro without a solid understanding of the different perspectives on your topic. Whether those are the perspectives of experts or the general public, these points of view will help you write your intro in a way that is intriguing and compelling for your audience of readers. 

Tip 4: Write Multiple Drafts

Some say to write your intro first; others say write it last. The truth is, there isn’t a right or wrong time to write your intro—but you do need to have enough time to write multiple drafts . 

Oftentimes, your professor will ask you to write multiple drafts of your paper, which gives you a built-in way to make sure you revise your intro. Another approach you could take is to write out a rough draft of your intro before you begin writing your essay, then revise it multiple times as you draft out your paper. 

Here’s why this approach can work: as you write your paper, you’ll probably come up with new insights on your topic that you didn’t have right from the start. You can use these “light bulb” moments to reevaluate your intro and make revisions that keep it in line with your developing essay draft. 

Once you’ve written your entire essay, consider going back and revising your intro again . You can ask yourself these questions as you evaluate your intro: 

Using these questions as a guide and putting your intro through multiple revisions will help ensure that you’ve written the best intro for the final draft of your essay. Also, revising your writing is always a good thing to do—and this applies to your intro, too!


What's Next?

Your college essays also need great intro paragraphs. Here’s a guide that focuses on how to write the perfect intro for your admissions essays. 

Of course, the intro is just one part of your college essay . This article will teach you how to write a college essay that makes admissions counselors sit up and take notice. 

Are you trying to write an analytical essay? Our step-by-step guide can help you knock it out of the park.

Need more help with this topic? Check out Tutorbase!

Our vetted tutor database includes a range of experienced educators who can help you polish an essay for English or explain how derivatives work for Calculus. You can use dozens of filters and search criteria to find the perfect person for your needs.

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Ashley Sufflé Robinson has a Ph.D. in 19th Century English Literature. As a content writer for PrepScholar, Ashley is passionate about giving college-bound students the in-depth information they need to get into the school of their dreams.

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How to Write a Journal Article Introduction Section

how to write an introduction for an article

Our journal manuscript series has covered the various sections of a scientific article according to the order in which we recommend you write them ( Figures ,  Methods section ,  Results section ,  Discussion section , and Conclusion section ). In this second-to-last installment, we’ll talk about the Introduction and how to draft it in a way that intrigues your readers and makes them want to continue reading. After all, the journal publications industry is a business, so editors won’t accept your article unless they’re confident their readership will be interested.

What is an Introduction in a research paper?

After the Abstract (the final section of the paper you should draft) and the visual aids, like figures,  a reader’s first true interaction with your work is the Introduction . Thus, like any other story, you must set a compelling stage that invites your readers into your research world. Essentially,  your Introduction will establish the foundation upon which your readers will approach your work . You lay down the rules of interpretation, and if your manuscript follows the tips we’ve given in this series, your readers should be able to logically apply those rules throughout all parts of your paper, including the conclusion in your Discussion section.

Before we examine what specifically belongs in this critical context-defining section of your manuscript, let’s explore a practical point about writing the Introduction.

When should I write the Introduction section?

You may recall that we recommended a particular order for drafting your manuscript—an order that suggests the Introduction should be written second to last. You may also remember we talked about how the Discussion (or the Conclusion section for journals that separate the Discussion and Conclusion) should answer the questions raised in the Introduction. So which is it? Write the Introduction first or the Discussion? Honestly, the Introduction should come second to last because it is one of the harder sections of the manuscript to nail correctly. Therefore,  we recommend writing the Introduction in two stages.

Start with a skeletal Introduction that clearly states the hypothesis (the question your research answers). Then proceed with fully drafting the remaining parts of your manuscript, including analyzing your results in the Discussion and drawing rough conclusions that you will later refine. Once you’ve finished the other parts, return to your Introduction and incorporate the information we outline further below under the heading “What should I include in the Introduction?” After, modify the Discussion’s conclusion accordingly and polish the entire piece once again.

What to Include in the Introduction Section

Your paper must read like a chronological story ; it will begin with point A (the Introduction) and advance in time toward point B (the Discussion/Conclusion). If you recall from our prior article,  the Discussion should answer the questions  “why  this  particular study was needed to fill the gap in scientific knowledge we currently have and why that gap needed filling in the first place.” The Introduction answers similar but distinct questions.  The context you establish in the Introduction must first identify that there is a knowledge gap and then explain how you intend to fill that gap and why .

Imagine that your paper is an hourglass figure, as in the infographic below. Your Introduction holds the sand of knowledge that we currently have (the top bulb), and as the sand trickles through the neck (your research), it builds up a new base of knowledge (the bottom bulb). Thus your paper traces that journey from the top of the hourglass to the bottom, answering the questions in the infographic along the way. As a part of that journey, your Introduction is the starting point that answers the first three questions concisely.

How to Write a Journal Introduction Section

As you can see from above, your Introduction should start broadly and narrow until it reaches your hypothesis. Now, let’s examine how we can achieve this flow of ideas more closely.

What is known about the current research topic?

What is the gap in knowledge?

How should we fill that knowledge gap?

How to Write the Introduction Section

To round out our guide to drafting the Introduction of your journal article, we provide some general tips about the technical aspects of writing the Introduction section below.

And keep in mind that receiving English proofreading and paper editing services for your manuscript before submission to journals greatly increases your chances of publication. Wordvice provides high-quality professional editing for all types of academic documents and includes a free certificate of editing .

You can also find these resources plus information about the journal submission process in our FREE downloadable e-book:  Research Writing and Journal Publication E-Book .

Wordvice Resources

Additional Resources

Orsuamaeze Blessings, Adebayo Alaba Joseph and Oguntimehin Ilemobayo Ifedayo, 2018. Deleterious effects of cadmium solutions on onion (Allium cepa)  growth and the plant’s potential as bioindicator of Cd exposure. Res. J. Environ. Sci., 12: 114-120. Online:  http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/academicjournals/rjes/2018/114-120.pdf

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of introductions, offer strategies for creating effective introductions, and provide some examples of less effective introductions to avoid.

