- Understanding Poverty
Transforming the Urban Space Through Transit-Oriented Development: The 3V Approach
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Publication: Transit-Oriented Development Implementation Resources and Tools, 2nd Edition
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A framework to measure transit-oriented development around transit nodes: Case study of a mass rapid transit system in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Contributed equally to this work with: Md. Anwar Uddin, Md. Shamsul Hoque, Tahsin Tamanna, Saima Adiba
Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Software, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing
* E-mail: [email protected]
Affiliation Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Roles Conceptualization, Project administration, Supervision
Roles Data curation, Software
Affiliation Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Roles Data curation, Investigation, Software
Roles Writing – review & editing
¶ ‡ SMM and MSP also contributed equally to this work.
- Md. Anwar Uddin,
- Md. Shamsul Hoque,
- Tahsin Tamanna,
- Saima Adiba,
- Shah Md. Muniruzzaman,
- Mohammad Shahriyar Parvez
- Published: January 6, 2023
- Peer Review
- Reader Comments
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a tool that aids in achieving sustainable urban development. It promotes economic, environmental, and social sustainability by integrating land use and transportation planning. Many researchers have investigated mass rapid transit (MRT) station regions for TOD in developed cities. However, in a developing city such as Dhaka, measuring node-based TOD (TOD index) during MRT construction has been disregarded in planning future land use. Furthermore, no prior research on quantitative TOD measurement in Dhaka exists. As a result, we developed a framework for both quantitative and spatial node-based TOD measurement based on the four Ds (density, diversity, destination accessibility, and design) of the TOD concept. With 17 stations under construction, MRT 6 was selected as our study area. The TOD index was measured by nine indicators based on the four criteria (4Ds), spatially in the geographic information system (GIS). After calculating the indicators, the TOD index for each station’s 800m buffer was estimated using the spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA). A sensitivity analysis of four TOD scenarios was performed to check the model’s robustness. Additionally, a heatmap of the TOD index for MRT 6 was created for informed planning and policymaking. Furthermore, statistically significant hotspots (both Getis Org Gi* and Anselen Local Moran Statistics) and hotspot clusters were identified. Finally, we illustrate the station-based ranking based on the maximum TOD score. In addition, a detailed spider-web of nine indicators for 17 stations depicts sustainable TOD planning. However, regarding density and diversity, sustainable development and (re)development policies should be implemented not only for MRT 6 but for all Dhaka’s TOD regions.
Citation: Uddin MA, Hoque MS, Tamanna T, Adiba S, Muniruzzaman SM, Parvez MS (2023) A framework to measure transit-oriented development around transit nodes: Case study of a mass rapid transit system in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 18(1): e0280275. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0280275
Editor: Sheng Jin, Zhejiang University, CHINA
Received: July 18, 2022; Accepted: December 25, 2022; Published: January 6, 2023
Copyright: © 2023 Uddin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.
Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has been regarded as a planning strategy that focuses on coupling urban development and transportation around transit nodes while making environment-friendly modes more convenient and appealing for commuting [ 1 ]. TOD is also globally acceptable for addressing land use and transportation-related issues [ 2 ]. Interestingly, Calthorpe (1993) [ 3 ] referred to TOD as a “Pedestrian Pocket,” “Compact Neighborhood Development,” or simply an “Urban Village.” A few years later, Newman and Kenworthy (1996) [ 4 ] proposed a transit city with the characteristics of consolidated high-density, mixed-use development around transit terminals. Despite numerous concepts for TOD developed by different authors over time, the main goal is to reduce motorized journeys, increase the share of non-motorized travel, and decrease travel distances with aggravated vehicle occupancy levels. However, in the TOD concept, the transportation network is the backbone. As a result, prioritizing transit provides additional benefits that we hope to receive from TOD design. For example, according to Liang et al. (2022) [ 5 ], bus priority on the road decreases traffic congestion, resulting in increased fuel efficiency and environmental preservation. In addition, a dedicated transit lane with an optimized signalized environment increases traffic circulation efficiency for other connecting modes. Moreover, location of transit node plays an important role on traffic circulation and commuter satisfaction. Passengers reap the most significant benefits when transit stops are strategically placed before and after the signalized intersections [ 6 ].
