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Case study: writing a case study for b.ed. third year tu.

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Dotnepal presents its collection of Educational Materials such as thesis, proposals, case studies for the Inter, Bachelor, Master level students to empower them in writing skills, provide them with sample notes. Here we go with B.Ed. Third year Case Study for B.Ed. program in TU:

A Case Study Report of

Taudaha Rastriya H.S School Taudaha, Kirtipur (2009).

Submitted to

Tribhuwan University Faculty of Education

Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Kathmandu

Partial fulfillment of B.Ed. third year (English Department)

Teaching practice

Presented by

B.Ed third year

Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Kathmandu.

Campus Roll No.

T.U. Regd. No.9-2-55-797-

  • Background of the study                                               1
  • Significance of the study                                               1
  • Statement of the problem                                             2
  • Objectives of the study                                                   2
  • Delimitation of the study                                               3
  • Methodology of the study                                              3
  • Conclusion of the study                                                  9

Annex A                                                                                          

Background of the study.

Case study is an investigative task that is to be done by every student teacher during his/her practice teaching in school This is an investigative study of a student about his / her different aspects to find out the strengths or weakness of the student and to find out the solutions for solving the problems. As a student of B.Ed. III year, I also went to Taudaha H.S School, Kathmandu for my practice teaching. During my practice teaching in the school, I taught in grade seven, I observed all of the students of the class. I selected one intelligent student of the class Mr. Bikash K.C Kapoor for the case study. I selected him because he is the most intelligent student in the class and he has secured the highest marks in him first terminal exam 2009.

Significance of the study

It is said, “A good teacher has to read every page of the students”. A teacher’s main task is to teach the students and make them learn new things. But the teacher cannot be always successful in achieving his goal because sometimes the students fail to learn what the teacher teaches. The teacher generally thinks that the students fail their examination because they do not care about their study. But this is not the sole cause of failure. There may be various causes of the failure. There may be some physical, psychological, economic, educational and environmental problems that create hindrance in study. If a teacher neglects all these factors of a student and confines his work just in teaching, his objective will never be achieved. So a teacher has to study all the relevant matters of the students that have been affecting in his/her study to treat him/her psychologically and diagnostically. Case study is an investigative and detail study of a student. It helps a teacher to get each and every detailed information about the student- personal, familial, social, educational, economic, etc. It helps the person, who studies, to find out the matters or causes that have helped or affected the study of the student. It helps to find out the psychological and other factors of the student that have been either assistance or hindrance in his/her study and other activities. A person can find the factors contributing to make a person either extra-ordinary or dull. It helps in treating the students diagnostically and psychologically providing feed back to the teacher. Such kind of study may help in the study and investigation of other similar students, too.

Statement of the problem

In course of practice teaching. I have taught in class seven in Taudaha H.S. School. Among 25 students, Mr. Bikash K.C one intelligent student has been selected for case study. He is the most intelligent student in the class. He has secured high marks in his first terminal examination 2009. The main objective of this study is to find out the reasons how Bikash K.C became an extra-ordinary and how he can do better than this. The study is concerned with the investigation of the factors that contribute to make his intelligent.

Objective of the study

A study or investigation without any objectives becomes haphazard and cannot meet its target. This study has been done taking certain objectives. The main objectives of this study are as follows:

  • To find out why Mr. Bikash K.C is an extra- ordinary student.
  • To find out the factors or matters that has been hindrance in his study.
  • To find out his family background.
  • To find out what his family’s economic condition is.
  • To find out the social and educational background of his family.
  • To find out what types of behaviors he performs with his peers and teachers.
  • To find out his educational status.
  • To suggest him to do better in future.
  • To suggest the teachers and his parents to improve his educational condition and activities.
  • To get feedback to treat the student psychologically and diagnostically.

Delimitation of the study

Every investigation has its own limitations. Due to limitation of time, money and labor, an investigator has to limit his/her study or investigation.  This study also has some limitations. An Investigator cannot study and investigate each and everything of a person. I have limited this study only to Mr. Bikash K.C. This study is confined within the personal, educational, familial, economic, psychological and behavioral aspects of Mr. Bikash K.C.

In course of this study, I have interviewed the student, his English teacher and the principal of the school. I have interviewed only few students of his class for this study. I have involved some other teachers of the school in this study. Other necessary information has been collected from observation of the student’s activities and behavior.