The role of introductions

Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult parts of papers to write. Usually when you sit down to respond to an assignment, you have at least some sense of what you want to say in the body of your paper. You might have chosen a few examples you want to use or have an idea that will help you answer the main question of your assignment; these sections, therefore, may not be as hard to write. And it’s fine to write them first! But in your final draft, these middle parts of the paper can’t just come out of thin air; they need to be introduced and concluded in a way that makes sense to your reader.

Your introduction and conclusion act as bridges that transport your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis. If your readers pick up your paper about education in the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, for example, they need a transition to help them leave behind the world of Chapel Hill, television, e-mail, and The Daily Tar Heel and to help them temporarily enter the world of nineteenth-century American slavery. By providing an introduction that helps your readers make a transition between their own world and the issues you will be writing about, you give your readers the tools they need to get into your topic and care about what you are saying. Similarly, once you’ve hooked your readers with the introduction and offered evidence to prove your thesis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. (See our handout on conclusions .)

Note that what constitutes a good introduction may vary widely based on the kind of paper you are writing and the academic discipline in which you are writing it. If you are uncertain what kind of introduction is expected, ask your instructor.

Why bother writing a good introduction?

You never get a second chance to make a first impression. The opening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions of your argument, your writing style, and the overall quality of your work. A vague, disorganized, error-filled, off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negative impression. On the other hand, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly of you, your analytical skills, your writing, and your paper.

Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper. Your introduction conveys a lot of information to your readers. You can let them know what your topic is, why it is important, and how you plan to proceed with your discussion. In many academic disciplines, your introduction should contain a thesis that will assert your main argument. Your introduction should also give the reader a sense of the kinds of information you will use to make that argument and the general organization of the paragraphs and pages that will follow. After reading your introduction, your readers should not have any major surprises in store when they read the main body of your paper.

Ideally, your introduction will make your readers want to read your paper. The introduction should capture your readers’ interest, making them want to read the rest of your paper. Opening with a compelling story, an interesting question, or a vivid example can get your readers to see why your topic matters and serve as an invitation for them to join you for an engaging intellectual conversation (remember, though, that these strategies may not be suitable for all papers and disciplines).

Strategies for writing an effective introduction

Start by thinking about the question (or questions) you are trying to answer. Your entire essay will be a response to this question, and your introduction is the first step toward that end. Your direct answer to the assigned question will be your thesis, and your thesis will likely be included in your introduction, so it is a good idea to use the question as a jumping off point. Imagine that you are assigned the following question:

Drawing on the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass , discuss the relationship between education and slavery in 19th-century America. Consider the following: How did white control of education reinforce slavery? How did Douglass and other enslaved African Americans view education while they endured slavery? And what role did education play in the acquisition of freedom? Most importantly, consider the degree to which education was or was not a major force for social change with regard to slavery.

You will probably refer back to your assignment extensively as you prepare your complete essay, and the prompt itself can also give you some clues about how to approach the introduction. Notice that it starts with a broad statement and then narrows to focus on specific questions from the book. One strategy might be to use a similar model in your own introduction—start off with a big picture sentence or two and then focus in on the details of your argument about Douglass. Of course, a different approach could also be very successful, but looking at the way the professor set up the question can sometimes give you some ideas for how you might answer it. (See our handout on understanding assignments for additional information on the hidden clues in assignments.)

Decide how general or broad your opening should be. Keep in mind that even a “big picture” opening needs to be clearly related to your topic; an opening sentence that said “Human beings, more than any other creatures on earth, are capable of learning” would be too broad for our sample assignment about slavery and education. If you have ever used Google Maps or similar programs, that experience can provide a helpful way of thinking about how broad your opening should be. Imagine that you’re researching Chapel Hill. If what you want to find out is whether Chapel Hill is at roughly the same latitude as Rome, it might make sense to hit that little “minus” sign on the online map until it has zoomed all the way out and you can see the whole globe. If you’re trying to figure out how to get from Chapel Hill to Wrightsville Beach, it might make more sense to zoom in to the level where you can see most of North Carolina (but not the rest of the world, or even the rest of the United States). And if you are looking for the intersection of Ridge Road and Manning Drive so that you can find the Writing Center’s main office, you may need to zoom all the way in. The question you are asking determines how “broad” your view should be. In the sample assignment above, the questions are probably at the “state” or “city” level of generality. When writing, you need to place your ideas in context—but that context doesn’t generally have to be as big as the whole galaxy!

Try writing your introduction last. You may think that you have to write your introduction first, but that isn’t necessarily true, and it isn’t always the most effective way to craft a good introduction. You may find that you don’t know precisely what you are going to argue at the beginning of the writing process. It is perfectly fine to start out thinking that you want to argue a particular point but wind up arguing something slightly or even dramatically different by the time you’ve written most of the paper. The writing process can be an important way to organize your ideas, think through complicated issues, refine your thoughts, and develop a sophisticated argument. However, an introduction written at the beginning of that discovery process will not necessarily reflect what you wind up with at the end. You will need to revise your paper to make sure that the introduction, all of the evidence, and the conclusion reflect the argument you intend. Sometimes it’s easiest to just write up all of your evidence first and then write the introduction last—that way you can be sure that the introduction will match the body of the paper.

Don’t be afraid to write a tentative introduction first and then change it later. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started. That’s fine, but if you are one of those people, be sure to return to your initial introduction later and rewrite if necessary.

Open with something that will draw readers in. Consider these options (remembering that they may not be suitable for all kinds of papers):

Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start off on the right foot with your readers by making sure that the first sentence actually says something useful and that it does so in an interesting and polished way.

How to evaluate your introduction draft

Ask a friend to read your introduction and then tell you what he or she expects the paper will discuss, what kinds of evidence the paper will use, and what the tone of the paper will be. If your friend is able to predict the rest of your paper accurately, you probably have a good introduction.

Five kinds of less effective introductions

1. The placeholder introduction. When you don’t have much to say on a given topic, it is easy to create this kind of introduction. Essentially, this kind of weaker introduction contains several sentences that are vague and don’t really say much. They exist just to take up the “introduction space” in your paper. If you had something more effective to say, you would probably say it, but in the meantime this paragraph is just a place holder.