The advantages of TOD include urban sustainability, reducing auto-dependent growth, well-planned and designed communities, more accessible public transit with convenience in walking and bicycling, and reducing auto utilization, obesity and other adverse health impacts. According to Singh et al. (2017) [ 7 ], TOD should be achieved by eight indicators of density, diversity, pedestrian-friendly urban design, regional development supporting TOD, higher ridership, user-friendly transit system, enhanced connectivity for more accessibility, public transport for longer commutes with additional parking supplies. So, these indicators should be considered to capture the benefits mentioned earlier before implementing any TOD project. Moreover, TOD should be measured quantitatively around the transit nodes before implementing the projects in the real world. Evans and Pratt (2007) [ 8 ] highlighted that to evaluate the efficacy of TOD plans accurately, areas must also be assessed for their “TODness,” a quantitative measurement of TOD known as the TOD index. We can refer the term TODness as the degree of TOD. Zhou et al. (2019) [ 9 ] gave an elaborative definition of TODness. According to him, the magnitude to which the existing conditions of TOD sites fulfil accepted TOD principles frequently entailing significant expenditure and attention. The TOD principles include mixed and dense land use, accessibility, walking and cycling amenities, and compact development with pedestrian-friendly design. His definition also supports the idea of TODness given by Papa and Bertolini (2015) [ 10 ] and Singh et al. (2017) [ 7 ].
Some well-established studies on TOD measurement were conducted by Z. Li et al. (2019) [ 11 ], Motieyan and Mesgari (2018) [ 12 ], Singh et al. (2012, 2014, 2017) [ 7 , 13 , 14 ], Teklemariam and Shen (2020) [ 15 ] for developed cities. However, very few studies are available for developing cities. Such two studies on TOD measurement by Teklemariam & Shen (2020) [ 15 ] and Sulistyaningrum & Sumabrata, (2018) [ 16 ] are worth mentioning. Nevertheless, these studies are not well established. Five mass rapid transit (MRT) lines and two bus rapid transit (BRT) lines have been proposed for Dhaka, with MRT 6 and BRT 7 currently under construction [ 17 ]. Moreover, ten MRT/BRT hubs and four multi-modal hubs with high TOD potential have been proposed [ 18 ]. The missing link between these transit developments could be rediscovered with the prospect of TODness (TOD index). However, no TOD study has been conducted for Dhaka.
We worked on the MRT 6 in Dhaka to demonstrate how the TOD index may be used in node-wise TOD planning. The primary objectives of this paper are to measure the nodal TOD index by developing a framework for emerging cities, and to plan for TOD improvements within walking distance of the station areas based on the results. For nodal TOD index calculation, we use geographic information platforms to consider land use, demographics, and road network characteristics. Then, we identified proper TOD indicators concerning a developing city. Then we aggregated the indicators to get TOD criteria. Finally, we used a spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) to measure TOD index.
The contribution of this research work is the uniqueness of the method because it uses spatial platforms with subjectively defined multi-criteria analysis, and introduces a more established model for developing cities. Furthermore, no TOD index reference value is available for development or comparison of TOD model for Dhaka. Most importantly, MRT 6 is still in development, so no studoy of measuring TOD index has been conducted before construction. As a result, this study could serve as a foundation for TOD planning and a framework for measuring TODness for Dhaka’s mega transit projects.
In the following part, we review several literatures to find relevant indicators and criteria for nodal TOD measurement. Then, we establish the appropriate methodology for measuring the TOD index in the context of a developing metropolis. The next section analyzes the identified indicators while doing TOD index’s sensitivity, heatmap, hotspot analysis. The following section then elaborates on the findings and recommends station-specific planning solutions. Finally, we conclude this work.
This literature review section focuses on identifying the proper methodology for determining TOD in the context of a developing country. Firstly, we introduce TOD as a sustainable development tool. Then, a decent idea about TOD indicators is revealed based on TOD’s sustainability criteria and aims. Finally, a framework of measuring TOD in a spatial platform as better applicability for TOD calculation, TOD index measurement methodology is introduced.