Methodology   of the study

Any study or investigation needs some data and information to find out the desired facts. Certain sources of data collection are to be consulted for data collection. There are different tools of data collection that are to be applied in the study during data collection. The sources of data, tools of data collection and methods of data collection applied in course of the study are listed below:

  • Sources of data collection

The following sources have been consulted as sources of data during the study to collect necessary data & information.

  • Mr. Bikash K.C. – the student himself.
  • Mr. Anil K.C. – the student’s father

iii. Mr. Sovit Ram Karki – the principal of the school.

  • Mr. Shatrughan pd.Singh- The subject teacher.
  • Staff of the school.
  • School Record

vii. The student’s peers of class 7 etc.

  • Tools of data collection

The following tools of data collection have been used in the data collection in this study:

  • Some questionnaires
  • Questionnaire forms

iii. Notes, etc.

  • Methods of data collection

The data and information have been collected applying the following methods:

  • Different questionnaires
  • Observation of the student’s activities and behaviors

iii. Interview with the teachers

  • Interview with the student’s peers
  • Face to face talk with the student, etc.

Interpretation and analysis of data

  • General introduction of the student

General introduction of the student has been given below

Name                             : Mr. Bikash K.C Kapoor

School                            : Shree Taudaha H.S School

Class                              : 7

Roll No.                         : 1

Gender                           : Male

Age                                : 13 years

Date of Birth                  : 01-05-2053

Religion                         : Hindu

Permanent Address        : Saibu Lalitpur

Temporary Address       : Saibu Lalitpur

Fathers’ Name                : Mr. Anil K.C Kapoor

Occupation                    : Businessman

Mother’s Name              : Ambika K.C Kapoor

Occupation                    : Housewife

No. of family members  : 5

Elder Brother                 : Bikkey K.C.

Name of Sister               : Anu K.C

Date of Admission         : 2060

Future Aim                    : To be an Pilot

Mr. Bikash K.C is a student of class 7 in Taudaha H.S School

He is the most intelligent student in the class. He was born on 1 st   Bhadra 2053B.S. as the second son of Mr. Anil K.C and Mrs. Ambika K.C in Kathmandu and has been living in Saibu, Kathmandu with his  parents elder sister and brother. His religion is Hindu. His father is a businessman and her mother is a housewife. Her elder sister and brother are students. His favorites subject is science, Nepali and English. His aim is to become an pilot.

  • Student’s familial background

According to the student, there are altogether 5 members in his family- father, mother, elder sister, elder brother and student himself. They are the residents of Kathmandu but have been living in Kathmandu. I have presented and analyzed the data about the educational and economical condition of the family.

i. Economic condition of the family

Main occupation:                              Temporary job.

Father’s occupation:                          Businessman

Mother’s occupation:                        Housewife

Monthly familial income:                  Tolerable

Source of income:                             Business

According to the student and his father, his father has a Business. Familial income is tolerable and the source of income is father’s business. According to them their economic status is medium.

ii. Educational condition of the family

According to the above data, his parents are Literate. His father is S.L.C passed. But according to the student himself, his father guides him and his sister and brother in their study.

iii. Student’s health condition

Height         :         4.5ft.

Weight        :         29 kg.

Eye sight     :         good

Hearing       :         good

Disease       :         normal health problem (sometimes)

From the above data, it is clear to see that his health condition is good. He is neither two fat nor to thin. He likes to have Nepali dishes and fruits. As a whole we can conclude that his study is not affected by his health.

3. Student’s activities in school and house

According to the principal of the school and gradate teacher of class he attends his classes most often. He is clever in other activities. He is neat and clean. He is serious in his study. He asks questions with the teachers only sometimes. He does his homework most often. Sometimes he participates in extra-curricular activities. He is co-operative, obedient and loyal to his teachers. His behavior with his friends is satisfactory. He does not   make noise in class and pays attention to the teachers and listens to them. I am also his English teacher. In my opinion, he is the most intelligent, obedient and loyal student.    According to his peers in the class, He sometimes talks in the class and makes noise. He pays attention to the teachers. He never disturbs others.

According to the student himself and his father, he spends most of his time in study and studies seriously. He studies four hours in house each day. During his examination, he studies for about 10 hours. His parents are helpful in activities of house. His father inspires him in his study and pays more attention to his study. His father says that he sometimes quarrels in house. Sometimes he listens to the radio, watching TV and plays some games, too.