Example: Slavery was one of the greatest tragedies in American history. There were many different aspects of slavery. Each created different kinds of problems for enslaved people.

2. The restated question introduction. Restating the question can sometimes be an effective strategy, but it can be easy to stop at JUST restating the question instead of offering a more specific, interesting introduction to your paper. The professor or teaching assistant wrote your question and will be reading many essays in response to it—he or she does not need to read a whole paragraph that simply restates the question.

Example: The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass discusses the relationship between education and slavery in 19th century America, showing how white control of education reinforced slavery and how Douglass and other enslaved African Americans viewed education while they endured. Moreover, the book discusses the role that education played in the acquisition of freedom. Education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.

3. The Webster’s Dictionary introduction. This introduction begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the words in the assigned question. Anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and copy down what Webster says. If you want to open with a discussion of an important term, it may be far more interesting for you (and your reader) if you develop your own definition of the term in the specific context of your class and assignment. You may also be able to use a definition from one of the sources you’ve been reading for class. Also recognize that the dictionary is also not a particularly authoritative work—it doesn’t take into account the context of your course and doesn’t offer particularly detailed information. If you feel that you must seek out an authority, try to find one that is very relevant and specific. Perhaps a quotation from a source reading might prove better? Dictionary introductions are also ineffective simply because they are so overused. Instructors may see a great many papers that begin in this way, greatly decreasing the dramatic impact that any one of those papers will have.

Example: Webster’s dictionary defines slavery as “the state of being a slave,” as “the practice of owning slaves,” and as “a condition of hard work and subjection.”

4. The “dawn of man” introduction. This kind of introduction generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the relevance of this topic since the beginning of time, throughout the world, etc. It is usually very general (similar to the placeholder introduction) and fails to connect to the thesis. It may employ cliches—the phrases “the dawn of man” and “throughout human history” are examples, and it’s hard to imagine a time when starting with one of these would work. Instructors often find them extremely annoying.

Example: Since the dawn of man, slavery has been a problem in human history.

5. The book report introduction. This introduction is what you had to do for your elementary school book reports. It gives the name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the book. You might resort to this sort of introduction when you are trying to fill space because it’s a familiar, comfortable format. It is ineffective because it offers details that your reader probably already knows and that are irrelevant to the thesis.

Example: Frederick Douglass wrote his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave , in the 1840s. It was published in 1986 by Penguin Books. In it, he tells the story of his life.

And now for the conclusion…

Writing an effective introduction can be tough. Try playing around with several different options and choose the one that ends up sounding best to you!

Just as your introduction helps readers make the transition to your topic, your conclusion needs to help them return to their daily lives–but with a lasting sense of how what they have just read is useful or meaningful. Check out our handout on  conclusions for tips on ending your paper as effectively as you began it!

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself . New York: Dover.

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how to write an introduction for an article

6 Easy Steps To Write an Introduction for an Article

Learn how to write an introduction for an article to boost the readability of your content and make people read it till the end.

how to write an introduction for an article

Ivana Vidakovic

Aug 26, 2022

how to write an introduction for an article


Trending articles.

Are you stumped on how to get visitors to scroll past the title and read the rest of your article?

No, that is not a stupid problem, and yes, many of us were facing the same issue.

Many writers overlook the power of the introduction, which leads their blog to failure.

The introduction is the essential part of your article, where you convince your readers that you can help them solve their problems.

Based on this, people get to decide whether or not they will give your article a shot or search for different solutions.

Trust me, introductions aren’t hard to write.

All you have to do is follow the right steps and learn how to use them properly.

Today we will provide you with simple steps on how to write an introduction for an article to boost the readability of your content and make people read it till the end.

What is Introduction?

The introduction is the first thing your readers see after they click on your blog title.

When describing the introduction's importance, I usually compare them with the stairs. Now, imagine yourself in front of the stairs that are supposed to lead you to the first floor. 

If these stairs seem solid and resistant to pressure, you will want to explore the floor above. However, if they are rusty, you will no longer be interested.

The same goes for introductions. If you see the title " How to boost traffic to your website by 406%? " your readers will be interested to find out more. They expect a hint of what your solutions offer that other articles don't have.

A sloppy or overwhelming introduction will chase them away. Thus, the key is finding a perfect balance without being too vague about the hint.

A well-balanced introduction is:

And now that we've established this, let's go over how to write an introduction for an article on your own.

How To Write an Introduction for an Article — 6 Simple Steps To Nail It Down

1. hook with a strong opening line.

Once you've 'dared' to write an appealing title that will pique readers' interest, you must back it up with a statement that will justify your bravery rather than becoming a tasty lie only to gain clicks.

In the example of the title " How to boost traffic to your website by 406%? " you shouldn't start your opening line with the sentence "Good positioning on Google can bring you tons of traffic." right?

Instead, it would be much wiser to offer some statistical evidence to support your claims in the title. 

For instance, you can use sentences like " Did you know that users spend an average of 5.59 seconds looking at written content on a website? "

You must keep up the momentum after making a bold claim in the title.

The same goes for general titles such as " Become An Influencer Using These x Easy Steps ". 

For example, Neil Patel employs a similar method of creating an intriguing opening line by including some facts:

how to write an introduction for an article

By providing your readers with bold statements in the opening line, you give them a reason to be curious about your content and discover more . 

They are excellent trust boosters that will help you engage your audience more quickly and efficiently. 

Pro Tip: If you get stuck with writing seductive opening lines, AI writing assistants, such as TextCortex, can help you with that.

For example, to start your blog article with TextCortex, you need to specify your title and keywords, then choose text length and creativity level.

Here is how the blog article generation feature works:

Some AI writing assistants, including TextCortex, allow you to modify your text on the spot with an editable canvas, which makes the whole writing process much more manageable.

2. Tell What Is The Story About

After the opening line, the second crucial thing to tell is what the article is about . 