Calthorpe (1993) [ 3 ] first introduced TOD as a dilemma to standard auto-dependent development. Since WWII, US cities have become increasingly auto-oriented due to rising automobile ownership, highway development, and dispersed transportation lines. A decade of vehicle reliance has resulted in traffic congestion, noise, health issues, and diminished social life [ 19 – 22 ]. New urbanism and innovative growth policies are reviving public transit in US cities and suburbs [ 23 ]. However, TOD is increasingly recognized internationally in regions of intensified urbanization and increased traffic congestion [ 24 ]. Therefore, assessing TOD is very critical for planning and policymaking.
One TOD development aim is to use low to high density, walkable neighborhoods with frequent transit stops. The advantages of TOD are access to public transit, fewer car emissions, and enhanced quality of life [ 7 ]. However, growing private car ownership is one of the most apparent trends today, and it is a significant issue for many communities. The environmental problems created by the considerable car ownership surges are crucial, yet the increasing number of automobiles may also generate some traffic and non-environmental issues [ 25 ]. Moreover, a lack of land use courtesies with massive auto-dependent development does planning and constructing public transportation networks challenging in developing nations. Therefore, land use and transportation planning must be combined to speed up sustainable urban development choices [ 26 ].
As sustainable urban is one of the primary focuses of this research, we have to gain pieces of knowledge about sustainable development. “Sustainable development” or “Sustainability” can be traced to a conference held in Montreal in 1969 by the United Nations, described as finding the highest quality of life for all people and their surroundings concerning the natural resources and the environment [ 27 ]. However, a new definition emerged at that time, like “our shared future” on the Brundtland hypothesis. Concerning sustainable development, mass transportation is quintessential because it inflates the expanse of activity and gives more latitude to the individual [ 28 ]. Therefore, there is a need to balance people’s freedom of movement and resource utilization. Mobility allows them to access additional economic options, promoting increased exorbitance. One possible solution is to make company resources more accessible to the public without reducing automobile use. The three sustainable development aims of conservation, usage, and promotion will boost the economy and keep the world in check. Using technology and pricing, including land use, and decreasing cost promotions are often imminent for sustainable transportation practices [ 29 ]. Each plan integrates economics, environment, housing, and transportation, while more system overlaps.
So, addressing the issues related to achieving sustainability, the solution is transit-oriented development. People congregate when jobs and housing are close, and transportation is easily accessible. Applications like these can help achieve sustained growth. Also, it should be kept in mind that TOD and sustainable development are compatible [ 30 ]. According to Zuidgeest and Maarseveen (2000) [ 31 ], new facilities must be built for sustainable growth. Nevertheless, public transit networks meet citizens’ mobility, accessibility, and security needs. Moreover, TOD introduces sustainable development insight and sustainable mobility options. However, one of the most critical concerns on sustainability by TOD has been identified by critics recently is TOD induced gentrification But, Padeiro et al. (2019) [ 32 ] argued about that and asserted that the evidence for the gentrification by TOD is ambiguous and not conclusive. So, we can introduce TOD as the most reliable sustainable tool for urban and transport development. Here, Li and Lai’s (2009) [ 33 ] aggrandization of the fundamental concepts of 3D with sustainable development strategy: density, diversity, and design is portrayed in Fig 1 .
- PPT PowerPoint slide
- PNG larger image
- TIFF original image
Source: [ 33 ].
