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George Nelson Bed vs Case Study Bed

A “Case Study” in The of  Evolution of Mid Century Design 

Studying the contrast between these two iconic beds is a great way to understand Mid-Century design principles and how they live on today.  The two main points of contrast are the following:

  • George Nelson Bed : Reflects the design sensibilities of George Nelson, which often included clean lines, minimalistic forms, and an emphasis on functionality. Specific design characteristics would depend on the particular model of the bed.
  • Case Study Bed : Embraces mid-century modern aesthetics, typically featuring a platform-style frame with simple, sleek lines. It often combines wood and metal elements for a minimalist and timeless look.
  • George Nelson Bed : Materials used would vary based on the specific design and manufacturer, but they would align with mid-century modern materials of the time, which could include wood, metal, and upholstery.
  • Case Study Bed : Modernica’s Case Study Beds are typically constructed using solid wood, metal, and other high-quality materials that capture the essence of mid-century modern design while offering durability.

George Nelson Bed

iconic nelson bed

The George Nelson bed was a mid-20th century modern design furniture piece created by American industrial designer George Nelson. It was known for its minimalist and sleek design, characterized by clean lines and a simple, functional aesthetic. Typically made from high-quality materials, such as wood and metal, Nelson’s beds were known for their durability and timeless appeal. The design often featured a platform-style frame with a headboard and sometimes incorporated storage elements. George Nelson’s innovative approach to furniture design contributed to the mid-century modern design movement, making his beds and other pieces highly sought after by collectors and enthusiasts of modernist design.

Case Study Bed

case study bed

Case Study Bed refers to a specific line of modern platform beds designed and produced by Modernica, a furniture company based in Los Angeles, California. The Case Study Bed series is inspired by mid-century modern design principles and is known for its minimalist aesthetics and high-quality craftsmanship.

These beds typically feature clean lines, simple forms, and are often constructed using natural materials like solid wood and metal. The design is characterized by its platform-style frame, which eliminates the need for a box spring, and often includes a headboard or other unique design elements.

The Case Study Bed series is celebrated for its versatility and ability to complement a wide range of interior design styles. It has gained popularity among enthusiasts of mid-century modern and contemporary furniture. Each bed is carefully handcrafted, and Modernica is known for its commitment to quality and authenticity in reproducing iconic mid-century designs.

The Case Study Bed and the George Nelson bed are related in the sense that they both fall under the category of mid-century modern furniture and share design principles associated with this era. However, they are not the same and are produced by different designers and manufacturers.

A “Cult” Following

Case Study Beds are popular yet expensive, and as result DIY versions of the bed abound amongst architecture and design enthusiasts. Building a Case Study Bed from scratch or customizing an existing bed frame allows individuals to create a unique piece of furniture that aligns with their specific design preferences, dimensions, and materials.

Here are a few reasons why some people choose to build their own Case Study Beds:

  • Customization : DIY enthusiasts and woodworkers can tailor the design, size, and materials of the bed to match their personal style and interior decor.
  • Cost Savings : Building a bed frame from raw materials can sometimes be more cost-effective than purchasing a ready-made designer bed, especially if they have access to affordable materials and tools.
  • Craftsmanship : Crafting a Case Study Bed by hand allows individuals to showcase their woodworking skills and craftsmanship, resulting in a sense of pride and accomplishment.
  • Unique Design : DIY builders can experiment with unique design elements and modifications, creating a one-of-a-kind bed that stands out.
  • Learning Experience : For those interested in woodworking or furniture making, building a Case Study Bed can serve as a valuable learning experience, helping them acquire new skills and knowledge.

Home Design Ideas For Modern Living

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How To Build Your Own Bed From Scratch – Three Tutorials

Monica Stavar on Homedit

Surely you’re familiar with all sorts of DIY projects which show you how to build your own furniture. However, the smaller things seem to be more approachable. Large pieces of furniture appear to be a lot more complex and more complicated. In fact, things are not so difficult. Building your own bed from scratch is easier than you think and to prove this we’ll show you three easy tutorials in the hopes that they’ll inspire you to start your own DIY project.

diy_case_study_bed_2

First, let’s start with this George Nelson Case Study bed replica. As you can see, it’s a simple platform bed with hairpin legs. The first step should be to put the support frame together after, of course, you gather all the supplies needed for the project. For the frame you’ll need four large wood boards and several thin ones which will support the mattress. The headboard can be cut out of a plywood sheet. At the end, attach the hairpin legs. The bed should be sturdy despite its lightweight appearance. You can find out more about this project on mid-century-modern .

DIY wood platform bed

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  • What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case, other interesting articles.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

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Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

TipIf your research is more practical in nature and aims to simultaneously investigate an issue as you solve it, consider conducting action research instead.

Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

Example of an outlying case studyIn the 1960s the town of Roseto, Pennsylvania was discovered to have extremely low rates of heart disease compared to the US average. It became an important case study for understanding previously neglected causes of heart disease.

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.

Example of a representative case studyIn the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.

Example of a mixed methods case studyFor a case study of a wind farm development in a rural area, you could collect quantitative data on employment rates and business revenue, collect qualitative data on local people’s perceptions and experiences, and analyze local and national media coverage of the development.

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

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In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
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  • Quantitative research
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Research Method

Home » Case Study – Methods, Examples and Guide

Case Study – Methods, Examples and Guide

Table of Contents

Case Study Research

A case study is a research method that involves an in-depth examination and analysis of a particular phenomenon or case, such as an individual, organization, community, event, or situation.

It is a qualitative research approach that aims to provide a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the case being studied. Case studies typically involve multiple sources of data, including interviews, observations, documents, and artifacts, which are analyzed using various techniques, such as content analysis, thematic analysis, and grounded theory. The findings of a case study are often used to develop theories, inform policy or practice, or generate new research questions.

Types of Case Study

Types and Methods of Case Study are as follows:

Single-Case Study

A single-case study is an in-depth analysis of a single case. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to understand a specific phenomenon in detail.

For Example , A researcher might conduct a single-case study on a particular individual to understand their experiences with a particular health condition or a specific organization to explore their management practices. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as content analysis or thematic analysis. The findings of a single-case study are often used to generate new research questions, develop theories, or inform policy or practice.

Multiple-Case Study

A multiple-case study involves the analysis of several cases that are similar in nature. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to identify similarities and differences between the cases.

For Example, a researcher might conduct a multiple-case study on several companies to explore the factors that contribute to their success or failure. The researcher collects data from each case, compares and contrasts the findings, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as comparative analysis or pattern-matching. The findings of a multiple-case study can be used to develop theories, inform policy or practice, or generate new research questions.

Exploratory Case Study

An exploratory case study is used to explore a new or understudied phenomenon. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to generate hypotheses or theories about the phenomenon.

For Example, a researcher might conduct an exploratory case study on a new technology to understand its potential impact on society. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as grounded theory or content analysis. The findings of an exploratory case study can be used to generate new research questions, develop theories, or inform policy or practice.

Descriptive Case Study

A descriptive case study is used to describe a particular phenomenon in detail. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to provide a comprehensive account of the phenomenon.

For Example, a researcher might conduct a descriptive case study on a particular community to understand its social and economic characteristics. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as content analysis or thematic analysis. The findings of a descriptive case study can be used to inform policy or practice or generate new research questions.

Instrumental Case Study

An instrumental case study is used to understand a particular phenomenon that is instrumental in achieving a particular goal. This type of case study is useful when the researcher wants to understand the role of the phenomenon in achieving the goal.

For Example, a researcher might conduct an instrumental case study on a particular policy to understand its impact on achieving a particular goal, such as reducing poverty. The researcher collects data from multiple sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, and uses various techniques to analyze the data, such as content analysis or thematic analysis. The findings of an instrumental case study can be used to inform policy or practice or generate new research questions.

Case Study Data Collection Methods

Here are some common data collection methods for case studies:

Interviews involve asking questions to individuals who have knowledge or experience relevant to the case study. Interviews can be structured (where the same questions are asked to all participants) or unstructured (where the interviewer follows up on the responses with further questions). Interviews can be conducted in person, over the phone, or through video conferencing.

Observations

Observations involve watching and recording the behavior and activities of individuals or groups relevant to the case study. Observations can be participant (where the researcher actively participates in the activities) or non-participant (where the researcher observes from a distance). Observations can be recorded using notes, audio or video recordings, or photographs.

Documents can be used as a source of information for case studies. Documents can include reports, memos, emails, letters, and other written materials related to the case study. Documents can be collected from the case study participants or from public sources.

Surveys involve asking a set of questions to a sample of individuals relevant to the case study. Surveys can be administered in person, over the phone, through mail or email, or online. Surveys can be used to gather information on attitudes, opinions, or behaviors related to the case study.

Artifacts are physical objects relevant to the case study. Artifacts can include tools, equipment, products, or other objects that provide insights into the case study phenomenon.

How to conduct Case Study Research

Conducting a case study research involves several steps that need to be followed to ensure the quality and rigor of the study. Here are the steps to conduct case study research:

  • Define the research questions: The first step in conducting a case study research is to define the research questions. The research questions should be specific, measurable, and relevant to the case study phenomenon under investigation.
  • Select the case: The next step is to select the case or cases to be studied. The case should be relevant to the research questions and should provide rich and diverse data that can be used to answer the research questions.
  • Collect data: Data can be collected using various methods, such as interviews, observations, documents, surveys, and artifacts. The data collection method should be selected based on the research questions and the nature of the case study phenomenon.
  • Analyze the data: The data collected from the case study should be analyzed using various techniques, such as content analysis, thematic analysis, or grounded theory. The analysis should be guided by the research questions and should aim to provide insights and conclusions relevant to the research questions.
  • Draw conclusions: The conclusions drawn from the case study should be based on the data analysis and should be relevant to the research questions. The conclusions should be supported by evidence and should be clearly stated.
  • Validate the findings: The findings of the case study should be validated by reviewing the data and the analysis with participants or other experts in the field. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.
  • Write the report: The final step is to write the report of the case study research. The report should provide a clear description of the case study phenomenon, the research questions, the data collection methods, the data analysis, the findings, and the conclusions. The report should be written in a clear and concise manner and should follow the guidelines for academic writing.