The audience reads the introductions to determine if they address the pertinent issues around the topic they are interested in.

For example, if we want to talk about the subject “ How to keep calm under pressure? ” we want to cover the most critical pain points of the issue, which are panic and anxiety attacks, right?

Thus, when writing your introduction for an article, it is essential to cover only the key milestones relevant to your readers for a particular subject.

Here is an example:


Using storytelling to explain vital areas of the problem, you will encourage your readers to move further into the text and reveal more about what you have to suggest.

However, that doesn't imply revealing everything about the subject. 

Your audience requires the piece's overall message, with the rest to be discovered along the way. 

The introduction's role is to invoke curiosity and engage your readers in a way they want to scroll further .

3. Give Your Unique Point Of View

It is not enough just to state what the article is all about to make it engaging. 

Remember, the introduction is still part of the article and needs to be aligned with the rest of the text.

And there is no better way of making it engaging than to engrave your point of view on the subject, such as in this example:

how to write an introduction for an article

With thousands of content cycling around the web on similar topics, anyone can copy and paste the information to make an article.

What makes them differ one from another is the level of authority you provide within your content.

Providing your opinion on the topic will increase readers' trust and give them a sense of empathy . 

Sometimes, especially at the beginning of the writing career, it is not so easy to organize your thoughts to make your writing sound more professional .

In those times, AI rewriting tools can come in handy. 

For example, here is how TextCortex’s rewriting extension can help you rewrite entire paragraphs in bulk without changing their original meaning :

Rewriting your thoughts can help you better convey your message and boost the readability of your content. 

4. Engage Audience With Rhetorical Questions

Another excellent method for making your introduction more appealing is incorporating a rhetorical question to engage your readers.

These questions do not require replies, but they are helpful when you wish to elicit specific emotions in your readers, such as urgency, empathy, and compassion.

Here's a great illustration of how rhetorical questions work:


Rhetorical questions will not only make your readers wonder about the specific point you need to convey, but they will also give them the impression that you understand their problems.

After convincing the audience that we know what we're talking about, it’s time to provide solutions that interest them in reading the piece.

5. Offer Potential Solutions To The Pain Points

It is crucial not to leave out the solution to the critical components of the issue you want to address in your article to finish the entire introduction.

That, again, doesn’t mean you need to list all the solutions in the introduction, but rather to convince readers about the outcome they can expect when implementing those solutions.

Here is an introduction example on the 7 reasons why you should start your business:


The solution part in the introduction is practically your conclusion to the overall message of what your audience can expect to achieve if they decide to invest time in your article.

And, it is imperative, to be honest about these solutions . 

In the example above, the article offers 7 valid reasons to start a business. Your readers expect solid guidance on what to do with ideas and interests to make such a decision.

how to write an introduction for an article

Offering unclear solutions in your content will only make the solution announcement in the introduction look like a cheap marketing trick.

This move can cost you long-term reliability and ruin your image as a reliable source.

And last but not least — Call-To-Action.

6. Tell Your Audience What To Do

This is one the biggest content writing mistakes you can make when writing your article — disregard CTA . 

It is not uncommon in online business to tell people what you want them to do in order for you to accomplish it.

Exactly for that purpose, today we have CTA’s all over the place — landing pages, social media posts, articles, emails, etc.

Here is an example of CTA in the introduction:


Maybe this can look stupid to some of you, but the statistics show that the highest CTR (click-through rate) for the CTA button was almost 70%.

If you are not sure what you can use, here are some hints:

Even though we don’t use buttons in the introduction, the idea behind CTA is to tell people what to do next and influence that tiny push toward better content performance.

Sometimes, believe it or not, that is all that is required.

Furthermore, incorporating CTA within your info's can't hurt, as it only adds 3-4 more words.


Do you remember the balance we discussed at the beginning of this a rticle?

Following all these 6 steps will ensure you balance your introductions and gain the readability of your articles that you deserve.

Of course, that only applies if you have already mastered engaging content writing . 

But what if we tell you that there is a 100% chance for you to get rid of 80% of your writing work and gain 10x more content within just a couple of clicks?

For that purpose, we created TextCortex.

It will produce natural-sounding content with each generation, save your projects for future use, and allow you to edit any text in an editable canvas.

TextCortex is available as a web application and rewriter extension.

The web application will help you write any content type:

Furthermore, our rewriter extension is available on 30+ platforms, including TextCortex editor canvas, and will transform text with features such as:

Our free version offers 15 free daily creations with no limitation to features ( no credit card information required).

Would you like to give it a try?

Claim your free account now and see how TextCortex enhances your writing skills while boosting your content engagement and visibility.

Unlock your full potential with an AI Companion

Discover what writing with AI feels like. We assure you'll save 20+ hours every week. Start creating beautiful content.

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How to Write a Good Introduction for an Article

Sometimes the hardest part of writing an article is getting started. Your introduction will pull in readers, so it needs to be the best paragraph of the entire article. Writing a good introduction is easy as easy as 1-2-3, if you know exactly how to go about doing it

Choose a topic for your article. This is will be what the article is mainly about.

Write a first sentence that draws in readers. Some great ideas include asking a question, using a quote or stating an amazing fact.

Write one or two sentences that answer the questions who, what, when, where, why and how. This is the typical outline for the first paragraph of a news article.

Consider a final sentence to sum up your article. This works in much of the same way as a thesis sentence in an essay.

Revise the paragraph. You may want to play with word choice and order to make it as readable as possible.

Check for spelling and grammar mistakes.

This article was written by the CareerTrend team, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information. To submit your questions or ideas, or to simply learn more about CareerTrend, contact us [here](http://careertrend.com/about-us).

how to write an introduction for an article

Microsoft 365 Life Hacks > Writing > How to write an introduction for a research paper

How to write an introduction for a research paper

Beginnings are hard. Beginning a research paper is no exception. Many students—and pros—struggle with how to write an introduction for a research paper.

This short guide will describe the purpose of a research paper introduction and how to create a good one.

a research paper being viewed on a Acer TravelMate B311 2-in-1 on desk with pad of paper.

What is an introduction for a research paper?