Student’s discipline

According to the teachers and the peers of the student his discipline is Good. He respects his teacher and other seniors and loves the juniors. He loves and co-operates her friends. He is neat and clean. He does his homework regularly. He does not make noise in the classroom and pay attention to his study. But he is sometime bad tampered. It is his weakness.

Student’s educational condition

Here, I have presented the marks-sheet of Mr. Bikash K.C. of the first terminal examination of class 7 taken in 2009.

Percent: 60.48%

Division: First

Position: 1 st

Result: Passed

The marks show that he is very intelligent in his study. He had passed the first terminal exams of grade7 in 2009 and is studying in the same class now. This shows that his educational condition is very nice. In classroom also, he answers the question asked to him. He is intelligent and extra-ordinary.

Conclusion and suggestion

I completed the case study in short period but I tried to collect more data and information as far as possible. I studied and analyzed the available data information. The data and information show that Mr. Bikash K.C, a student of grade 7 in Taudaha H.S School and the younger son of Mr. Anil K.C and Mrs. Ambika K.C is very intelligent student in his study from the analysis of the data, I came to the conclusion that he has become an extra-ordinary in his study due to the following causes or reason:

  • He attends his class regularly.
  • He pays to his study. He does not make noise in the class and listens to the teacher.
  • He does his homework regularly.
  • The teachers pay more attention to the students personally.
  • His educational background is nice.
  • His father wants to make his son more educated person.
  • Suggestions

(i)      Suggestions for the school

The children are the pillars of nation. The children of today are the good citizens of future to handle the nation and drive the nation to its bright future. They need proper education today. Some students are extra-ordinary in every class. The teachers as well as parents should not leave them without any care. The student Bikash K.C is different from other students. His aim in future is to be a Pilot. He is in need of extra activity to achieve better result. I would like to give the following suggestions:

  • The school should manage enough instructional materials and educational programs in the school.
  • The school should give more emphasis to such students in teaching and learning and also in other extra-curricular activities.
  • The school should give more emphasis to students’ discipline.
  • The school should call the parents of the students and get information about the students. It should establish good relationship with the parents and should have mutual co-operation.
  • School administration should supervise teaching and other activities of the teachers and should provide necessary guidelines.
  • The teachers should pay more attention to such students and give more time for the students to practice.
  • Student-centered method in teaching and learning is more necessary in the school.
  • The teachers should discourage talking in the class and encourage practice, doing homework etc.

(ii)     Suggestions for the student’s family

  • The family should manage enough instructional materials for the student.
  • The parents should encourage him in his study and should discourage unnecessary activities.

 (iii)   Suggestions for the student

I want to give the following suggestions to the student Mr. Bikash K.C:

  • You should pay more attention to your study.
  • You should listen attentively to your teachers and should practice given homework.
  • Do your homework regularly and if you don’t understand anything, don’t hesitate to ask your teachers.
  • You should not talk in the classroom. You must be more serious towards your study. You have to reach your goal.
  • Give more time to your study.
  • Try to learn many things from your friends but don’t adopt bad things.
  • Take suggestions from your teachers and your parents to improve your educational condition.
  • Name of the student:                                                           Class:

Address:                                                                                            Roll No.:

Date of birth:                                                                                     School:

Father’s Name

Mother’s Name:

Weight of student:

Height of student:

Date of admission at school:

  • Other information

2.1 When did you start study at this school?


2.2 Do you come to regularly?

  • always b. Seldom       c. mostly           d. rarely

2.3 What is your aim in life?


2.4 Which subject do you like most?


2.5 How many hours do you study at home?


2.6 What do you do at home in your holiday?

2.7 Do you help your father mother? How?

2.8which book do read expect your textbook?


  • English literature b. Nepali literature                 c. science
  • history e. mathematics        f. newspaper

2.9 do you watch TV?

  • always   b. mostly                        c. very little                                   d. never

2.10 do you watch TV? Which programmed do you like most?


2.11do you do your homework given by the teacher?

2.12who is your best teacher?

2.13With whom do you ask if you get any confusion.

  • friends b. related subject teacher c . Father mother
  • brother sister e. tuition

2.14 How do you study at home?

  • alone b. with brother sister

2.15 What types of materials do the students need to study?


2.16 which subject is difficult to study for you?


2.17 which is your favorite subject?