Examples of Case Study

Here are some examples of case study research:

  • The Hawthorne Studies : Conducted between 1924 and 1932, the Hawthorne Studies were a series of case studies conducted by Elton Mayo and his colleagues to examine the impact of work environment on employee productivity. The studies were conducted at the Hawthorne Works plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago and included interviews, observations, and experiments.
  • The Stanford Prison Experiment: Conducted in 1971, the Stanford Prison Experiment was a case study conducted by Philip Zimbardo to examine the psychological effects of power and authority. The study involved simulating a prison environment and assigning participants to the role of guards or prisoners. The study was controversial due to the ethical issues it raised.
  • The Challenger Disaster: The Challenger Disaster was a case study conducted to examine the causes of the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion in 1986. The study included interviews, observations, and analysis of data to identify the technical, organizational, and cultural factors that contributed to the disaster.
  • The Enron Scandal: The Enron Scandal was a case study conducted to examine the causes of the Enron Corporation’s bankruptcy in 2001. The study included interviews, analysis of financial data, and review of documents to identify the accounting practices, corporate culture, and ethical issues that led to the company’s downfall.
  • The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster : The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster was a case study conducted to examine the causes of the nuclear accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in 2011. The study included interviews, analysis of data, and review of documents to identify the technical, organizational, and cultural factors that contributed to the disaster.

Application of Case Study

Case studies have a wide range of applications across various fields and industries. Here are some examples:

Business and Management

Case studies are widely used in business and management to examine real-life situations and develop problem-solving skills. Case studies can help students and professionals to develop a deep understanding of business concepts, theories, and best practices.

Case studies are used in healthcare to examine patient care, treatment options, and outcomes. Case studies can help healthcare professionals to develop critical thinking skills, diagnose complex medical conditions, and develop effective treatment plans.

Case studies are used in education to examine teaching and learning practices. Case studies can help educators to develop effective teaching strategies, evaluate student progress, and identify areas for improvement.

Social Sciences

Case studies are widely used in social sciences to examine human behavior, social phenomena, and cultural practices. Case studies can help researchers to develop theories, test hypotheses, and gain insights into complex social issues.

Law and Ethics

Case studies are used in law and ethics to examine legal and ethical dilemmas. Case studies can help lawyers, policymakers, and ethical professionals to develop critical thinking skills, analyze complex cases, and make informed decisions.

Purpose of Case Study

The purpose of a case study is to provide a detailed analysis of a specific phenomenon, issue, or problem in its real-life context. A case study is a qualitative research method that involves the in-depth exploration and analysis of a particular case, which can be an individual, group, organization, event, or community.

The primary purpose of a case study is to generate a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the case, including its history, context, and dynamics. Case studies can help researchers to identify and examine the underlying factors, processes, and mechanisms that contribute to the case and its outcomes. This can help to develop a more accurate and detailed understanding of the case, which can inform future research, practice, or policy.

Case studies can also serve other purposes, including:

  • Illustrating a theory or concept: Case studies can be used to illustrate and explain theoretical concepts and frameworks, providing concrete examples of how they can be applied in real-life situations.
  • Developing hypotheses: Case studies can help to generate hypotheses about the causal relationships between different factors and outcomes, which can be tested through further research.
  • Providing insight into complex issues: Case studies can provide insights into complex and multifaceted issues, which may be difficult to understand through other research methods.
  • Informing practice or policy: Case studies can be used to inform practice or policy by identifying best practices, lessons learned, or areas for improvement.

Advantages of Case Study Research

There are several advantages of case study research, including:

  • In-depth exploration: Case study research allows for a detailed exploration and analysis of a specific phenomenon, issue, or problem in its real-life context. This can provide a comprehensive understanding of the case and its dynamics, which may not be possible through other research methods.
  • Rich data: Case study research can generate rich and detailed data, including qualitative data such as interviews, observations, and documents. This can provide a nuanced understanding of the case and its complexity.
  • Holistic perspective: Case study research allows for a holistic perspective of the case, taking into account the various factors, processes, and mechanisms that contribute to the case and its outcomes. This can help to develop a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the case.
  • Theory development: Case study research can help to develop and refine theories and concepts by providing empirical evidence and concrete examples of how they can be applied in real-life situations.
  • Practical application: Case study research can inform practice or policy by identifying best practices, lessons learned, or areas for improvement.
  • Contextualization: Case study research takes into account the specific context in which the case is situated, which can help to understand how the case is influenced by the social, cultural, and historical factors of its environment.

Limitations of Case Study Research

There are several limitations of case study research, including:

  • Limited generalizability : Case studies are typically focused on a single case or a small number of cases, which limits the generalizability of the findings. The unique characteristics of the case may not be applicable to other contexts or populations, which may limit the external validity of the research.
  • Biased sampling: Case studies may rely on purposive or convenience sampling, which can introduce bias into the sample selection process. This may limit the representativeness of the sample and the generalizability of the findings.
  • Subjectivity: Case studies rely on the interpretation of the researcher, which can introduce subjectivity into the analysis. The researcher’s own biases, assumptions, and perspectives may influence the findings, which may limit the objectivity of the research.
  • Limited control: Case studies are typically conducted in naturalistic settings, which limits the control that the researcher has over the environment and the variables being studied. This may limit the ability to establish causal relationships between variables.
  • Time-consuming: Case studies can be time-consuming to conduct, as they typically involve a detailed exploration and analysis of a specific case. This may limit the feasibility of conducting multiple case studies or conducting case studies in a timely manner.
  • Resource-intensive: Case studies may require significant resources, including time, funding, and expertise. This may limit the ability of researchers to conduct case studies in resource-constrained settings.

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What Is a Case Study?

Weighing the pros and cons of this method of research

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

what is a case study bed

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.

what is a case study bed

Verywell / Colleen Tighe

  • Pros and Cons

What Types of Case Studies Are Out There?

Where do you find data for a case study, how do i write a psychology case study.

A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in many different fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.

The point of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.

While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, we got you—here are some rules of APA format to reference.  

At a Glance

A case study, or an in-depth study of a person, group, or event, can be a useful research tool when used wisely. In many cases, case studies are best used in situations where it would be difficult or impossible for you to conduct an experiment. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a lot of˜ information about a specific individual or group of people. However, it's important to be cautious of any bias we draw from them as they are highly subjective.

What Are the Benefits and Limitations of Case Studies?

A case study can have its strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.

One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult or impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:

  • Allows researchers to capture information on the 'how,' 'what,' and 'why,' of something that's implemented
  • Gives researchers the chance to collect information on why one strategy might be chosen over another
  • Permits researchers to develop hypotheses that can be explored in experimental research

On the other hand, a case study can have some drawbacks:

  • It cannot necessarily be generalized to the larger population
  • Cannot demonstrate cause and effect
  • It may not be scientifically rigorous
  • It can lead to bias

Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they want to explore a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. Through their insights, researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.

It's important to remember that the insights from case studies cannot be used to determine cause-and-effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.

Case Study Examples

There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of  Freud's work and theories were developed through individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:

  • Anna O : Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively. The woman was experiencing symptoms of a condition that was then known as hysteria and found that talking about her problems helped relieve her symptoms. Her case played an important part in the development of talk therapy as an approach to mental health treatment.
  • Phineas Gage : Phineas Gage was a railroad employee who experienced a terrible accident in which an explosion sent a metal rod through his skull, damaging important portions of his brain. Gage recovered from his accident but was left with serious changes in both personality and behavior.
  • Genie : Genie was a young girl subjected to horrific abuse and isolation. The case study of Genie allowed researchers to study whether language learning was possible, even after missing critical periods for language development. Her case also served as an example of how scientific research may interfere with treatment and lead to further abuse of vulnerable individuals.

Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse denied her the opportunity to learn a language at critical points in her development.

This is clearly not something researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.

There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might use:

  • Collective case studies : These involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community. For example, psychologists might explore how access to resources in a community has affected the collective mental well-being of those who live there.
  • Descriptive case studies : These involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed, and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
  • Explanatory case studies : These   are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have caused certain things to occur.
  • Exploratory case studies : These are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses .
  • Instrumental case studies : These occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
  • Intrinsic case studies : This type of case study is when the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic case study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.

The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.

The type of case study that psychology researchers use depends on the unique characteristics of the situation and the case itself.

There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:

  • Archival records : Census records, survey records, and name lists are examples of archival records.
  • Direct observation : This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting . While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
  • Documents : Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc., are the types of documents often used as sources.
  • Interviews : Interviews are one of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involve structured survey questions or more open-ended questions.
  • Participant observation : When the researcher serves as a participant in events and observes the actions and outcomes, it is called participant observation.
  • Physical artifacts : Tools, objects, instruments, and other artifacts are often observed during a direct observation of the subject.

If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines you need to follow. If you are writing your case study for a professional publication, check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.

Here is a general outline of what should be included in a case study.

Section 1: A Case History

This section will have the following structure and content:

Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.

Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.

Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.

Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.

Section 2: Treatment Plan

This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.

  • Cognitive behavioral approach : Explain how a cognitive behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
  • Humanistic approach : Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy . Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
  • Psychoanalytic approach : Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
  • Pharmacological approach : If treatment primarily involves the use of medications, explain which medications were used and why. Provide background on the effectiveness of these medications and how monotherapy may compare with an approach that combines medications with therapy or other treatments.

This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.

When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research. 

In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?

Need More Tips?

Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:

  • Never refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, use their name or a pseudonym.
  • Read examples of case studies to gain an idea about the style and format.
  • Remember to use APA format when citing references .

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach .  BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011;11:100.

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100

Gagnon, Yves-Chantal.  The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.

Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • Acknowledgments

A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate  key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.

How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper

General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.

However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:

  • The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.
  • The case provides important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
  • The case challenges and offers a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice. A case study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously. For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
  • The case provides an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem. For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
  • The case offers a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for an exploratory investigation that highlights the need for further research about the problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important!], you discover that little research exists showing the ways in which women contribute to promoting water conservation in rural communities of east central Africa. A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.g., applying feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation].

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.

Structure and Writing Style

The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.

In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.

I.  Introduction

As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:

  • What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
  • Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
  • What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
  • How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

II.  Literature Review

The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and  enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:

  • Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated . This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
  • Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable . Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.
  • Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study . If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
  • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies . This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
  • Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research . Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
  • Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill . Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
  • Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!] . Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.

III.  Method

In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.

If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].

If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].

If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.

NOTE:   The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.

IV.  Discussion

The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:

Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.

Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.

Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.

Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.

Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .

Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.

V.  Conclusion

As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.

The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
  • If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.

Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.

Problems to Avoid

Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.

Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.

Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009;  Kratochwill,  Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education .  Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.