Introductions to research papers do a lot of work.

It may seem obvious, but introductions are always placed at the beginning of a paper. They guide your reader from a general subject area to the narrow topic that your paper covers. They also explain your paper’s:

Your introduction will cover a lot of ground. However, it will only be half of a page to a few pages long. The length depends on the size of your paper as a whole. In many cases, the introduction will be shorter than all of the other sections of your paper.

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Why is an introduction vital to a research paper?

The introduction to your research paper isn’t just important. It’s critical.

Your readers don’t know what your research paper is about from the title. That’s where your introduction comes in. A good introduction will:

Without a clear introduction, your readers will struggle. They may feel confused when they start reading your paper. They might even give up entirely. Your introduction will ground them and prepare them for the in-depth research to come.

What should you include in an introduction for a research paper?

Research paper introductions are always unique. After all, research is original by definition. However, they often contain six essential items. These are:

These six items are emphasized more or less, depending on your field. For example, a physics research paper might emphasize methodology. An English journal article might highlight the overview.

Three tips for writing your introduction

We don’t just want you to learn how to write an introduction for a research paper. We want you to learn how to make it shine.

There are three things you can do that will make it easier to write a great introduction. You can:

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10 Simple Ways to Write Stronger Introductions

Neil Patel

Updated: September 20, 2022

Published: July 30, 2019

There's a lot of material out there about writing great headlines . Hey, g etting someone to click on your article is a critical part of your blogging strategy. But what about writing introductions?

how to write stronger introductions

C ompelling readers to actually read the article is an art form in and of itself -- and if you don't do it well, then you're denying yourself potential promoters, subscribers, leads, and even paying customers.

→ Download Now: 6 Free Blog Post Templates

Take a look at the following graph from Schwartz to see what I mean. It shows where people stopped scrolling in an experiment covering many articles across the web.

Every time someone landed on an article, Chartbeat analyzed that visitor's behavior on a second-by-second basis, including which portion of the page the person was currently viewing. E ach bar represents the share of readers who got to a particular depth in the article.


Image Credit: Slate

Of everyone who landed on an article, 10% never scroll down.

So how do you get more people to scroll? One way is by writing a powerful, compelling introduction.

So, let’s see about making it better now, shall we? In this post, I'll share with you how to write powerful introductions that turn casual browsers into readers. Article introductions matter, and here’s how to make them count.

How to Write a Good Introduction

1. Keep your first sentence short.

I’m a big fan of short sentences. I love them because people can understand them easily. There's an insane amount of value in short sentences that are readable, digestible, and punchy.

But often, writers get so caught up in the stress of their introduction that they come out with long, garbled sentences. The problem with long, garbled sentences is that it makes readers work hard. Readers don't want to work hard to understand your article -- especially at the beginning. Lead off your introduction with a bite-sized sentence or two.

2. Say something unusual.

You've probably heard advice like "create a hook" and "grab the reader's attention." But what kind of stuff actually grabs someone's attention? I can think of a lot of things, actually, but they probably wouldn’t be appropriate for an introduction.

What these oft-repeated phrases boil down to is this: say something unusual. Something unexpected, even. If your very first sentence is odd enough to make people want to read the next one, then you've done a good job. If you start off with something boring or expected, you might lose potential readers.

3. Don’t repeat the title.

Assume that the reader already read the title. You don’t need to write it over again. Instead, take advantage of your chance to reinforce that title and to set the stage for the remainder of the article.

4. Keep the introduction brief.

There is no definitive answer for how long an introduction should be. But, like the Slate study told us, readers have short attention spans. They're impatient to get to the meat of the article. Your readers are looking for information, so don't bury it deep in your article. Cut to the chase.

5. Use the word “you” at least once.

The word “you” is a powerful word. It tells the reader that you, the author, are writing the article with them in mind. You empathize with them, you care about them, and you want your piece to resonate with them. It's a simple trick that establishes a crucial connection with your reader.

Here's a great example from CloudPeeps' Shannon Byrne:


6. Dedicate 1-2 sentences to articulating what the article covers.

Your English teacher would call this the "thesis." This is where you tell the reader what the article is about. What will you be discussing, in order? What will the reader learn? Lay it out to help set the reader's expectations and help her decide whether she wants to read the article in full, scroll to different parts, or not read it at all.

Don't be afraid of writing, literally, "This article is about X " or "In this article, I'll talk about Y ." Here are some variations on this theme to get you started:

7. Dedicate 1-2 sentences to explaining why the article is important.

It may be obvious to you why the content of your article is important to your readers, but it may not be obvious to them. Let them know loud and clear why it's important for them to know the information you cover in your article. You might compel readers who would otherwise have bounced to keep on reading.

In the introduction to this particular article, you'll recall the following sentence:

I f you don't [write introductions] well, then you're denying yourself potential promoters, subscribers, leads, and even paying customers.

My goal here was to connect the topic of blog post introductions to the broader issues of readers, customers, and revenue.

8. Refer to a concern or problem your readers might have.

If you can pull a pain point into the introduction, even better. Everyone in every field has their set of problems. You should have some listed already from when you created your buyer personas . Communicate your awareness of those problems in your introduction and you're more likely to gain a sympathetic reader.

Here's a great example from Buffer's Alex Turnbull, whose intro here is a story format with a problem twist:


People want to solve their problems, and articles that explain how to do this will help you earn readership.

9. But ... be careful telling stories.

A lot of people will tell you that you need to write a story in the introduction. Stories can work , as in the example above, but there are good and bad ways to tell stories in your intro.

Do use storytelling to spark the reader's curiosity and empathize with her. But don't get carried away and write a long-winded story that loses readers along the way. Remember the tip about keeping introductions short? That still applies when you're telling a story.

Here's an example from one of my own QuickSprout blog posts:


Notice that I highlighted the "empathy" section -- the first sentence. Here, I helped form a connection with my readers. Then, I told a short story about my own experience. After that, I finished the introduction with "what's next."

If you do begin your article with a story, here's a tip: Don't reveal the conclusion until the reader is deeper into the article, or even until the very end.