2.18 Which subject do you study much?

2.19 Which subject do you study less?


2.20 What is your favorite game?


2.21 Do you like music?

2.22 Do you fight with your brother and sister?

  • always b. seldom c. never

2.23 In which matter does you fight with your brother and sister?


2.24 Do your father –mother scolds you?

  • always b. seldom                         c. never

2.25Do you quarrel with your father and mother?

  • always                   b. seldom                         c. never         d. mostly

2.26What do your father and mother does if you quarrel with them?

  • scolding b. beating c. suggest                d. nothing

2.27Do you consult Doctor while you fall in sick?


2.28 What do you have every day as your meal?


2.29What do you like to eat as your lunch?


2.30How do you evaluate yourself?

  • Capable b. middle        c. common                   d. weak

2.31 How do your parents help you?

  • Remove confusion
  • Suggest to study
  • Buy necessary materials
  • Give money only

2.32 What do you do if you couldn’t understand the lesson taught by your teachers?

  • ask with teacher b. ask with students c. ask with father and mother

2.33 Tell your three good habits.

2.34 Tell your three bad habits.

2.35 Why didn’t you go to study in boarding school?


2.36 Which colors do you like most?

2.37 Which animal do you like?

2.38 Tell the name of a great national hero?

2.39 What are the main qualities of a student?

2.40 Who is your favorite friend?

2.41 Do you like to have entertainment inside the classroom?

  • always b. never c. mostly       d. seldom

2.42 Do you fight with your friend?

2.43 Do you have to tell anything else?

For Subject Teacher:

Name of Student:

This Questionnaire is prepared for child study.

You are requested to fill up true answers only.

Name of teacher:

  • What three strong points do you see in your student?
  • What are the three weak points of Bikash K.C.?
  • Discipline of your student
  • quiet discipline b. good    c. well  d. well  e. Not at all
  • Regularity and punctuality of your student
  • always b. seldom   c. mostly
  • What suggestions do you give for his better performance?

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Case Study Report for B.Ed Internship Programme

Are you looking for a case study report for B.ed ? In this article, we will provide a case study report for B.ed.

As an intern, we were supposed to identify a problematic child, understand the reasons behind his/her problem and try to provide remedial measures to his/her problem in order to solve and prepare a case study report.

A case study is a detailed examination of an individual, group of people or an occurrence. Case studies comprise of a one on one interview, questionnaires among other data collection forms. A case study involves studying a person’s life and experience to determine the cause of certain behavior. The research may also continue for an extended period, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen.

During the pre-internship phase, we had a session on how to prepare a case study wherein, it was focused on the meaning of the case study its importance, etc. As we have already done a case study in our previous semester and we were well briefed during our orientation session, therefore, I hardly faced any challenges.

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Case study report for B.ed-

Title of the study:   A case study on a  shy and introverted adolescent student named XYZ.

Name of the investigator: ABC

A case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single social unit such as an individual, a  group, an institution or a community. It is necessary to perform a case study in order to find out problems existing among the students in an educational institution.

This study refers to a student named XYZ studying in 7th  standard in XYZ English School. During my four months internship period of B.Ed 2nd  year in ABC English School, I had observed that the boy XYZ of class  VII  always wants to seat on the back bench.

I did not see him to communicate with other students.  I noticed that  the  boy  tends  to  be  slow  to warm  up  in  social  situation.  I  also  noticed  that  he  is  always  late  in  reaching school.   He faces difficulties in meeting people,  initiating and maintains conversation.

He was unable to give any answer of any question properly. He always tried to stay alone and did not show any interest to make friendship with other  students.  Even  he  did  not  go  to  participate  in  any  competition  or  co- curricular activities. Therefore to know the reasons behind his problems, I have taken  up this  study so  that  I  can help him  to deal  with his  problems  and  can show better performance in his academic career.


The information contained in the case study report is just for the purpose of fulfilling the condition of XYZ University that is compulsory in our B.Ed course,  which  has  to  be  submitted  to  the  college  authority  and  not  for  any personal intension and  usages. The  information provided  in the  report  is  very true and trust worthy. The content of this report must not be disclosed or copied without the   investigator   consent.

A   proper   investigation   is   done   before preparing the report. The suggestions and opinions are expressed in this report are  only  the  perception  of  the  investigator  and  do  not  necessarily  reflect  any other person.