Writing Tip

At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research

Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:

Misunderstanding 1 :  General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 :  One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 :  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 :  The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 :  It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].

While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.

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How to Write a Case Study

This guide explains how to write a descriptive case study. A descriptive case study describes how an organization handled a specific issue. Case studies can vary in length and the amount of details provided. They can be fictional or based on true events.

Why should you write one? Case studies can help others (e.g., students, other organizations, employees) learn about

  • new concepts,
  • best practices, and
  • situations they might face.

Writing a case study also allows you to critically examine your organizational practices.

The following pages provide examples of different types of case study formats. As you read them, think about what stands out to you. Which format best matches your needs? You can make similar stylistic choices when you write your own case study.

ACF Case Studies of Community Economic Development This page contains links to nine case studies that describe how different organizations performed economic development activities in their communities.

National Asthma Control Program Wee Wheezers This case study describes a public health program.

CDC Epidemiologic Case Studies This page contains links to five classroom-style case studies on foodborne diseases.

ATSDR Environmental Health and Medicine This page contains links to approximately 20 classroom-style case studies focused on exposures to environmental hazards.

What are your goals ? What should your intended readers understand or learn after reading your case? Pick 1–5 realistic goals. The more goals you include, the more complex your case study might need to be.

Who is your audience? You need to write with them in mind.

What kind of background knowledge do they have? Very little, moderate, or a lot of knowledge. Be sure to explain special terms and jargon so that readers with little to moderate knowledge can understand and enjoy your case study.

What format do you need to use? Will your case study be published in a journal, online, or printed as part of a handout? Think about how word minimums or maximums will shape what you can talk about and how you talk about it. For example, you may be allowed fewer words for a case study written for a print textbook than for a webpage.

What narrative perspective will you use? A first-person perspective uses words such as “I” and” “we” to tell a story. A third-person perspective uses pronouns and names such as “they” or “CDC”. Be consistent throughout your case study.

Depending on your writing style, you might prefer to write everything that comes to your mind first, then organize and edit it later. Some of you might prefer to use headings or be more structured and methodical in your approach. Any writing style is fine, just be sure to write! Later, after you have included all the necessary information, you can go back and find more appropriate words, ensure your writing is clear, and edit your punctuation and grammar.

  • Use clear writing principles, sometimes called plain language. More information can be found in the CDC’s Guide to Clear Writing [PDF – 5 MB] or on the Federal Plain Language website .
  • Use active voice instead of passive voice. If you are unfamiliar with active voice, review resources such as NCEH/ATSDR’s Training on Active Voice , The National Archive’s Active Voice Tips , and USCIS’ Video on Active Voice .
  • Word choice is important. If you use jargon or special terminology, define it for readers.
  • CDC has developed many resources to help writers choose better words. These include the NCEH/ATSDR Environmental Health Thesaurus , CDC’s National Center for Health Marketing Plain Language Thesaurus for Health Communicators [PDF – 565 KB] , CDC’s Everyday Words for Public Health Communication [PDF – 282 KB] , and the NCEH/ATSDR’s Clear Writing Hub .

After writing a draft, the case study writer or team should have 2–3 people, unfamiliar with the draft, read it over. These people should highlight any words or sentences they find confusing. They can also write down one or two questions that they still have after reading the draft. The case study writer or team can use those notes make edits.

  • Review your goals for the case study. Have you met each goal? Make any necessary edits.
  • Check your sentence length. If your sentence has more than 20 words, it might be too long. Limit each sentence to one main idea.
  • Use common words and phrases. Review a list of commonly misused words and phrases.
  • Be sure you have been consistent with your verb tenses throughout.

Finally, the writer/team should have someone with a good eye for detail review the case study for grammar and formatting issues. You can review the CDC Style Guide [PDF – 1.36 MB]  for clarification on the use of punctuation, spelling, tables, etc.

Green BN, Johnson CD. How to write a case report for publication. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2006;5(2):72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3467(07)60137-2

Scholz RW, Tietje O. Types of case studies. In: Embedded Case Study Methods . Thousand Oaks (CA): SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2002. P. 9-14. doi:10.4135/9781412984027

Warner C. How to Write a Case Study [online]. 2009. Available from URL: https://www.asec.purdue.edu/lct/HBCU/documents/HOWTOWRITEACASESTUDY.pdf [PDF – 14.5 KB]

Title: Organization: Author(s):

Goals: After reading this case study, readers should

Introduction Who is your organization? What is your expertise? Provide your audience with some background information, such as your expertise. This provides context to help them understand your decisions. (How much should you write? A few sentences to 1 paragraph)

What problem did you address? Who identified the problem? Provide some background on who noticed the problem and how it was reported. Were multiple organizations or people involved in identifying and addressing the problem? This will help the reader understand how and why decisions were made. (1 paragraph)

Case Details Provide more information about the community. What factors affected your decisions? Describe the community. The context, or setting, is very important to readers. What are some of the unique characteristics that affected your decisions? (1 paragraph)

How did you address the problem? Start at the beginning. Summarize what happened, in chronological order. If you know which section of the publication your case study is likely to be put in, you can specify how your actions addressed one or more of the main points of the publication/lesson.

What challenge(s) did you encounter? Address them now if you have not already.

What was the outcome? What were your notable achievements? Explain how your actions or the outcomes satisfy your learning goals for the reader. Be clear about the main point. For example, if you wanted readers to understand how your organization dealt with a major organizational change, include a few sentences that reiterate how you encountered and dealt with the organizational change. (A few sentences to 1 paragraph)

Conclusion Summarize lessons learned. Reiterate your main point(s) for the reader by explaining how your actions, or the outcomes, meet your goals for the reader.

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Case study definition

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Case study, a term which some of you may know from the "Case Study of Vanitas" anime and manga, is a thorough examination of a particular subject, such as a person, group, location, occasion, establishment, phenomena, etc. They are most frequently utilized in research of business, medicine, education and social behaviour. There are a different types of case studies that researchers might use:

• Collective case studies

• Descriptive case studies

• Explanatory case studies

• Exploratory case studies

• Instrumental case studies

• Intrinsic case studies

Case studies are usually much more sophisticated and professional than regular essays and courseworks, as they require a lot of verified data, are research-oriented and not necessarily designed to be read by the general public.

How to write a case study?

It very much depends on the topic of your case study, as a medical case study and a coffee business case study have completely different sources, outlines, target demographics, etc. But just for this example, let's outline a coffee roaster case study. Firstly, it's likely going to be a problem-solving case study, like most in the business and economics field are. Here are some tips for these types of case studies:

• Your case scenario should be precisely defined in terms of your unique assessment criteria.

• Determine the primary issues by analyzing the scenario. Think about how they connect to the main ideas and theories in your piece.

• Find and investigate any theories or methods that might be relevant to your case.

• Keep your audience in mind. Exactly who are your stakeholder(s)? If writing a case study on coffee roasters, it's probably gonna be suppliers, landlords, investors, customers, etc.

• Indicate the best solution(s) and how they should be implemented. Make sure your suggestions are grounded in pertinent theories and useful resources, as well as being realistic, practical, and attainable.

• Carefully proofread your case study. Keep in mind these four principles when editing: clarity, honesty, reality and relevance.

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The Function of Bed Management in Pandemic Times—A Case Study of Reaction Time and Bed Reconversion

Chiara barchielli.

1 Management and Healthcare Laboratory, Institute of Management, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, 56127 Pisa, Italy; [email protected] (M.V.); [email protected] (C.S.)

2 Department of Nursing and Obstetrics, Azienda USL Toscana Centro, 50123 Firenze, Italy [email protected] (P.Z.)

Milena Vainieri

Chiara seghieri, eleonora salutini, paolo zoppi, associated data.

No new data were created or analyzed in this study. Data sharing is not applicable to this article.

The last decade was characterized by the reduction in hospital beds throughout Europe. When facing the COVID pandemic, this has been an issue of major importance as hospitals were seriously overloaded with an unexpected growth in demand. The dichotomy formed by the scarcity of beds and the need for acute care was handled by the Bed Management (BM) function. This case study explores how BM was able to help the solidness of the healthcare system, managing hospital beds at best and recruiting others in different settings as intermediate care in a large Local Health Authority (LHA) in central Italy. Administrative data show how the provision of appropriate care was achieved by recruiting approximately 500 beds belonging to private healthcare facilities affiliated with the regional healthcare system and exercising the best BM function. The ability of the system to absorb the extra demand caused by COVID was made possible by using intermediate care beds, which were allowed to stretch the logistic boundaries of the hospitals, and by the promptness of Bed Management in converting beds into COVID beds and reconverting them, and by the timely management of internal patient logistics, thus creating space according to the healthcare demands.

1. Introduction

Bed Management (BM) is a form of proactive resource control based on the constant assessment of hospital services and incoming patient flow from the Emergency Department (ED) toward the most appropriate setting for care [ 1 ]. Boaden and colleagues [ 2 ] defined it as the process of reconciliation between the demand and the supply of beds, which is a scarce resource. BM is generally carried out by a dedicated team that provides real-time operational status of the capacity of the hospital to receive. The BM team is usually formed by nurses [ 3 ], and many hospitals around the world adopted various forms of electronic systems to help with the necessity of having real-time bed status availability [ 4 ]. A recent systematic review [ 5 ] underlines that the appropriateness of this function depends on a variety of uncertain factors, which may take the form of a patient length of stay (LoS), fluctuations in healthcare demand, and unexpected admissions, just to name a few. The complex nature of BM classifies it as part of the Operations Management (OM), a variety of managerial practices that design and control the production processes and the production of services. It is referred to as the way in which the organization creates the highest level of efficiency possible [ 6 ]. BM is a function that must be deeply rooted in the hospital structure as it must consider reality constraints, namely the number of available beds and making them available with the appropriateness based on the patient’s condition. These functions generate data or routinely collected health data that were the basis for this paper. The latter analyzes the timeliness and ability of the BM team’s operations in a large LHA in central Italy during the COVID outbreak. This unparalleled calamity provided the opportunity to observe the organizational behavior of the healthcare system during a public health crisis that presented not only clinical but also managerial criticalities. The first two waves of the spreading infection took place in the time frame from the 15 March 2020 to the 15 May 2020 and the second from the 15 September to the 15 December 2020. The performed analyzes are aimed at depicting the commitment to providing care for the COVID-infected and non-infected patients, creating a “bed-buffer” through the recruitment of approximately 500 beds from the intermediate care setting. As context information, pre-pandemic USLTC BM function can be described as a tool that was used to move and allocate patients on clinically based logic: the present clinical condition was the criteria on which the appropriate setting inside the hospital was determined. The pandemic BM function quickly took the form of a coordination that acted as a network, not only with the whole hospital system, but with the community care facilities. We can define it as the control room that acted against the bottlenecks and the frequent unforeseen events that we will be describing.