However, with more countries beginning to implement TOD projects, it has become clear that the results may be reasonably variable, revealing that a project’s success would depend on a wide range of factors, trends, and complicated interrelationships between them [ 1 ]. So, measuring the efficacy of complex TOD projects is crucial. Various factors to measure TOD have been discovered over time, such as The 3Ds (density, diversity, and design) were identified by Calthorpe (1993) [ 3 ], Evans and Pratt (2007) [ 8 ], Renne (2009, 2016) [ 34 , 35 ], and Ewing and Cervero (2010) [ 36 ] as critical factors for TOD measurement. Cervero and Kockelman’s (1997) [ 37 ] study also used the three indicators to assess TOD. However, they were unable to assess TOD. Renne and Wells (2005) [ 38 ] and Evans and Pratt (2007) [ 8 ] identified three indicators of TOD economic development. However, Bertolini (1999) [ 39 ] emphasized the critical importance of economic indicators before them. As a result, to provide a valid assessment of a TOD, a measure of the 3Ds and economic progress must be included. Finally, Evans et al. (2007) [ 8 ] pioneered the “TOD index” to evaluate a practical TOD project. They took both travel and land use into account. It then added a fourth dimension to Cervero and Kockelman’s (1997) [ 37 ] three-dimensional model, which was used to assess the feasibility of a TOD. On the other hand, Singh et al. (2017) [ 7 ] developed eight standards based on the eight rules, which include population density, land use diversity, quality of walking and cycling routes, job creation, number of passengers during peak and off-peak hours, good accessibility of the public transportation system, location of the node, and parking near the node. Moreover, Liu et al. (2020) [ 2 ] introduced a new concept named Corridor TOD (CTOD), which expands on the typical nodal TOD idea and practice by capturing corridor level interactions between individual TOD nodes and incorporating economic, social, and environmental variables alongside physical planner/design aspects. Whereas, Niu et al. (2021) [ 40 ] introduced Green TOD (GTOD) concept by coupling green urbanism theories and the 5D framework to establish a technique for evaluating the GTOD built environment, based on density, diversity, design, destination and distance.
According to Belzer and Autler (2002) [ 41 ], TOD usually emphasizes the physical form or appearance of the project rather than the purpose for which it is designed. Therefore, they proposed the Station Level Application Criteria (SLAC). They believed they could demonstrate TOD’s full potential on a regional scale. Nonetheless, Dittmar and Poticha (2004) [ 42 ] used SLAC based on some performance criteria. They emphasized gathering quantitative data on each outcome to calculate these criteria. Nevertheless, these criteria are data-intensive and frequently impossible to obtain. As a result, Renne (2007) [ 43 ] advocated two strategies: the Regional Performance Approach (RPA) and the Community Performance Approach (CPA). Using these methods, he attempted to evaluate the design viability of TOD. However, Singh et al. (2014) [ 14 ] proposed two indices for measuring TOD: the actual TOD index and the potential TOD index. The actual TOD index, by definition, examines how much current TOD exists near transportation facilities, specifically within 800m of the station’s buffer. On the other hand, the potential TOD index measures accessibility on a regional scale. The actual TOD index for each station’s buffer has been determined by this study (800 m). Renne (2016) [ 35 ] stressed the significance of stakeholders’ perspectives on TOD measurement. Moreover, He emphasized the Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) guidelines for calculating the TOD. Ibraeva et al. (2020) [ 1 ] also discovered obstacles in bringing together multidisciplinary stakeholders in one frame to create user-friendly decision support systems.
After discussing various TOD measurement methods, spatially explicit analyses of tool-oriented design are necessary. City form should also be visualized for public participation in the planning process [ 44 ]. Therefore, TOD planning requires a spatial analytical platform (SAP). SAP offers numerous benefits. First, spatial analyses consisting of maps and plans are necessary when negotiating TOD. Second, TOD should include catchment areas for the neighborhood’s various transportation systems. Third, these areas must be within a 250–500 m radius of the transit station or stop. Finally, non-geographical indicators can be viewed with a Geographic Information System (GIS) application [ 13 ].