During the four months internship period in XYZ English School, I have noticed that a boy named XYZ of class VII always used to seat in the last bench of the classroom and he hardly communicate  with teachers and other classmates.

Though he is attentive in the class, he was unable to perform any academic  tasks  given  or  the  questions  asked  in the  class. Because  of  this shy  nature  he  always  wanted  to  stay  alone.  Shyness  and  introvert  both  are different psychological traits of human being.

Shyness is a psychological state that  causes  a  person  to  feel  discomfort  in  social  situations  and  that  cause avoidance  of  social  contacts.  Introvert is  another  psychological  state  that describes a person who tends to turn inward mentally.

The behaviour of the boy in the class made me have an assumption of falling him in the category of shy and introvert. After a few observations I was confident about his nature who is unable to share his problems neither  with his classmate nor  with his teachers. This is the rationale behind identifying this boy to study up and to help him to deal with his problems has been suffering for so long.

Case Study Report for B.Ed Internship Programme

Case History:

I  visited his home and talked with his parents.  His parents were very responsive and cooperatively answered my questions.

Physical Status:

Physically the boy is fit and healthy, but he has acne problem in his face and  other  than  that  he  has  same  common  health  issues  which  are  natural  for human being. Because of acne problem his classmates teases him. This may be a  reason  due  to  which  he  feels  shy  and  lack  of  confidence  to  interact  with others.

Mental Status:

He is not mentally so sound. He is unable to read his text books properly and confidently. He always tends to stay alone and gets mentally disturbed or easily panicked whenever he was asked any questions.

The boy XYZ belongs to a middle class family. His father’s name is  XYZ  and  mother’s  name  is  ABC.  He stays with his parents and younger brother.  His  father  is  a  businessmen  and  mother  is housewife.

His parents are aware about his introvert nature but they are not so much concerned about his problems. They do not facilitate him any exercise or practise because of lack of knowledge about his condition. At his home also he talks  very less and always  likes to stay alone. So, he has very less interaction with his family members.

XYZ is a student of class VII, XYZ English School. His position in the class is low. His roll number in class is 21. Before getting admission in the school in class VI, he studied in XYZ English Medium School.

His previous school authority apprises XYZ’s parents about his less interaction with teachers and other students and about his low performance in class.

Due to this reason his parents withdraw his studentship from that school and admitted him in class VI in XYZ English School. In the class room he wants to stay alone, always sits on the last bench. Even in the leisure time he uses to stay alone and does not share his food with other students.

Sometimes he does not pay attention in the classroom and he is seen to think something else. He hardly participates in extra-curricular activities. Basically, he does not show any interest to participate in any competition like games, quiz, debate, drawing competitions. He feels hesitation to participate in any competition.

Related Case Questions:

As  an  investigator,  I  have  taken  a  personal  interview  of  the  student.  I have asked him some questions related to his problems as –

  • What is the age of the student? Answer:- He is 13 years old.
  • Where does the student live? Answer:- Ward No. 4, Rangia Town
  • Do you have any brother or sister? Answer:- Yes, One brother
  • Does he have any class friend in class? Anser:- No
  • What does his father do? Answer:- Business
  • What does his mother do? Answer:- Housewife
  • Does he always come to school? Answer:- Yes
  • Does he regularly study at home? Answer:- Yes
  • What does he like except study? Answer:- He likes to play mobile/computer games
  • What kind of relation exists between him and his parents? Answer:- Good but his interaction with his parents is very low
  • Does he have any complaint about his classmates? Answer:- Yes, they are not interested to talk with him and always tease him
  • Does he has any complaint about school? Answer:- No
  • What is his favorite subject? Answer:- English
  • Does he like to talk with other people? Answer:- No, not like that
  • Why doesn’t he like to talk with others? Answer:- he doesn’t feel comfortable to talk with others
  • How does he spend his vacation time? Answer:- he likes play mobile games
  • Do your parents/teachers scold you because of your less conversation? Answer:- Yes, sometimes


From the above discussions, I have found that there are many causes of his shyness and introverted nature which hinder him in the development of his personality –

  • The feeling of inferiority complex could lead to shyness and introverted nature.
  • Lack of social skills and non-participation makes him inhabited around others and make him shy and introverted.
  • Lack of communication and friendly relation with his parents and teachers makes him shy and introverted.
  • The lack of awareness and responsibility of his parents towards him makes him shy and introverted.
  • Less expressiveness makes him shy and introverted.
  • Mental weakness may also lead to shyness and introverted nature.