An Italian Case Study

The 2019 OECD Report “Health at a Glance” [ 7 ] shows how Italy is characterized by a low number of hospital beds: 2.6 beds per 1000 inhabitants. This is the result of policies aimed at reducing acute care beds, in line with the general European trend: since 2000 in all EU countries, the number of beds per capita fell by 20% [ 8 ]. The Italian National Healthcare System (NHS) is regionally based, the State holds the power to address and control the regional policies and outcomes, and public care is largely free of charge. The 20 regions are free to organize the provision of care in the way they estimate to be the best to meet their residents’ needs. In 2015 a reorganization of the hospital care network was undertaken and alternative forms of hospitalization were created (e.g., community care facilities and intermediate care facilities) alongside a binding hospital planning criterion: the equipment of hospital beds must not exceed 3.7 beds per 1000 inhabitants.

This case study focuses on the USL Toscana Centro (USLTC), an LHA with a catchment area of 1,700,000 inhabitants on a surface of 5000 square kilometers (that coincides with the medium-sized cities of Firenze, Prato, Pistoia and Empoli) in which 13 hospitals are based. This LHA integrates different services that extend from the prevention of illnesses to long-term care. Table 1 summarizes its activity during 2020:

USLTC, 2020 activities.

To cope with the COVID emergency, the Italian Ministry of Health increased the number of inpatients and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds, the latter being a worldwide utter concern [ 9 ]. At the end of the summer of 2019, other interventions were put in place to reinforce both community care and intermediate care with the aim of relieving the pressure on hospitals, although with a different capacity throughout the Italian regions [ 10 ]. Pecoraro et al. [ 11 ] describe how the robustness of the Italian (and Spanish) hospitals’ structural components was much smaller than the German and French, which could count on a larger number of beds, which mitigated the effects of the massive request for hospitalization at the beginning of the pandemic. The Spanish case studies [ 12 , 13 ] reported their adopted strategies to face the outbreaks and the initial shock, contributing to the enrichment of the knowledge of the lessons learned. Even if the hospitals’ robustness was smaller, those organizations put in place interventions (e.g., the use of indicators to catch the dynamicity of the organizations’ responses, the modeling of bed occupancy, etc.) that were able to exceed the structural limits of the hospitals.

The starting point was not the best but, as presented in the recent literature [ 11 ], Tuscany reported positive results in bed management during the COVID pandemic, and this is attributed to the ability to handle complex cases determining a short length of stay (LoS) when compared to the national average.

This case study aims to describe the monthly trends of COVID and no-COVID bed use during the first two waves of the pandemic and the interval in three care settings: (i) the ICU and sub-acute ICU (sub-ICU, a step-down from the intensive care setting which still provides more intensive care than the inpatients setting), (ii) the inpatient (internal medicine, surgery), and (iii) the intermediate care, through the use of administrative healthcare data.

Concerning intermediate care, it has to be said that they are meant to be a place for the most chronically ill, elderly patients, a middle level between acute hospital care and basic care. During the pandemic, they were used as a buffer, a way to alleviate the pressure on hospitals, and it was crucial to their functioning [ 13 , 14 ].

2. Materials and Methods

Before getting to the core of the paper, a clarification about the way beds are counted when occupied by an infected patient is necessary, as reported in Figure 1 :

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is ijerph-20-06179-g001.jpg

How to compute beds when an infected patient is sharing space with other non-infected patients.

In a room with non-infected patients, beds are all available and computed as physically employable. If the room hosts an infected patient, as in the case of COVID infection, not all the beds are available, hence computable, even if vacant. This is crucial to understand that hospital beds are not a flexible, or at least a little fungible, resource. In the eventuality of a droplet-transmitted virus, as the Coronavirus, a droplet isolation protocol has to be put in place [ 15 , 16 ] and this implies having less space for beds, the number of which is reduced. The intrinsic case study design [ 17 ] was adopted as a means to shed light on a unique phenomenon, the effects of the pandemic in a particular organization. Data for the analysis were gathered from the administrative data flows. As Benchimol and colleagues [ 18 ] illustrated in their work on routinely collected healthcare data in the absence of a previous research aim, it was necessary to create a methodological instrument that could address the growing availability of this type of information in the attempt to use it to improve not only clinical but management decisions as well. The aim of the authors was to “develop a reporting guideline for observational studies using health data collected for non-research purposes as an extension of STROBE—the REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected Data (RECORD) statement” [ 18 ]. The transparency in reporting observational case studies, such as this one, was needed to address the potential research biases. The RECORD checklist presents 13 items to be followed to correctly use this kind of data.

In particular, the consulted information flows in our work were the Hospital Discharge Record flow, the Intermediate Care Occupancy flow and the administrative data used to populate CROSS (Centrale Remota per le Operazioni di Soccorso Sanitario, Remote Central for Health Rescue Operations) in the aforementioned periods of time, identified as the first pandemic wave, the second pandemic wave and the interval period. The CROSS system is a patient placement tool: regions can activate it when no beds are available in their territories and ask other regions for help. Its basic requirement is the ability to ensure, at least for the first 72 h after the emergency hospitalization of the patient, adequate space availability, technological equipment and human resources in order to offer the patient the best care possible. Data were extracted from a database that the Bed Manager created ad hoc and from the various interfaces used in the LHA.

We first explored the number of hospitalized patients and the mortality rates among the different settings. Finally, we calculated both the monthly number of available beds and the Beds Occupancy Rate (BOR), namely the occupied inpatient beds as a % of the available beds over the observation period (first wave, interval and second wave), in the three settings of interest to investigate if the BM was able to remove the bottleneck created by intensive care units (ICU) and sub-ICUs through the fast conversion and reconversion of beds from no-COVID to COVID (and vice versa). Although there is no consensus over the ideal BOR percentage, 85% might be considered an optimal threshold to reduce the risk of bed shortages [ 16 , 19 ].

The BOR parameter has taken on a particular importance during the pandemic, stimulating the creation of tools to explore and track different countries’ decisions. As an example, the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) is a database that tracks and shows the governments’ responses in relation to changes in the pandemic patterns, deciding policies such as lockdowns, contact tracing activities and various types of containment in relation to the parameters from the BOR [ 17 , 20 ].

During the entire period, 7098 patients were admitted. A total of 742 died (10.4%), 46 (4%) of which died in the intermediate care setting as shown in Table 2 . As expected, the highest in-hospital mortality rate was among ICU-sub-ICU patients (29%).

Total number of assessed and deceased patients 15 March 2020–15 December 2020.

During the observation period, 88 patients were assessed in the Emergency Department (ED) and sent directly to intermediate care. Table 3 resumes the breakdown of the hospital re-admission of the 88 patients that were directly sent to the intermediate care setting when diagnosed.

Hospital re-admission of patients initially assigned to the Intermediate care setting.

The re-admission of 88 patients was necessary because patients faced subtle deterioration of their clinical conditions after it appeared manageable, if not resolved. In Table 4 , the total monthly COVID and no-COVID beds and BORs are reported for the first wave, the interval (after the national lockdown) and the second wave. As a side note, this data collection began ten days after the pandemic outbreak in Tuscany. Indeed, the system had no idea about the nature of the threat as no objective data were available [ 21 ] given that the first Italian case was notified on the 20 February 2020. Healthcare personnel were literally unaware of the kind of response to put in place as nothing was known about the natural history of the infection, namely symptoms, adequate treatments and recovery time.

Number of COVID and No- COVID beds and BORs during the first wave, the interval and the second wave.

The BOR has varied throughout the two waves, with a first peak in April, when the intermediate care beds worked as a system outlet valve: they registered a BOR of 83% while the BOR of inpatient beds was at 71%. During the summer months, all the intermediate care beds were reconverted into no-COVID beds to allow the existing no-COVID healthcare demands to be addressed. In the same interval period, the no-COVID inpatients BOR recorded a decline of 23%. During the second wave, the number of hospitalized patients was higher than the one registered in April, as all the beds were saturated: ICU’s and sub-ICU’s BOR was 78%, inpatients’ BOR and intermediate care’s BOR were 90% and 98%, respectively. The ICU and sub-ICU occupancy rates during the first wave was lower because of the higher mortality rate, as the treatments were administered to patients empirically, which is based on a clinical hypothesis yet not supported by complete information. Data show greater use of ICU and sub-ICU beds and a minor use of inpatient beds during the first wave as ICUs and sub-ICUs were extended into operating rooms, transforming them into negative pression-rooms. Intermediate care beds were activated “on demand”: during the summer, there was no need to occupy them. Conversely, in the autumn during the second wave, intermediate care beds were increased to sustain the system in coping with the increase in the healthcare demand. In Figure 2 , the total availability and total occupancy of beds in the entire territory of the USLTC are reported in the period between the 15th of March and the 15th of December: as it shows in the trend of COVID beds, in the first months of the pandemic, a lot of beds were unoccupied. This can be attributed both to the lack of elements of evaluation of the virus behavior and to the total suspension of all elective operating sessions. After the summer interval, the difference between the total beds and occupied beds is strongly reduced, especially from mid-October onwards. This trend demonstrates how the BM function was more than efficient for managing the processes of conversion and re-conversion of beds and how it was able to take full advantage of the additional beds from the intermediate care sector.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is ijerph-20-06179-g002.jpg

Trends in total COVID and No-COVID beds/occupied beds from the 15th of March to the 15th of December 2020.

For what concerns the trend in No-COVID beds, the delta between available and occupied beds is bigger. This can be this can be and imputed to the slowdown suffered by elective surgery.

4. Discussion and Conclusions

The COVID pandemic created several issues of major importance, among which was a serious hospital overload due to an unexpected growth in demand. We investigated the relationship between COVID and no-COVID beds during the first two waves of the pandemic in three settings: inpatients, ICU and sub-ICU and intermediate care. Inpatients and intermediate care beds were characterized by a very high BOR during the first wave, which was even higher in the second wave. The number of admissions was high, as well as the mortality. The ability of the system to absorb the extra demand caused by COVID was made possible using intermediate care beds, which were allowed to stretch the logistic boundaries of the hospitals [ 20 ] and by the promptness of Bed Management in converting beds into COVID beds and reconverting them, and by the timely management of internal patient logistic, thus creating space according to the healthcare demands.