Nevertheless, the decision-making framework is essential for this research. In this framework, people make decisions when they want to act or not based on prescriptive and normative theory. The perceptive theory focuses on decision execution, while normative theory focuses on what decisions should be made. Both approaches use math to simulate and analyze the decision-making environment [ 45 ]. Therefore, Beukes et al. (2011) [ 46 ] adopted a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology to identify the ideal solution. Usually, MCDM differs from portfolio selection by using qualities to identify alternatives [ 47 ]. So, GIS analysis is strongly recommended because of its strength in automating, analyzing, and administering geographic data. In addition, GIS is a form of data integration designed to improve decision-making, according to Cowen (1998) [ 48 ]. Likewise, most spatial decisions involve location. A previous study found that choosing the best option from a set of options and criteria is part of decision making. So, GIS can help with alternatives and decision criteria. A spatial multi-criteria evaluation strategy using GIS and MCDM is called spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) [ 49 ]. Fig 2 illustrates the steps linked to performing the SMCA. First, SMCA’s primary goal is divided into subgoals, criteria, and indicators. Then, each indicator is linked to these weights once measured. From these weights and values, a composite value is calculated. This number dissolves the target.
Source: [ 50 ].
The components that drive transit-oriented development must be assessed and aggregated to measure TOD near transit nodes. Moreover, other spatial and non-spatial variables can be employed to generate unique solutions. Thus, the index should contain both spatial and non-spatial indicators. However, as a potentiality check was conducted based on existing land use around the stations, which have not been operational yet, spatial variables were our fundamental concerns.
Identifying TOD indicators
As previously discussed in the literature review, the following rules have been used for urban development and transit characteristics as they relate to an area’s overall level of TOD:
- Rule 1. The growth of urban densities is the key to fostering new TOD.
- Rule 2. Placement of various land uses and the diversity of the land uses would result in a dynamic environment from a single location.
- Rule 3. More equitable and robust connectivity with walking and cycling and a greater frequency of service improve the development of a TOD.
- Rule 4. Open space with ample parking for bikes and cars would empower more individuals to travel via public transit for longer trips.
Four rules have been matched with four criteria (4Ds). As a result, indicators were used to evaluate each of the four criteria. Furthermore, several well-known and widely used indicator variables used in several successful TOD case studies have been identified by Balz and Schrijnen (2009) [ 51 ], Lindau et al. (2010) [ 52 ], and Newman (2009) [ 53 ]. Table 1 depicts the criteria and indicators with reference and index.
Calculating TOD indicators
To determine the TOD index, the TOD indicators have been calculated first. As 17 stations have been chosen for node-based TOD index calculation, a buffer radius of 800 m has been used around each station. The reason behind choosing an 800m buffer is that even while most of the neighborhood types currently have densities and mixed-land uses equivalent to other TOD cities in Asia, those within the standard zone (800 m) from MRT have considerable potential for TOD planning [ 54 ]. After evaluating vector data, raster maps of all indicators were generated. Fig 3 depicts the vector maps of Pallabi station’s land use, road network, and building footprint representative of 17 stations (GIS shapefiles of all other 16 stations’ land use, road network, and building footprint for Fig 3 have been provided in S1 File ). To determine the TOD for each grid cell (GC), the buffer area (BA) has been subdivided into GCs, ensuring that the GC size is neither too large nor too small through an index calculation. Different grid tessellations (GT) of 100x100m, 200x200m, 300x300m, and 500x500m have been investigated for this study. Singh et al. (2015) [ 55 ] examined a 1000 km 2 region using a 300 x 300 m grid. In this study, the buffer area of each station is approximately 2.011 km 2 ; a 300x300m buffer grid cell (BGC) with approximately 224 BGCs has been used in each station buffer (SB). The selected GT is more suitable for this research study, and according to Singh et al. (2015) [ 55 ], it is computational efficiency.
Vector maps of Pallabi station’s buffer: (a) Land use (Source: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/search/dataset/0039604 , CC BY- 4.0 and https://apps.nationalmap.gov/viewer ), (b) Building footprint (Source: https://apps.nationalmap.gov/viewer ), and (c) Road network (Source: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/search/dataset/0042062 , CC BY- 4.0 and https://apps.nationalmap.gov/viewer ).