  • Parents should motivate him to talk or communicate with others.
  • It is the duty of the teachers to make him feel secure during classes and teachers should encourage him to make friends with other students.
  • Parents should be  aware  of  the  behaviour  of  other  students  of  the  class towards  him.  So,  they  should  connect with  the  school  as  much  as  they can.
  • Special attention  should  be  given  to  his  mental  development  by  his parents and teachers.
  • Parents  should take  him to the psychiatrist for  his low confidence and introvert nature. Special attention  should  be  given  by  his  parents  towards  his  extra- curricular activities.
  • Teachers of the school should give special attention in some context. If he is not co-operating with teachers in class, then they should apply different methods to make him strong.
  • Sometimes remedial  classes  should  be  taken  for  him  at  school  by  the teachers.


This study is basically about a student of 13 years of age who is studying in class VII of XYZ English School. Through this study, I have tried to find out the problems that the boy is dealing with. During the four months of my internship period, I have come across about his shy and introvert nature.

From his family members I have come to know that the boy is very shy and introvert in  nature  from  his  childhood.  In  this  study,  I  have  find  out  some  possible reasons for his shy and introvert nature and also I have given some suggestions and recommendations of his problem through which he can overcome from his problem and can achieve a better future.

Emphasis – Extensive and detailed study or knowledge. Consent – Approval, support.

Assumption – A thing that is accepted as true. Apprise – Inform or notify.

Withdraw – Remove or take away.

Rationale – A set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or belief.


Blaike Norman,  “Designing  social  research  the  logic  of  anticipation”,

UK, Polity Press, 2000

Saikia Dr Mukl, “Action Research”, Guwahati Chitrachal Printers, 2014

“Case studies in Educational Psychology” – Frank D. Adame

So that sums up the case study report for B.ed. Hope you like it.

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With The Help of These Files and Assignments, You Will Be Able To Know How To Make a B.Ed Practical File?. The Download Link Is Given Below.

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Not Only Practical File But Here You Can Also Download The Free PDF Notes for B-Ed , Books and Previous Year Question Papers, And Lesson Plan File Of All The Teaching Subjects of B.Ed Like English, Hindi, Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Sanskrit, Biological Science, Physical Science, Computer, Economics, Commerce, Home Science.

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Note: There Are Multiple B.Ed Practical File Note Books Given In The Links. You Can Check All The Practical Files And Choose One Which Is Similar To Your Curriculum and Syllabus. Or You Can Select Topics From All The Files Make Your B.Ed Practical File And Assignment Better. 

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B.ed assignments in hindi free download pdf | बी.एड प्रैक्टिकल फाइल | बी.एड असाइनमेंट | बीएड फाइल्स इन हिंदी, about b.ed practicals.

BEd Is A Teacher Training Course For 2 Years Basically, In Which The Student Teachers Have To Prepare Lots Of Practical Files And Assignments Of Their Teaching Subjects.

It Is Not Easy To Find All The Practical And Project Material For B.Ed Course Online. Here We Have Provided All Assignment Reports and Files PDF for Free for Various Practical Subjects Like

  • Reading and Reflecting on Texts
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  • Drama and Art in Education
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  • School-Based Activities (SBA)
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  • Arts and Crafts in Education
  • Action Research

These Sample Files Are Specially Designed According to The Latest Syllabus Of All the B.Ed Colleges and Universities. Some of Them Are:

  • CRSU (Chaudhary Ranbir Singh University)
  • MDU (Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak - Haryana)
  • KUK (Kurukshetra University)
  • Lovely Professional University (LPU)
  • Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
  • Jamia Millia Islamia University
  • Lady Irwin College
  • University of Delhi (DU)
  • GD Goenka University
  • University of Calicut, Kerala
  • Lady Shri Ram College for Women
  • St Xavier's College of Education
  • Chaudhary Charan Singh University (CCS)
  • CDLU (Chaudhary Devi Lal University)

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B.Ed Lesson Plans Practical File In English Medium

  b.ed lesson plan practical files in hindi, about b.ed practical files subjects, action research project file for b.ed students.

Action Research, according to Corey, the originator of the term, is the research undertaken by practitioners so that they may improve their practices. It helps practitioners to perceive understand and assess the situation, and it further facilitates a systematic analysis and working out plausible reasons, for the unsatisfactory condition.