10. Use a stat or a fact to convey importance.

When journalists begin a news story, they often give readers an eye catching stat or fact about what's going on. As a blogger or any other type of writer, a really interesting stat or fact will draw your reader in and show them why your topic is really important.

For example, say you're a plumber writing a blog post on pipe replacement. You might pull in more readers if you start a post by explaining how frequently old pipes burst in the winter. If readers see that this is a common annoyance that others face, they might keep reading to learn how they can avoid it.

Introduction Takeaways

The next time you write an article introduction, think about what kind of introduction would make you want to read the article.

Would a long, wordy first sentence make you want to read more? No. You might find yourself thinking, Yikes, is this what the rest of the article's going to be like? and bounce from the page. What about a story or question that doesn't really apply to you? No, probably not.

To compel you to read past the introduction of an article, you want to read something unique, fresh, and engaging. You want to hear about yourself and your problems. You want to be put in a position where the remainder of the article is a must-read experience that will help you solve those problems and change your life.

Introductions are hard, and writing effective ones take time and practice. Sometimes, you might find yourself having to re-write them several times before you're satisfied. Remember, it's all worth it if it means keeping the attention of a few more of your readers.

Don't forget to share this post!

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An exercise to build intuitions on agi risk.

Epistemic status: confident that the underlying idea is useful; less confident about the details, though they're straightforward enough that I expect they're mostly in the right direction.

TLDR:  This post describes a  pre-mortem -like exercise that I find useful for thinking about AGI risk.  It is the only way I know of to train big-picture intuitions about what solution attempts are more or less promising and what the hard parts of the problem are. The (simple) idea is to iterate between constructing safety proposals ('builder step') and looking for critical flaws in a proposal ('breaker step').


The way that scientists-in-training usually develop  research taste is to smash their heads against reality until they have good intuitions about things like which methods tend to work, how to interpret experimental results, or when to trust their proof of a theorem. This important feedback loop is mostly absent in AGI safety research, since we study a technology that does not exist yet (AGI). As a result, it is hard to develop a good understanding of which avenues of research are most promising and what the hard bits of the problem even are. [1]

The best way I know of to approximate that feedback loop is an iterative exercise with two steps: 1) propose a solution to AGI safety, and 2) look for flaws in the proposal. The idea is simple, but most people don’t do it explicitly or don’t do it often enough.

Multiple rounds of this exercise tend to bring up details about one’s assumptions and predictions that would otherwise stay implicit or unnoticed. Writing down specific flaws of a specific proposal helps ground more general concepts like instrumental convergence or claims like ‘corrigibility is unnatural’. And after some time, the patterns in the flaws (the ‘hard bits’) become visible on their own.

I ran an earlier version of this exercise as a workshop (an important component is to discuss your ideas with others, so a workshop format is convenient).  Here are the slides .

The exercise

The exercise consists of two phases: [2]  a  builder phase in which you write down a best guess / proposal for how we might avoid existential risk from AGI, and a  breaker phase in which you dig into the details until you understand how the proposal fails.

Importantly, in the context of this exercise the only thing that counts is your own  inside view , that is your own understanding of the technical or political feasibility of the proposal. You might have thoughts like “There’s smart people who have thought about this much longer than I have, and they think X; why should I disagree?”. Put that aside for now; the point is to develop your own views, and that works best when you don’t think too much about other people’s views except to inform your own thoughts.

Builder phase

Write down the proposal : a plausible story for how we might avoid human extinction or disempowerment due to AGI. [3]  It doesn’t need to be very detailed yet; that comes in the breaker phase.

The proposal does not need to be purely technical; e.g. governance approaches are fair game.

Example builder phase (oracle AI):  Instead of building an “agent AI” that acts in the world, we could build a system that just tries to make good predictions (an “oracle”). An oracle would be very useful and economically valuable while avoiding existential risk from AGI, because an oracle has no agency and thus no reason to act against us.

If you get stuck, i.e. you can’t come up with an AGI safety proposal: (Don’t worry, this is a common problem).

→ Write down in broad outlines what you expect to happen if we develop AGI. If that inevitably ends badly, start with the breaker phase: describe a failure scenario, then try to find a fix.

→ Talk to an AGI optimist, if you can find one. If they have an idea that doesn’t seem to you like it has obvious flaws, start with that. Alternatively, look for written proposals like the  OpenAI alignment plans .

Breaker phase

Make the proposal detailed and concrete. Try to find flaws. Adopt a  security mindset /  AI safety mindset .

Example breaker phase (oracle AI):  Let’s say we go ahead and build an oracle AGI. What exactly are we planning to do with this oracle? If the runner-up AI lab builds an agentic AGI 6 months later, their AGI might cause a catastrophe even if we’re careful. It’s not enough for the idea to be safe; it needs to be useful for alignment somehow, or otherwise help us prevent disaster from a competitor AGI. The current proposal doesn’t say anything about how to do that, which is a critical flaw. [4]

If you get stuck, i.e. it seems like the proposal works:

→ Consider different kinds of ways the proposal might fail. A useful resource here is  this very appropriately titled essay .

→ Write up your proposal and get others to critique it.

If the proposal seemed promising to start with, it’s plausible that a single serious flaw will not be enough to wreck it beyond repair. If you can see a way to adapt the proposal to fix the flaw, go to step 1 and repeat.

Example fix (Oracle AI):  So we need to adapt the proposal to make sure we can do something useful with the Oracle AI that prevents a less careful competitor lab from causing a disaster. Maybe an oracle can help us by evaluating our plans to convince other companies to not build AGI?

→  Adapted proposal  (Oracle AI 2): Instead of building an “agent AI” that acts in the world, we could build a system that just tries to make good predictions (an “oracle”). An oracle would be very useful and economically valuable while avoiding existential risk from AGI, because an oracle has no agency and thus no reason to act against us. We train the oracle to be good at answering questions such as “will research program X have catastrophic consequences?” and at evaluating the consequences of actions such as “talk to person X to convince them they should stop research program X”. The oracle will warn us if another lab gets close to deploying a dangerous AGI, and if so it can tell us how to convince them to stop.  