The pandemic made it evident that the hospital must be a place for acute patient care and that community care is the key to the sustainability of the healthcare systems as it will be the place to treat and care for chronic patients. Hospitals are operating among tight margins in terms of staff and number of beds [ 22 ], and the pandemic shock it represented.

The home must be the first place of care: this is the major political and managerial aim to achieve because it will give flexibility to the whole healthcare system when facing external stresses. For this reason, USLTC is investing in community care solutions, e.g., (i) building multidisciplinary community care teams that can bring their expertise to the patient at home, (ii) investing in the role of the Family and Community Nurse that is responsible for meeting the needs of patients and identifying the latent ones, and (iii) placing resources in the development of intermediate care facilities. Among the lessons learned during this period, we must also mention the importance of having emergency plans for hospitals, in the sense of having designated isolation areas or designated areas that can quickly be converted for this purpose, and the fact that the USLTC BM function still is performing its function as a control room that allocates and moves patient not only on a clinical basis but also on a managerial one by keeping close and frequent contacts between all the nodes of the communication and decision network.

This study presents several limitations: data were not promptly registered, and they refer to a single LHA. We described a system that appeared to be resilient, as the system has responded to pandemic pressures but it is not possible to evaluate its performance because the benchmark is missing. In order to compare the efficiency of the management, especially for what concerns the BM, we should have data related to the same period of other similar companies in size and available staff. What is certain is that the healthcare system that we used to know does not exist anymore, and the changes that countries around the world will have to undergo mainly relate to the strengthening of community care. As Griffin et al. highlight [ 23 ], during pandemic times it is important to balance the connection between the hospital and the territory it serves: the hospital can be the first responder but not the only one. Data support the choice to rely on intermediate care beds to relieve pressure from the hospitals and, therefore, treat a larger number of patients [ 24 ].

Funding Statement

This research received no external funding.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, C.B., M.V. and E.S.; methodology, M.V. and C.S.; software, C.S.; validation, C.B., M.V., C.S. and E.S.; formal analysis, M.V. and C.S.; investigation, C.B. and E.S.; resources, E.S.; data curation, C.S.; writing—original draft preparation, C.B., M.V. and C.S.; writing—review and editing, C.B., M.V. and C.S.; visualization, P.Z.; supervision, M.V. and P.Z.; project administration, M.V.; All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study did not require ethical approval, as it did not involve humans or animals.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Conflicts of interest.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on 5 May 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 30 January 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organisation, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating, and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyse the case.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

Unlike quantitative or experimental research, a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

If you find yourself aiming to simultaneously investigate and solve an issue, consider conducting action research . As its name suggests, action research conducts research and takes action at the same time, and is highly iterative and flexible. 

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience, or phenomenon.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews, observations, and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data .

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis, with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results , and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyse its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

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How to Write a Case Study | Examples & Methods

what is a case study bed

What is a case study?

A case study is a research approach that provides an in-depth examination of a particular phenomenon, event, organization, or individual. It involves analyzing and interpreting data to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject under investigation. 

Case studies can be used in various disciplines, including business, social sciences, medicine ( clinical case report ), engineering, and education. The aim of a case study is to provide an in-depth exploration of a specific subject, often with the goal of generating new insights into the phenomena being studied.

When to write a case study

Case studies are often written to present the findings of an empirical investigation or to illustrate a particular point or theory. They are useful when researchers want to gain an in-depth understanding of a specific phenomenon or when they are interested in exploring new areas of inquiry. 

Case studies are also useful when the subject of the research is rare or when the research question is complex and requires an in-depth examination. A case study can be a good fit for a thesis or dissertation as well.

Case study examples

Below are some examples of case studies with their research questions:

These examples demonstrate the diversity of research questions and case studies that can be explored. From studying small businesses in Ghana to the ethical issues in supply chains, case studies can be used to explore a wide range of phenomena.

Outlying cases vs. representative cases

An outlying case stud y refers to a case that is unusual or deviates significantly from the norm. An example of an outlying case study could be a small, family-run bed and breakfast that was able to survive and even thrive during the COVID-19 pandemic, while other larger hotels struggled to stay afloat.

On the other hand, a representative case study refers to a case that is typical of the phenomenon being studied. An example of a representative case study could be a hotel chain that operates in multiple locations that faced significant challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as reduced demand for hotel rooms, increased safety and health protocols, and supply chain disruptions. The hotel chain case could be representative of the broader hospitality industry during the pandemic, and thus provides an insight into the typical challenges that businesses in the industry faced.

Steps for Writing a Case Study

As with any academic paper, writing a case study requires careful preparation and research before a single word of the document is ever written. Follow these basic steps to ensure that you don’t miss any crucial details when composing your case study.

Step 1: Select a case to analyze

After you have developed your statement of the problem and research question , the first step in writing a case study is to select a case that is representative of the phenomenon being investigated or that provides an outlier. For example, if a researcher wants to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the hospitality industry, they could select a representative case, such as a hotel chain that operates in multiple locations, or an outlying case, such as a small bed and breakfast that was able to pivot their business model to survive during the pandemic. Selecting the appropriate case is critical in ensuring the research question is adequately explored.

Step 2: Create a theoretical framework

Theoretical frameworks are used to guide the analysis and interpretation of data in a case study. The framework should provide a clear explanation of the key concepts, variables, and relationships that are relevant to the research question. The theoretical framework can be drawn from existing literature, or the researcher can develop their own framework based on the data collected. The theoretical framework should be developed early in the research process to guide the data collection and analysis.

To give your case analysis a strong theoretical grounding, be sure to include a literature review of references and sources relating to your topic and develop a clear theoretical framework. Your case study does not simply stand on its own but interacts with other studies related to your topic. Your case study can do one of the following: 

  • Demonstrate a theory by showing how it explains the case being investigated
  • Broaden a theory by identifying additional concepts and ideas that can be incorporated to strengthen it
  • Confront a theory via an outlier case that does not conform to established conclusions or assumptions

Step 3: Collect data for your case study

Data collection can involve a variety of research methods , including interviews, surveys, observations, and document analyses, and it can include both primary and secondary sources . It is essential to ensure that the data collected is relevant to the research question and that it is collected in a systematic and ethical manner. Data collection methods should be chosen based on the research question and the availability of data. It is essential to plan data collection carefully to ensure that the data collected is of high quality

Step 4: Describe the case and analyze the details

The final step is to describe the case in detail and analyze the data collected. This involves identifying patterns and themes that emerge from the data and drawing conclusions that are relevant to the research question. It is essential to ensure that the analysis is supported by the data and that any limitations or alternative explanations are acknowledged.

The manner in which you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard academic paper, with separate sections or chapters for the methods section , results section , and discussion section , while others are structured more like a standalone literature review.

Regardless of the topic you choose to pursue, writing a case study requires a systematic and rigorous approach to data collection and analysis. By following the steps outlined above and using examples from existing literature, researchers can create a comprehensive and insightful case study that contributes to the understanding of a particular phenomenon.

Preparing Your Case Study for Publication

After completing the draft of your case study, be sure to revise and edit your work for any mistakes, including grammatical errors , punctuation errors , spelling mistakes, and awkward sentence structure . Ensure that your case study is well-structured and that your arguments are well-supported with language that follows the conventions of academic writing .  To ensure your work is polished for style and free of errors, get English editing services from Wordvice, including our paper editing services and manuscript editing services . Let our academic subject experts enhance the style and flow of your academic work so you can submit your case study with confidence.

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Blog Beginner Guides

What is a Case Study? [+6 Types of Case Studies]

By Ronita Mohan , Sep 20, 2021

What is a Case Study Blog Header

Case studies have become powerful business tools. But what is a case study? What are the benefits of creating one? Are there limitations to the format?

If you’ve asked yourself these questions, our helpful guide will clear things up. Learn how to use a case study for business. Find out how cases analysis works in psychology and research.

We’ve also got examples of case studies to inspire you.

Haven’t made a case study before? You can easily  create a case study  with Venngage’s customizable templates.

CREATE A CASE STUDY

Click to jump ahead:

What is a case study, what is the case study method, benefits of case studies, limitations of case studies, types of case studies, faqs about case studies.

Case studies are research methodologies. They examine subjects, projects, or organizations to tell a story.

Case Study Definition LinkedIn Post

USE THIS TEMPLATE

Numerous sectors use case analyses. The social sciences, social work, and psychology create studies regularly.

Healthcare industries write reports on patients and diagnoses. Marketing case study examples , like the one below, highlight the benefits of a business product.

Bold Social Media Business Case Study Template

CREATE THIS REPORT TEMPLATE

Now that you know what a case study is, we explain how case reports are used in three different industries.

What is a business case study?

A business or marketing case study aims at showcasing a successful partnership. This can be between a brand and a client. Or the case study can examine a brand’s project.

There is a perception that case studies are used to advertise a brand. But effective reports, like the one below, can show clients how a brand can support them.

Light Simple Business Case Study Template

Hubspot created a case study on a customer that successfully scaled its business. The report outlines the various Hubspot tools used to achieve these results.

Hubspot case study

Hubspot also added a video with testimonials from the client company’s employees.

So, what is the purpose of a case study for businesses? There is a lot of competition in the corporate world. Companies are run by people. They can be on the fence about which brand to work with.

Business reports  stand out aesthetically, as well. They use  brand colors  and brand fonts . Usually, a combination of the client’s and the brand’s.

With the Venngage  My Brand Kit  feature, businesses can automatically apply their brand to designs.

A business case study, like the one below, acts as social proof. This helps customers decide between your brand and your competitors.

Modern lead Generation Business Case Study Template

Don’t know how to design a report? You can learn  how to write a case study  with Venngage’s guide. We also share design tips and examples that will help you convert.

Related: 55+ Annual Report Design Templates, Inspirational Examples & Tips [Updated]

What is a case study in psychology?

In the field of psychology, case studies focus on a particular subject. Psychology case histories also examine human behaviors.

Case reports search for commonalities between humans. They are also used to prescribe further research. Or these studies can elaborate on a solution for a behavioral ailment.

The American Psychology Association  has a number of case studies on real-life clients. Note how the reports are more text-heavy than a business case study.