Action Research in B.Ed

Action Researchproject has become an integral part of current B.Ed practical files. The university with the inculcation of action research in B.Ed. the syllabus has made the course more effective and efficient with the knowledge of this discipline of research. The student-teachers would be able to solve the problem arising in their practice field in the near future very easily and make their practice field more conductive.

Achievement Test Report for B.Ed

What is achievement test.

An achievement test is a test aimed to get the data about the students’ knowledge or capability in one subject. An achievement test is also a test that can identify the students’ strength and weaknesses in one subject

Achievement Test Report in B.Ed

Achievement Test Report is another important component of today’s B.ed Course and B.Ed practical file.

Critical Analysis of Syllabus and Textbookin B.Ed

Syllabus and Textbook analysis has also been included in modern B.Ed course. A good syllabus is a resource for students. It should, at the very least, offer suggestions to assist students in pursuing topics that interest them, but it can also serve as a reference, a field outline to which they can refer long after they have finished our course.

Case Study Report for B.Ed Internship Programme for B.Ed

What is case study.

A case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single social unit such as an individual, a group, an institution, or a community. It is necessary to perform a case study in order to find out problems existing among the students in an educational institution.

In B.Ed internship program those who do not want to conduct action research they can submit a Case study report.

Lesson Plan File in B.Ed

B.Ed practical files are incomplete without lesson plans. A lesson plan is the brief outline of the lesson that one teacher is supposed to teach. It is the blueprint of the lesson. The lesson plan is a means to achieve an end. It helps the teacher to conduct the class smoothly. Without a lesson plan, a teacher can’t complete his/her lesson.

School Internship Report for B.ed

What is school internship report.

School internship is an important part of the Teacher’s Training Program. It is an integral part of total B.Ed. course, as well as B.Ed practical files and 250 marks, are allotted for the internship program. An internship program is a period of work experience for a limited period of time.

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Please Share your views and suggestions in the comment box

case study report for b ed students

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B.Ed question papers of 2018 session has been uploaded.

B.Ed 2018 Question papers

Hi please provide maths and science practical files

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hi dear.. I have uploaded some CCE practical file matter pdfs

Please provide english and sosoci scscien lesson plan in hindi

I have uploaded english and social science lesson plans .. dear..

Social Studies Lesson Plan in Hindi

Please provide english and social science lesson plans

Please upload school based activities file

Please upload economics lesson plan file in English

hi dear... I have started uploading economics micro, macro and real teaching lesson plans in English medium .. please check Economics Lesson Plans

Please upload some science lesson plans in English medium that would be a great help for us.

please provide social science practical file in english

hi dear.. social studies lesson plans for middle and high school are now available. this is the link - Social Science and Social Studies Lesson Plans in English

Please provide the biological sciences lesson plan as soon as possible with the mega and real teaching plan

Please provide economics and commerce practical file matter

economics and commerce file material is now available

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Plz provide bed urdu syllabus For mdu

MDU B.Ed urdu syllabus This is the link for mdu urdu b.ed syllabus dear, but this is for session 2015-2017, I must say that you should confirm from the university whether it is also valid for current session or not.

Hey! Sir pls provide hindi lesson plans

Yes Dear, Hindi lesson plans will be uploaded soon

Hindi Lesson Plans.. Both Micro and Macro are now available .. Hindi Lesson Plans

Hello friends, thanks for giving your valuable feedback and response, currently I have no economics, commerce, and biological science lesson plans. but whenever I have, I will upload. If anyone of you have then please share it with us to help my all friends here. You can mail us on [email protected]

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Hello friends.. Economics Lesson Plans are now available .. please check the link Economics Lesson Plans

teaching of commerce lesson plans both micro and macro or real teaching are now available.. this is link - Commerce Lesson Plans

Dear All, thanks for your patience and being continuously connected with us.. biological science, life science or natural science lesson plans for B.Ed will be available today.. The link is - Biology / Life Science Lesson Plans

Sir please provide school based activity file for b.ed

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Ccsu meerut ki b.ed 2nd year ka lesson plan

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Draft a list of interview questions for higher secondary school students focussing on their academic problem & mention the process of conducting the interview. Can i get this?

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Sample case study – b.e.d..

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Take Action

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • Acknowledgments

A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate  key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.

How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper

General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.