If you get stuck, i.e. it seems like the proposal is unfixable.

→ Talk to others about your idea, in particular if you know people who are optimistic about ideas similar to the proposal you’re working with. Send them your notes and ask for opinions.

→ If that fails: congratulations, you have completed the exercise! Start again from scratch with a new idea :)

Writing on AGI safety

If you decide to do this exercise, you’ll probably (depending on how much you’ve already read) find it useful to read other people’s thoughts on the topic. I’ve compiled some resources that you might find useful to read through for inspiration at various points in this exercise. The list is very incomplete - it’s just what I could come up with from the top of my head.

Breakers (criticisms of AGI Safety proposals & arguments for why safety is harder than one might otherwise think):

Builders (solution proposals):

Lists / collections of posts and papers:

Other writing on how to learn about / work in AGI safety

After I wrote this post I noticed that there’s already  a post by Abram Demski that describes basically the same exercise, and later people pointed out to me that John Wentworth runs  a similar exercise that is briefly described here . Both of those seem worth reading if you want more perspectives on the builder/breaker exercise, as is  Paul Christiano’s post on his research methodology .

Neel Nanda has  a good post on forming your own views in AGI safety .

The  MIRI alignment research field guide covers some useful basics for doing research and discussion groups with others.

Of course, AGI safety researchers do build research experience in adjacent fields like deep learning and maths, but there are intuitions and ways of thinking specific to AGI safety that one doesn’t typically inherit from other fields.

 I adopt the terms “builder / breaker” from the  ELK report , though I may not be using the terms in exactly the same way.

If helpful, you can choose a more concrete disaster scenario, such as “an autonomous human-level AGI breaks containment”.

I'm somewhat dissatisfied with this example because the flaw is obvious enough that there's no need to go into much concrete detail. Usually you'd do more of that, e.g. if the plan is to use the oracle or 'tool-AI' to prevent a dangerous AGI from being built, how exactly might that work?

Meta : I really like ideas and concrete steps for how to practice the skill of thinking about something. I think there are at least three methods for learning how to think productively about a particular problem:

And I think the last option is often neglected (in all fields, not just AGI safety) because there's not a lot of written material on how to actually do it. Note that it is a different thing than the more general skill of learning to learn and meta-cognition - different kinds of technical problems can require learning different, domain-specific kinds of cognitive motions.

If you've absorbed enough of the Sequences and other rationality material through osmosis, you might be able to figure out the kind of cognitive motions you need, and how to practice and develop them on your own (or maybe you've done some of the exercises in the CFAR handbook and learned to generalize the lessons they try to teach).

But having someone more experienced write down the kind of cognitive motions you need, along with exercises for how to learn and practice them, can probably get more people up to speed much more quickly. I think posts like this are a great step in that direction. Object-level tip for the breaker phase : thinking about how a literal human might break your alignment proposal can be a useful way for building intuitions and security mindset. A lot of real alignment schemes involve doing something with human-ish level intelligence , and thinking about how an actual human would break or escape from something is often more natural and less prone to veering into vague or magical thinking than positing capabilities that a hypothetical super-intelligent AI system might have.

If you can't figure out how an actual human can break things, you can relax the constraint a bit by thinking about what a human with the ability to make 10 copies of themselves, think 10x as fast, write code with superhuman accuracy and speed, etc. could do instead.

Threat modelling is the term for this kind of thinking in the field of computer security.

I strong-upvoted this post. Here's a specific, zoomed-in version of this game proposed by Nate Soares : 

like, we could imagine playing a game where i propose a way that it [the AI] diverges [from POUDA-avoidance] in deployment, and you counter by asserting that there's a situation in the training data where it had to have gotten whacked if it was that stupid, and i counter either by a more-sophisticated deployment-divergence or by naming either a shallower or a factually non-[Alice]like thing that it could have learned instead such that the divergence still occurs, and we go back and forth. and i win if you're forced into exotic and unlikely training data, and you win if i'm either forced into saying that it learned unnatural concepts, or if my divergences are pushed so far out that you can fit in a pivotal act before then.

Might be useful as a standalone or as a mini-game within the overall game of building and breaking an alignment proposal, which is itself a mini-game in the overall game of building and breaking success stories.

I like that mini-game! Thanks for the reference

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Getting Started


  1. Journal Article: Introduction : NSE Communication Lab

    how to write an introduction for an article

  2. Reading Academic Journal Articles

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  3. What an introduction to a research paper!

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  5. Article Writing

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  6. Writing Introductions

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  2. The Number One Tip for Writing an Introduction

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  1. Writing a Research Paper Introduction

    Step 1: Introduce your topic The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it's interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook. The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic.

  2. How to Write an Introduction, With Examples

    Introductions generally follow the writing style of the author and the format for the type of paper—for example, opening with a joke is appropriate for some essays, but not research papers. However, no matter what your writing style is or what kind of paper you're writing, a good introduction includes at least three parts:

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  4. Journal Article: Introduction : Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

    When to Write the Introduction. Results; Discussion; Introduction; Abstract; Purpose. Your paper's introduction is an opportunity to provide readers with the background necessary to understand your paper: the status of knowledge in your field, the question motivating your work and its significance, how you sought to answer that question (methods), and your main findings.

  5. How to write an introduction section of a scientific article?

    [ 1] It is useful to analyze the issues to be considered in the 'Introduction' section under 3 headings. Firstly, information should be provided about the general topic of the article in the light of the current literature which paves the way for the disclosure of the objective of the manuscript.

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    However, an increasing segment of surgeons in training and academic surgeons now feel the need to write and publish. The reasons for writing and publishing are both egoistic and altruistic. Egoistic motives are the desire to progress academically and professionally, improve status and develop professional contacts.

  7. 100+ Examples of Article Introductions

    How to Write an Article Introduction - 100+ Examples of How to Start an Article Watch on Getting people to imagine Oh, the power of imagination. Works like a charm every time for article introductions. Introducing a common problem for a specific reader segment

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    Additionally, this part of the article should provide context for the rest of the piece so readers will know what to expect from the rest of your article. This makes them more likely to stick around and read the blog through to the conclusion. Elements of a Good Introduction. There are several components of a well-written article introduction.