What is a case study in psychology? Behavior therapy example

Famous psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Anna O popularised the use of case studies in the field. They did so by regularly interviewing subjects. Their detailed observations build the field of psychology.

It is important to note that psychological studies must be conducted by professionals. Psychologists, psychiatrists and therapists should be the researchers in these cases.

Related: What Netflix’s Top 50 Shows Can Teach Us About Font Psychology [Infographic]

What is a case study in research?

Research is a necessary part of every case study. But specific research fields are required to create studies. These fields include user research, healthcare, education, or social work.

For example, this UX Design  report examined the public perception of a client. The brand researched and implemented new visuals to improve it. The study breaks down this research through lessons learned.

What is a case study in research? UX Design case study example

Clinical reports are a necessity in the medical field. These documents are used to share knowledge with other professionals. They also help examine new or unusual diseases or symptoms.

The pandemic has led to a significant increase in research. For example,  Spectrum Health  studied the value of health systems in the pandemic. They created the study by examining community outreach.

What is a case study in research? Spectrum healthcare example

The pandemic has significantly impacted the field of education. This has led to numerous examinations on remote studying. There have also been studies on how students react to decreased peer communication.

Social work case reports often have a community focus. They can also examine public health responses. In certain regions, social workers study disaster responses.

You now know what case studies in various fields are. In the next step of our guide, we explain the case study method.

Return to Table of Contents

A case analysis is a deep dive into a subject. To facilitate this case studies are built on interviews and observations. The below example would have been created after numerous interviews.

Case studies are largely qualitative. They analyze and describe phenomena. While some data is included, a case analysis is not quantitative.

There are a few steps in the case method. You have to start by identifying the subject of your study. Then determine what kind of research is required.

In natural sciences, case studies can take years to complete. Business reports, like this one, don’t take that long. A few weeks of interviews should be enough.

Blue Simple Business Case Study Template

The case method will vary depending on the industry. Reports will also look different once produced.

As you will have seen, business reports are more colorful. The design is also more accessible . Healthcare and psychology reports are more text-heavy.

Designing case reports takes time and energy. So, is it worth taking the time to write them? Here are the benefits of creating case studies.

  • Collects large amounts of information
  • Helps formulate hypotheses
  • Builds the case for further research
  • Discovers new insights into a subject
  • Builds brand trust and loyalty
  • Engages customers through stories

For example, the business study below creates a story around a brand partnership. It makes for engaging reading. The study also shows evidence backing up the information.

Blue Content Marketing Case Study Template

We’ve shared the benefits of why studies are needed. We will also look at the limitations of creating them.

Related: How to Present a Case Study like a Pro (With Examples)

There are a few disadvantages to conducting a case analysis. The limitations will vary according to the industry.

  • Responses from interviews are subjective
  • Subjects may tailor responses to the researcher
  • Studies can’t always be replicated
  • In certain industries, analyses can take time and be expensive
  • Risk of generalizing the results among a larger population

These are some of the common weaknesses of creating case reports. If you’re on the fence, look at the competition in your industry.

Other brands or professionals are building reports, like this example. In that case, you may want to do the same.

Coral content marketing case study template

There are six common types of case reports. Depending on your industry, you might use one of these types.

Descriptive case studies

Explanatory case studies, exploratory case reports, intrinsic case studies, instrumental case studies, collective case reports.

6 Types Of Case Studies List

USE THIS TEMPLATE

We go into more detail about each type of study in the guide below.

Related:  15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]

When you have an existing hypothesis, you can design a descriptive study. This type of report starts with a description. The aim is to find connections between the subject being studied and a theory.

Once these connections are found, the study can conclude. The results of this type of study will usually suggest how to develop a theory further.

A study like the one below has concrete results. A descriptive report would use the quantitative data as a suggestion for researching the subject deeply.

Lead generation business case study template

When an incident occurs in a field, an explanation is required. An explanatory report investigates the cause of the event. It will include explanations for that cause.

The study will also share details about the impact of the event. In most cases, this report will use evidence to predict future occurrences. The results of explanatory reports are definitive.

Note that there is no room for interpretation here. The results are absolute.

The study below is a good example. It explains how one brand used the services of another. It concludes by showing definitive proof that the collaboration was successful.

Bold Content Marketing Case Study Template

Another example of this study would be in the automotive industry. If a vehicle fails a test, an explanatory study will examine why. The results could show that the failure was because of a particular part.

Related: How to Write a Case Study [+ Design Tips]

An explanatory report is a self-contained document. An exploratory one is only the beginning of an investigation.

Exploratory cases act as the starting point of studies. This is usually conducted as a precursor to large-scale investigations. The research is used to suggest why further investigations are needed.

An exploratory study can also be used to suggest methods for further examination.

For example, the below analysis could have found inconclusive results. In that situation, it would be the basis for an in-depth study.

Teal Social Media Business Case Study Template

Intrinsic studies are more common in the field of psychology. These reports can also be conducted in healthcare or social work.

These types of studies focus on a unique subject, such as a patient. They can sometimes study groups close to the researcher.

The aim of such studies is to understand the subject better. This requires learning their history. The researcher will also examine how they interact with their environment.

For instance, if the case study below was about a unique brand, it could be an intrinsic study.

Vibrant Content Marketing Case Study Template

Once the study is complete, the researcher will have developed a better understanding of a phenomenon. This phenomenon will likely not have been studied or theorized about before.

Examples of intrinsic case analysis can be found across psychology. For example, Jean Piaget’s theories on cognitive development. He established the theory from intrinsic studies into his own children.

Related: What Disney Villains Can Tell Us About Color Psychology [Infographic]

This is another type of study seen in medical and psychology fields. Instrumental reports are created to examine more than just the primary subject.

When research is conducted for an instrumental study, it is to provide the basis for a larger phenomenon. The subject matter is usually the best example of the phenomenon. This is why it is being studied.

Purple SAAS Business Case Study Template

Assume it’s examining lead generation strategies. It may want to show that visual marketing is the definitive lead generation tool. The brand can conduct an instrumental case study to examine this phenomenon.

Collective studies are based on instrumental case reports. These types of studies examine multiple reports.

There are a number of reasons why collective reports are created:

  • To provide evidence for starting a new study
  • To find pattens between multiple instrumental reports
  • To find differences in similar types of cases
  • Gain a deeper understanding of a complex phenomenon
  • Understand a phenomenon from diverse contexts

A researcher could use multiple reports, like the one below, to build a collective case report.

Social Media Business Case Study template

Related: 10+ Case Study Infographic Templates That Convert

What makes a case study a case study?

A case study has a very particular research methodology. They are an in-depth study of a person or a group of individuals. They can also study a community or an organization. Case reports examine real-world phenomena within a set context.

How long should a case study be?

The length of studies depends on the industry. It also depends on the story you’re telling. Most case studies should be at least 500-1500 words long. But you can increase the length if you have more details to share.

What should you ask in a case study?

The one thing you shouldn’t ask is ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions. Case studies are qualitative. These questions won’t give you the information you need.

Ask your client about the problems they faced. Ask them about solutions they found. Or what they think is the ideal solution. Leave room to ask them follow-up questions. This will help build out the study.

How to present a case study?

When you’re ready to present a case study, begin by providing a summary of the problem or challenge you were addressing. Follow this with an outline of the solution you implemented, and support this with the results you achieved, backed by relevant data. Incorporate visual aids like slides, graphs, and images to make your case study presentation more engaging and impactful.

Now you know what a case study means, you can begin creating one. These reports are a great tool for analyzing brands. They are also useful in a variety of other fields.

Use a visual communication platform like Venngage to design case studies. With Venngage’s templates, you can design easily. Create branded, engaging reports, all without design experience.

being political

Case Study Report for B.Ed Internship Programme

Are you looking for a case study report for B.ed ? In this article, we will provide a case study report for B.ed.

As an intern, we were supposed to identify a problematic child, understand the reasons behind his/her problem and try to provide remedial measures to his/her problem in order to solve and prepare a case study report.

A case study is a detailed examination of an individual, group of people or an occurrence. Case studies comprise of a one on one interview, questionnaires among other data collection forms. A case study involves studying a person’s life and experience to determine the cause of certain behavior. The research may also continue for an extended period, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen.

During the pre-internship phase, we had a session on how to prepare a case study wherein, it was focused on the meaning of the case study its importance, etc. As we have already done a case study in our previous semester and we were well briefed during our orientation session, therefore, I hardly faced any challenges.

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Case study report for B.ed-

Title of the study:   A case study on a  shy and introverted adolescent student named XYZ.

Name of the investigator: ABC

A case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single social unit such as an individual, a  group, an institution or a community. It is necessary to perform a case study in order to find out problems existing among the students in an educational institution.

This study refers to a student named XYZ studying in 7th  standard in XYZ English School. During my four months internship period of B.Ed 2nd  year in ABC English School, I had observed that the boy XYZ of class  VII  always wants to seat on the back bench.

I did not see him to communicate with other students.  I noticed that  the  boy  tends  to  be  slow  to warm  up  in  social  situation.  I  also  noticed  that  he  is  always  late  in  reaching school.   He faces difficulties in meeting people,  initiating and maintains conversation.

He was unable to give any answer of any question properly. He always tried to stay alone and did not show any interest to make friendship with other  students.  Even  he  did  not  go  to  participate  in  any  competition  or  co- curricular activities. Therefore to know the reasons behind his problems, I have taken  up this  study so  that  I  can help him  to deal  with his  problems  and  can show better performance in his academic career.

Disclaimer:

The information contained in the case study report is just for the purpose of fulfilling the condition of XYZ University that is compulsory in our B.Ed course,  which  has  to  be  submitted  to  the  college  authority  and  not  for  any personal intension and  usages. The  information provided  in the  report  is  very true and trust worthy. The content of this report must not be disclosed or copied without the   investigator   consent.

A   proper   investigation   is   done   before preparing the report. The suggestions and opinions are expressed in this report are  only  the  perception  of  the  investigator  and  do  not  necessarily  reflect  any other person.

Background:

During the four months internship period in XYZ English School, I have noticed that a boy named XYZ of class VII always used to seat in the last bench of the classroom and he hardly communicate  with teachers and other classmates.

Though he is attentive in the class, he was unable to perform any academic  tasks  given  or  the  questions  asked  in the  class. Because  of  this shy  nature  he  always  wanted  to  stay  alone.  Shyness  and  introvert  both  are different psychological traits of human being.