However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:

  • The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.
  • The case provides important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
  • The case challenges and offers a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice. A case study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously. For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
  • The case provides an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem. For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
  • The case offers a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for an exploratory investigation that highlights the need for further research about the problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important!], you discover that little research exists showing the ways in which women contribute to promoting water conservation in rural communities of east central Africa. A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.g., applying feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation].

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.

Structure and Writing Style

The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.

In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.

I.  Introduction

As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:

  • What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
  • Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
  • What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
  • How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

II.  Literature Review

The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and  enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:

  • Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated . This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
  • Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable . Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.
  • Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study . If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
  • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies . This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
  • Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research . Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
  • Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill . Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
  • Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!] . Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.

III.  Method

In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.

If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].

If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].

If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.

NOTE:   The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.

IV.  Discussion

The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:

Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.

Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.

Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.

Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.

Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .

Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.

V.  Conclusion

As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.

The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
  • If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.

Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.

Problems to Avoid

Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.

Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.

Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009;  Kratochwill,  Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education .  Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.

Writing Tip

At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research

Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:

Misunderstanding 1 :  General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 :  One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 :  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 :  The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 :  It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].

While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.

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How to Write a Case Study: The Basics

The purpose of a case study is to walk the reader through a situation where a problem is presented, background information provided and a description of the solution given, along with how it was derived. A case study can be written to encourage the reader to come up with his or her own solution or to review the solution that was already implemented. The goal of the writer is to give the reader experiences similar to those the writer had as he or she researched the situation presented.

Several steps must be taken before actually writing anything:

  • Choose the situation on which to write
  • Gather as much information as possible about the situation
  • Analyze all of the elements surrounding the situation
  • Determine the final solution implemented
  • Gather information about why the solution worked or did not work

From these steps you will create the content of your case study.

Describe the situation/problem

The reader needs to have a clear understanding of the situation for which a solution is sought. You can explicitly state the problem posed in the study. You can begin by sharing quotes from someone intimate with the situation. Or you can present a question:

  • ABC Hospital has a higher post-surgical infection rate than other health care facilities in the area.
  • The Director of Nursing at ABC Hospital stated that “In spite of following rigid standards, we continue to experience high post-surgical infection rates”
  • Why is it that the post-surgical infection rate at ABC Hospital  higher than any other health center in the area?

This sets the tone for the reader to think of the problem while he or she read the rest of the case study. This also sets the expectation that you will be presenting information the reader can use to further understand the situation.

Give background

Background is the information you discovered that describes why there is a problem. This will consist of facts and figures from authoritative sources. Graphs, charts, tables, photos, videos, audio files, and anything that points to the problem is useful here. Quotes from interviews are also good. You might include anecdotal information as well:

“According to previous employees of this facility, this has been a problem for several years”

What is not included in this section is the author’s opinion:

“I don’t think the infection review procedures are followed very closely”

In this section you give the reader information that they can use to come to their own conclusion. Like writing a mystery, you are giving clues from which the reader can decide how to solve the puzzle. From all of this evidence, how did the problem become a problem? How can the trend be reversed so the problem goes away?

A good case study doesn’t tell the readers what to think. It guides the reader through the thought process used to create the final conclusion. The readers may come to their own conclusion or find fault in the logic being presented. That’s okay because there may be more than one solution to the problem. The readers will have their own perspective and background as they read the case study.

Describe the solution

This section discusses the solution and the thought processes that lead up to it. It guides the reader through the information to the solution that was implemented. This section may contain the author’s opinions and speculations.

Facts will be involved in the decision, but there can be subjective thinking as well:

“Taking into account A, B and C, the committee suggested solution X. In lieu of the current budget situation, the committee felt this was the most prudent approach”

Briefly present the key elements used to derive the solution. Be clear about the goal of the solution. Was it to slow down, reduce or eliminate the problem?

Evaluate the response to the solution

If the case study is for a recent situation, there may not have been enough time to determine the overall effect of the solution:

“New infection standards were adopted in the first quarter and the center hopes to have enough information by the year’s end to judge their effectiveness”

If the solution has been in place for some time, then an opportunity to gather and review facts and impressions exists. A summary of how well the solution is working would be included here.

Tell the whole story

Case study-writing is about telling the story of a problem that has been fixed. The focus is on the evidence for the problem and the approach used to create a solution. The writing style guides the readers through the problem analysis as if they were part of the project. The result is a case study that can be both entertaining and educational.

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