  9. A Comprehensive Guide on How to Write an Engaging Article

    4. Create an Outline. An outline serves as a roadmap for your article, ensuring a coherent flow of ideas. Divide your content into sections, including an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Each section should have a clear purpose and contribute to the overall message of your article. The outline helps you stay focused and prevents ...

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    An introduction is written from the point of view of the author, and offers additional information to help the reader understand the subject of the book, including historical context. Prefaces are employed mainly in nonfiction books. While it can adopt one of the forms above (as we'll see below), a prologue is always a work of fiction.

  11. How to write an Introduction to an academic article

    How to write an Introduction to an academic article The introduction to an academic article is the first section of the paper, immediately following the abstract. One of the most important functions of an introduction is to answer the question 'why?': why was the study performed, and why is it interesting and/or important?

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    5 Steps to Write an Article Introduction. Here's how you write a blog introduction that doesn't stink: Master the opening line; Have something unique to say; Keep it simple; Speak directly to the reader; Explain what the article is about; Step 1 - Master the Opening Line. To have a strong introduction, you need to open with a strong first ...

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    Writing an introduction that is clear and concise shows knowledge of how to write a good introductory paragraph while avoiding common pitfalls. Common pitfalls when writing a paragraph intro. Here are some common mistakes people make when writing their article intros, and why you should avoid them. Solving the reader's problem

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    Prepare an Outline of the Assignment: Always prepare an outline of a job because it helps you to be on the right track. Create a Flowchart of the Assignment: By creating a flowchart of your assignment you can give a brief description. Problem Statement: Write all the problem statements in a crisp and precise manner.

  15. The introduction provides an opening...

    ESSAY DRAFT: PLEASE NOTE: . The introduction provides an opening sentence about the article PLUS a thesis statement/the main point for the article.; The 2 nd paragraph introduces the main author and article and begins supplying evidence to support the thesis statement.; The supporting paragraphs which follow provide analysis, evidence, and direct quotations or paraphrases from the chosen article.

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    Artikel ini fokus pada Cara Manulis Artikel Ilmiah: Pendahuluan (Introduction). Bagian Pendahuluan menjadi bagian yang memiliki penilaian paling besar dari suatu artikel. Kenapa bagian Pendahuluan menjadi penilaian tertinggi? Karena bagian introduction / pendahuluan memuat HARAPAN, KENYATAAN, MASALAH, ALTERNATIF SOLUSI PENYELESAIAN (ada kebaruannya) yang ditawarkan oleh peneliti.

  17. How to write an introduction section of a scientific article?

    How to write an introduction section of a scientific article? Turk J Urol. doi: 10.5152/tud.2013.046. Author Abdullah Armağan 1 Affiliation 1 Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakıf University, İstanbul, Turkey. PMID: 26328128 PMCID: PMC4548565 DOI: 10.5152/tud.2013.046

  18. How to Write an Introduction Paragraph in 3 Steps

    As a reader's first impression of your essay, the intro paragraph should introduce the topic of your paper. Your introduction will also state any claims, questions, or issues that your paper will focus on. This is commonly known as your paper's thesis.

  19. How to Write an Introduction: 3 Tips for Writing an Introductory

    An introduction serves three main purposes: 1. To capture the reader's attention: The opening paragraph is the most crucial part of your paper because it's the reader's first impression and the best clue as to whether the paper will be worth the reader's time. The best introductions will not only be informative but also include a hook ...

  20. How To Write An Introduction (With Tips And Examples)

    1. Consider your purpose Before you begin writing your introduction, consider the purpose of your content. Try to think about why you are writing the article. For example, you may be informing your reader about something, encouraging them to buy a product or service or entertaining them.

  21. How to Write a Journal Article Introduction Section

    So which is it? Write the Introduction first or the Discussion? Honestly, the Introduction should come second to last because it is one of the harder sections of the manuscript to nail correctly. Therefore, we recommend writing the Introduction in two stages.

  22. Introductions

    1. The placeholder introduction. When you don't have much to say on a given topic, it is easy to create this kind of introduction. Essentially, this kind of weaker introduction contains several sentences that are vague and don't really say much. They exist just to take up the "introduction space" in your paper.

  23. 6 Easy Steps To Write an Introduction for an Article

    How To Write an Introduction for an Article — 6 Simple Steps To Nail It Down 1.

  24. How to Write a Good Introduction for an Article

    Writing a good introduction is easy as easy as 1-2-3, if you know exactly how to go about doing it Choose a topic for your article. This is will be what the article is mainly about. Write a first sentence that draws in readers. Some great ideas include asking a question, using a quote or stating an amazing fact.

  25. How to write an introduction for a research paper

    Start with a general overview of your topic. Narrow the overview until you address your paper's specific subject. Then, mention questions or concerns you had about the case. Note that you will address them in the publication. Prior research. Your introduction is the place to review other conclusions on your topic.

  26. How To Write an Introduction in 4 Easy Steps: A Complete Guide

    As you write your introduction, make sure you're clear with your words and communicating in a way that your readers will be able to comprehend. Related: 8 Examples of Business Writing. 3. Explain how your post will be helpful. Readers want to know that what they're reading is valuable.

  27. 10 Simple Ways to Write Stronger Introductions

    How to Write a Good Introduction Keep your first sentence short. Don't repeat the title. Keep the introduction brief. Use the word "you" at least once. Dedicate 1-2 sentences to articulating what the article covers. Dedicate 1-2 sentences to explaining why the article is important. Refer to a concern or problem your readers might have.

  28. An Exercise to Build Intuitions on AGI Risk

    The exercise. The exercise consists of two phases: [2] a builder phase in which you write down a best guess / proposal for how we might avoid existential risk from AGI, and a breaker phase in which you dig into the details until you understand how the proposal fails. Importantly, in the context of this exercise the only thing that counts is ...