Shyness is a psychological state that  causes  a  person  to  feel  discomfort  in  social  situations  and  that  cause avoidance  of  social  contacts.  Introvert is  another  psychological  state  that describes a person who tends to turn inward mentally.

The behaviour of the boy in the class made me have an assumption of falling him in the category of shy and introvert. After a few observations I was confident about his nature who is unable to share his problems neither  with his classmate nor  with his teachers. This is the rationale behind identifying this boy to study up and to help him to deal with his problems has been suffering for so long.

Case Study Report for B.Ed Internship Programme

Case History:

I  visited his home and talked with his parents.  His parents were very responsive and cooperatively answered my questions.

Physical Status:

Physically the boy is fit and healthy, but he has acne problem in his face and  other  than  that  he  has  same  common  health  issues  which  are  natural  for human being. Because of acne problem his classmates teases him. This may be a  reason  due  to  which  he  feels  shy  and  lack  of  confidence  to  interact  with others.

Mental Status:

He is not mentally so sound. He is unable to read his text books properly and confidently. He always tends to stay alone and gets mentally disturbed or easily panicked whenever he was asked any questions.

The boy XYZ belongs to a middle class family. His father’s name is  XYZ  and  mother’s  name  is  ABC.  He stays with his parents and younger brother.  His  father  is  a  businessmen  and  mother  is housewife.

His parents are aware about his introvert nature but they are not so much concerned about his problems. They do not facilitate him any exercise or practise because of lack of knowledge about his condition. At his home also he talks  very less and always  likes to stay alone. So, he has very less interaction with his family members.

XYZ is a student of class VII, XYZ English School. His position in the class is low. His roll number in class is 21. Before getting admission in the school in class VI, he studied in XYZ English Medium School.

His previous school authority apprises XYZ’s parents about his less interaction with teachers and other students and about his low performance in class.

Due to this reason his parents withdraw his studentship from that school and admitted him in class VI in XYZ English School. In the class room he wants to stay alone, always sits on the last bench. Even in the leisure time he uses to stay alone and does not share his food with other students.

Sometimes he does not pay attention in the classroom and he is seen to think something else. He hardly participates in extra-curricular activities. Basically, he does not show any interest to participate in any competition like games, quiz, debate, drawing competitions. He feels hesitation to participate in any competition.

Related Case Questions:

As  an  investigator,  I  have  taken  a  personal  interview  of  the  student.  I have asked him some questions related to his problems as –

  • What is the age of the student? Answer:- He is 13 years old.
  • Where does the student live? Answer:- Ward No. 4, Rangia Town
  • Do you have any brother or sister? Answer:- Yes, One brother
  • Does he have any class friend in class? Anser:- No
  • What does his father do? Answer:- Business
  • What does his mother do? Answer:- Housewife
  • Does he always come to school? Answer:- Yes
  • Does he regularly study at home? Answer:- Yes
  • What does he like except study? Answer:- He likes to play mobile/computer games
  • What kind of relation exists between him and his parents? Answer:- Good but his interaction with his parents is very low
  • Does he have any complaint about his classmates? Answer:- Yes, they are not interested to talk with him and always tease him
  • Does he has any complaint about school? Answer:- No
  • What is his favorite subject? Answer:- English
  • Does he like to talk with other people? Answer:- No, not like that
  • Why doesn’t he like to talk with others? Answer:- he doesn’t feel comfortable to talk with others
  • How does he spend his vacation time? Answer:- he likes play mobile games
  • Do your parents/teachers scold you because of your less conversation? Answer:- Yes, sometimes

FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

From the above discussions, I have found that there are many causes of his shyness and introverted nature which hinder him in the development of his personality –

  • The feeling of inferiority complex could lead to shyness and introverted nature.
  • Lack of social skills and non-participation makes him inhabited around others and make him shy and introverted.
  • Lack of communication and friendly relation with his parents and teachers makes him shy and introverted.
  • The lack of awareness and responsibility of his parents towards him makes him shy and introverted.
  • Less expressiveness makes him shy and introverted.
  • Mental weakness may also lead to shyness and introverted nature.

Suggestions:

  • Parents should motivate him to talk or communicate with others.
  • It is the duty of the teachers to make him feel secure during classes and teachers should encourage him to make friends with other students.
  • Parents should be  aware  of  the  behaviour  of  other  students  of  the  class towards  him.  So,  they  should  connect with  the  school  as  much  as  they can.
  • Special attention  should  be  given  to  his  mental  development  by  his parents and teachers.
  • Parents  should take  him to the psychiatrist for  his low confidence and introvert nature. Special attention  should  be  given  by  his  parents  towards  his  extra- curricular activities.
  • Teachers of the school should give special attention in some context. If he is not co-operating with teachers in class, then they should apply different methods to make him strong.
  • Sometimes remedial  classes  should  be  taken  for  him  at  school  by  the teachers.

CONCLUSIVE REMARKS

This study is basically about a student of 13 years of age who is studying in class VII of XYZ English School. Through this study, I have tried to find out the problems that the boy is dealing with. During the four months of my internship period, I have come across about his shy and introvert nature.

From his family members I have come to know that the boy is very shy and introvert in  nature  from  his  childhood.  In  this  study,  I  have  find  out  some  possible reasons for his shy and introvert nature and also I have given some suggestions and recommendations of his problem through which he can overcome from his problem and can achieve a better future.

Emphasis – Extensive and detailed study or knowledge. Consent – Approval, support.

Assumption – A thing that is accepted as true. Apprise – Inform or notify.

Withdraw – Remove or take away.

Rationale – A set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or belief.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

Blaike Norman,  “Designing  social  research  the  logic  of  anticipation”,

UK, Polity Press, 2000

Saikia Dr Mukl, “Action Research”, Guwahati Chitrachal Printers, 2014

“Case studies in Educational Psychology” – Frank D. Adame

So that sums up the case study report for B.ed. Hope you like it.

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Better the education better the job is., case study: writing a case study for b.ed. third year tu.

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Dotnepal presents its collection of Educational Materials such as thesis, proposals, case studies for the Inter, Bachelor, Master level students to empower them in writing skills, provide them with sample notes. Here we go with B.Ed. Third year Case Study for B.Ed. program in TU:

A Case Study Report of

Taudaha Rastriya H.S School Taudaha, Kirtipur (2009).

Submitted to

Tribhuwan University Faculty of Education

Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Kathmandu

Partial fulfillment of B.Ed. third year (English Department)

Teaching practice

Presented by

B.Ed third year

Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Kathmandu.

Campus Roll No.

T.U. Regd. No.9-2-55-797-

  • Background of the study                                               1
  • Significance of the study                                               1
  • Statement of the problem                                             2
  • Objectives of the study                                                   2
  • Delimitation of the study                                               3
  • Methodology of the study                                              3
  • Conclusion of the study                                                  9

Annex A                                                                                          

Background of the study.

Case study is an investigative task that is to be done by every student teacher during his/her practice teaching in school This is an investigative study of a student about his / her different aspects to find out the strengths or weakness of the student and to find out the solutions for solving the problems. As a student of B.Ed. III year, I also went to Taudaha H.S School, Kathmandu for my practice teaching. During my practice teaching in the school, I taught in grade seven, I observed all of the students of the class. I selected one intelligent student of the class Mr. Bikash K.C Kapoor for the case study. I selected him because he is the most intelligent student in the class and he has secured the highest marks in him first terminal exam 2009.

Significance of the study

It is said, “A good teacher has to read every page of the students”. A teacher’s main task is to teach the students and make them learn new things. But the teacher cannot be always successful in achieving his goal because sometimes the students fail to learn what the teacher teaches. The teacher generally thinks that the students fail their examination because they do not care about their study. But this is not the sole cause of failure. There may be various causes of the failure. There may be some physical, psychological, economic, educational and environmental problems that create hindrance in study. If a teacher neglects all these factors of a student and confines his work just in teaching, his objective will never be achieved. So a teacher has to study all the relevant matters of the students that have been affecting in his/her study to treat him/her psychologically and diagnostically. Case study is an investigative and detail study of a student. It helps a teacher to get each and every detailed information about the student- personal, familial, social, educational, economic, etc. It helps the person, who studies, to find out the matters or causes that have helped or affected the study of the student. It helps to find out the psychological and other factors of the student that have been either assistance or hindrance in his/her study and other activities. A person can find the factors contributing to make a person either extra-ordinary or dull. It helps in treating the students diagnostically and psychologically providing feed back to the teacher. Such kind of study may help in the study and investigation of other similar students, too.

Statement of the problem

In course of practice teaching. I have taught in class seven in Taudaha H.S. School. Among 25 students, Mr. Bikash K.C one intelligent student has been selected for case study. He is the most intelligent student in the class. He has secured high marks in his first terminal examination 2009. The main objective of this study is to find out the reasons how Bikash K.C became an extra-ordinary and how he can do better than this. The study is concerned with the investigation of the factors that contribute to make his intelligent.

Objective of the study

A study or investigation without any objectives becomes haphazard and cannot meet its target. This study has been done taking certain objectives. The main objectives of this study are as follows:

  • To find out why Mr. Bikash K.C is an extra- ordinary student.
  • To find out the factors or matters that has been hindrance in his study.
  • To find out his family background.
  • To find out what his family’s economic condition is.
  • To find out the social and educational background of his family.
  • To find out what types of behaviors he performs with his peers and teachers.
  • To find out his educational status.
  • To suggest him to do better in future.
  • To suggest the teachers and his parents to improve his educational condition and activities.
  • To get feedback to treat the student psychologically and diagnostically.

Delimitation of the study

Every investigation has its own limitations. Due to limitation of time, money and labor, an investigator has to limit his/her study or investigation.  This study also has some limitations. An Investigator cannot study and investigate each and everything of a person. I have limited this study only to Mr. Bikash K.C. This study is confined within the personal, educational, familial, economic, psychological and behavioral aspects of Mr. Bikash K.C.

In course of this study, I have interviewed the student, his English teacher and the principal of the school. I have interviewed only few students of his class for this study. I have involved some other teachers of the school in this study. Other necessary information has been collected from observation of the student’s activities and behavior.

Methodology   of the study

Any study or investigation needs some data and information to find out the desired facts. Certain sources of data collection are to be consulted for data collection. There are different tools of data collection that are to be applied in the study during data collection. The sources of data, tools of data collection and methods of data collection applied in course of the study are listed below:

  • Sources of data collection

The following sources have been consulted as sources of data during the study to collect necessary data & information.

  • Mr. Bikash K.C. – the student himself.
  • Mr. Anil K.C. – the student’s father

iii. Mr. Sovit Ram Karki – the principal of the school.

  • Mr. Shatrughan pd.Singh- The subject teacher.
  • Staff of the school.
  • School Record

vii. The student’s peers of class 7 etc.

  • Tools of data collection

The following tools of data collection have been used in the data collection in this study:

  • Some questionnaires
  • Questionnaire forms

iii. Notes, etc.

  • Methods of data collection

The data and information have been collected applying the following methods:

  • Different questionnaires
  • Observation of the student’s activities and behaviors

iii. Interview with the teachers

  • Interview with the student’s peers
  • Face to face talk with the student, etc.

Interpretation and analysis of data

  • General introduction of the student

General introduction of the student has been given below

Name                             : Mr. Bikash K.C Kapoor

School                            : Shree Taudaha H.S School

Class                              : 7

Roll No.                         : 1

Gender                           : Male

Age                                : 13 years

Date of Birth                  : 01-05-2053

Religion                         : Hindu

Permanent Address        : Saibu Lalitpur

Temporary Address       : Saibu Lalitpur

Fathers’ Name                : Mr. Anil K.C Kapoor

Occupation                    : Businessman

Mother’s Name              : Ambika K.C Kapoor

Occupation                    : Housewife

No. of family members  : 5

Elder Brother                 : Bikkey K.C.

Name of Sister               : Anu K.C

Date of Admission         : 2060

Future Aim                    : To be an Pilot

Mr. Bikash K.C is a student of class 7 in Taudaha H.S School

He is the most intelligent student in the class. He was born on 1 st   Bhadra 2053B.S. as the second son of Mr. Anil K.C and Mrs. Ambika K.C in Kathmandu and has been living in Saibu, Kathmandu with his  parents elder sister and brother. His religion is Hindu. His father is a businessman and her mother is a housewife. Her elder sister and brother are students. His favorites subject is science, Nepali and English. His aim is to become an pilot.

  • Student’s familial background

According to the student, there are altogether 5 members in his family- father, mother, elder sister, elder brother and student himself. They are the residents of Kathmandu but have been living in Kathmandu. I have presented and analyzed the data about the educational and economical condition of the family.

i. Economic condition of the family

Main occupation:                              Temporary job.

Father’s occupation:                          Businessman

Mother’s occupation:                        Housewife

Monthly familial income:                  Tolerable

Source of income:                             Business

According to the student and his father, his father has a Business. Familial income is tolerable and the source of income is father’s business. According to them their economic status is medium.

ii. Educational condition of the family

According to the above data, his parents are Literate. His father is S.L.C passed. But according to the student himself, his father guides him and his sister and brother in their study.

iii. Student’s health condition

Height         :         4.5ft.

Weight        :         29 kg.

Eye sight     :         good

Hearing       :         good

Disease       :         normal health problem (sometimes)

From the above data, it is clear to see that his health condition is good. He is neither two fat nor to thin. He likes to have Nepali dishes and fruits. As a whole we can conclude that his study is not affected by his health.

3. Student’s activities in school and house

According to the principal of the school and gradate teacher of class he attends his classes most often. He is clever in other activities. He is neat and clean. He is serious in his study. He asks questions with the teachers only sometimes. He does his homework most often. Sometimes he participates in extra-curricular activities. He is co-operative, obedient and loyal to his teachers. His behavior with his friends is satisfactory. He does not   make noise in class and pays attention to the teachers and listens to them. I am also his English teacher. In my opinion, he is the most intelligent, obedient and loyal student.    According to his peers in the class, He sometimes talks in the class and makes noise. He pays attention to the teachers. He never disturbs others.

According to the student himself and his father, he spends most of his time in study and studies seriously. He studies four hours in house each day. During his examination, he studies for about 10 hours. His parents are helpful in activities of house. His father inspires him in his study and pays more attention to his study. His father says that he sometimes quarrels in house. Sometimes he listens to the radio, watching TV and plays some games, too.

Student’s discipline

According to the teachers and the peers of the student his discipline is Good. He respects his teacher and other seniors and loves the juniors. He loves and co-operates her friends. He is neat and clean. He does his homework regularly. He does not make noise in the classroom and pay attention to his study. But he is sometime bad tampered. It is his weakness.

Student’s educational condition

Here, I have presented the marks-sheet of Mr. Bikash K.C. of the first terminal examination of class 7 taken in 2009.

Percent: 60.48%

Division: First

Position: 1 st

Result: Passed

The marks show that he is very intelligent in his study. He had passed the first terminal exams of grade7 in 2009 and is studying in the same class now. This shows that his educational condition is very nice. In classroom also, he answers the question asked to him. He is intelligent and extra-ordinary.

Conclusion and suggestion

I completed the case study in short period but I tried to collect more data and information as far as possible. I studied and analyzed the available data information. The data and information show that Mr. Bikash K.C, a student of grade 7 in Taudaha H.S School and the younger son of Mr. Anil K.C and Mrs. Ambika K.C is very intelligent student in his study from the analysis of the data, I came to the conclusion that he has become an extra-ordinary in his study due to the following causes or reason:

  • He attends his class regularly.
  • He pays to his study. He does not make noise in the class and listens to the teacher.
  • He does his homework regularly.
  • The teachers pay more attention to the students personally.
  • His educational background is nice.
  • His father wants to make his son more educated person.
  • Suggestions

(i)      Suggestions for the school

The children are the pillars of nation. The children of today are the good citizens of future to handle the nation and drive the nation to its bright future. They need proper education today. Some students are extra-ordinary in every class. The teachers as well as parents should not leave them without any care. The student Bikash K.C is different from other students. His aim in future is to be a Pilot. He is in need of extra activity to achieve better result. I would like to give the following suggestions:

  • The school should manage enough instructional materials and educational programs in the school.
  • The school should give more emphasis to such students in teaching and learning and also in other extra-curricular activities.
  • The school should give more emphasis to students’ discipline.
  • The school should call the parents of the students and get information about the students. It should establish good relationship with the parents and should have mutual co-operation.
  • School administration should supervise teaching and other activities of the teachers and should provide necessary guidelines.
  • The teachers should pay more attention to such students and give more time for the students to practice.
  • Student-centered method in teaching and learning is more necessary in the school.
  • The teachers should discourage talking in the class and encourage practice, doing homework etc.

(ii)     Suggestions for the student’s family

  • The family should manage enough instructional materials for the student.
  • The parents should encourage him in his study and should discourage unnecessary activities.

 (iii)   Suggestions for the student

I want to give the following suggestions to the student Mr. Bikash K.C:

  • You should pay more attention to your study.
  • You should listen attentively to your teachers and should practice given homework.
  • Do your homework regularly and if you don’t understand anything, don’t hesitate to ask your teachers.
  • You should not talk in the classroom. You must be more serious towards your study. You have to reach your goal.
  • Give more time to your study.
  • Try to learn many things from your friends but don’t adopt bad things.
  • Take suggestions from your teachers and your parents to improve your educational condition.
  • Name of the student:                                                           Class:

Address:                                                                                            Roll No.:

Date of birth:                                                                                     School:

Father’s Name

Mother’s Name:

Weight of student:

Height of student:

Date of admission at school:

  • Other information

2.1 When did you start study at this school?

………………………………………………………………

2.2 Do you come to regularly?

  • always b. Seldom       c. mostly           d. rarely

2.3 What is your aim in life?

……………………………………………………………………………………….

2.4 Which subject do you like most?

…………………………………………………………………

2.5 How many hours do you study at home?

………………………………………………………………….

2.6 What do you do at home in your holiday?

2.7 Do you help your father mother? How?

2.8which book do read expect your textbook?

…………………………………………………………………….

  • English literature b. Nepali literature                 c. science
  • history e. mathematics        f. newspaper

2.9 do you watch TV?

  • always   b. mostly                        c. very little                                   d. never

2.10 do you watch TV? Which programmed do you like most?

……………………………………………………………………….

2.11do you do your homework given by the teacher?

2.12who is your best teacher?

2.13With whom do you ask if you get any confusion.

  • friends b. related subject teacher c . Father mother
  • brother sister e. tuition

2.14 How do you study at home?

  • alone b. with brother sister

2.15 What types of materials do the students need to study?

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.16 which subject is difficult to study for you?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

2.17 which is your favorite subject?

2.18 Which subject do you study much?

2.19 Which subject do you study less?

………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.20 What is your favorite game?

……………………………………………………………………..

2.21 Do you like music?

2.22 Do you fight with your brother and sister?

  • always b. seldom c. never

2.23 In which matter does you fight with your brother and sister?

………………………………………………………………………

2.24 Do your father –mother scolds you?

  • always b. seldom                         c. never

2.25Do you quarrel with your father and mother?

  • always                   b. seldom                         c. never         d. mostly

2.26What do your father and mother does if you quarrel with them?

  • scolding b. beating c. suggest                d. nothing

2.27Do you consult Doctor while you fall in sick?

………………………………………………………………………….

2.28 What do you have every day as your meal?

…………………………………………………………………………..

2.29What do you like to eat as your lunch?

………………………………………………………………………..

2.30How do you evaluate yourself?

  • Capable b. middle        c. common                   d. weak

2.31 How do your parents help you?

  • Remove confusion
  • Suggest to study
  • Buy necessary materials
  • Give money only

2.32 What do you do if you couldn’t understand the lesson taught by your teachers?

  • ask with teacher b. ask with students c. ask with father and mother

2.33 Tell your three good habits.

2.34 Tell your three bad habits.

2.35 Why didn’t you go to study in boarding school?

……………………………………………………………………………

2.36 Which colors do you like most?

2.37 Which animal do you like?

2.38 Tell the name of a great national hero?

2.39 What are the main qualities of a student?

2.40 Who is your favorite friend?

2.41 Do you like to have entertainment inside the classroom?

  • always b. never c. mostly       d. seldom

2.42 Do you fight with your friend?

2.43 Do you have to tell anything else?

For Subject Teacher:

Name of Student:

This Questionnaire is prepared for child study.

You are requested to fill up true answers only.

Name of teacher:

  • What three strong points do you see in your student?
  • What are the three weak points of Bikash K.C.?
  • Discipline of your student
  • quiet discipline b. good    c. well  d. well  e. Not at all
  • Regularity and punctuality of your student
  • always b. seldom   c. mostly
  • What suggestions do you give for his better performance?

Case Study in Nepali

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