Furthermore, unlike traditional TOD developments, specific TOD areas have been covered by a 500-meter walking distance. The National Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Policy defines the influence zone of TOD as 500–800 m if the station spacing is approximately 1 km. If the station spacing is less than 1 km, the influence zone becomes 500 m because of overlapping [ 56 ]. Moreover, according to TOD standard framework by Institute for Transit Development & Policy (ITDP), within a 5 km radius, rapid transit connections with frequent bus stops should be accessible at around 500 m. However, as our study is for a developing south Asian city, we take the guideline of Cochin and Mumbai city metro by considering various south Asian city’s guidelines. The influence area for these two cities has been adopted as a 500 m buffer for Both cities [ 57 ]. As both cities are densely populated, like Dhaka, we take their guideline for our analysis radius. As a result, the following measures were implemented to allow for a 500 m radius analysis window around the cell centroid (CC). First, the TOD Service Cell (TSC) area was used instead of the BGC area to calculate the indicators. The TSC is the influence area of each BGC that serves a specific cell within a 500 m buffer. The TSC covers 0.79 km 2 . Then, the calculated TSC indicator value was then delineated as the corresponding BGC value. As a result, the index of that specific BGC was calculated using all the indicators measured from each BGC value.
Population density (PD).
PD was estimated using population data from the BBS (2015). The population per km 2 of each neighborhood has been calculated using population data. For the 100x100m BGC TSC, data apportionment was used to split each community’s population and apply it to the TSC area. Building footprint and land use data have also been used for apportionment based on the percentage of land occupied by residential building footprints in the community’s geographic area. However, a reference value of PD is necessary for ideal TOD planning. According to the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) [ 58 ], PD of min 135 persons/acre, 100–145 persons/acre, and 80–135 persons/acre is ideal for urban core, urban general, and suburban areas respectively considering TOD.
Commercial density (CD).
The building footprints of commercial structures were used for data apportionment, and CD was calculated as the number of commercial enterprises per km 2 . The FDOT [ 58 ] recommends a commercial spaces-housing ratio of 10 commercial spaces per dwelling unit in urban cores and 5 commercial spaces per dwelling unit in other metropolitan regions.
Employment density (ED).
ED was calculated by dividing the number of employees per km 2 by the same method used to calculate the other two density measures. In this case, non-residential building footprints were used to compute data apportionments. Nevertheless, FDOT recommends the ED value of min 1000 jobs/acre, 190 to 250 jobs/acre and 35 to 80 jobs/acre for urban core, urban general and suburban areas respectively [ 58 ].
Land use diversity (LUD).
The LUD aims to estimate the variety of land uses within a specific region and how they are geographically distributed within that land area [ 55 ]. It also includes a variety of lands used in various types of dense metropolitan areas. The level of variety in this study was measured using the term “entropy,” which was previously modified by Eck and Koomen (2008) [ 59 ] and diversity has been depicted in the following 2 equations.
LU d ( i ) = land use diversity in the analysis area i
lu i = land use class (1,2,……, n) within analysis area i
S i = The entire realm of analysis i
A score of 0 on diversity shows the absence of land use, whereas a value of 1 represents the balanced land use. Only the benefits of urban land, including residential, commercial/industrial, business/retail, educational, recreational, and others, have been considered during this computation.
Land use mixedness (LUM).
LUM considers the accessibility of nearby destinations. A disparity exists between various land uses and diverse land uses. Trip destinations, including business and leisure, can be reached on foot with enough nearby mixed-use developments. The LUM was calculated using Zhang and Guindon’s (2006) [ 60 ] findings using the following equation.
MI ( i ) = Mixedness Index
L 0 = Non-residential land uses for each TSC j
L r = Residential land uses for each TSC j
MI values may range from 0 to 1, MI value of 0.5 suggesting a 50/50 split between residential and other land uses. However, FDOT recommends 20/80, 50/50, 70/30 split between residential and non-residential land uses for urban core, urban general and suburban areas respectively [ 58 ].
Intersection density (ID).
Intersections and route length measure walkability. High-intersection regions have shorter walking distances. So, the number of junctions per km 2 from the road network data has been used to calculate the ID in the analysis area.
Length of walkable/cyclable paths (LWC).
The number of pedestrian and cycle-accessible roads near each transit station determines walkable areas. Typically, distances are measured in meters. A road network’s design assumes vehicles will travel at a moderate speed. These roads were excluded from the road network data because they pose a risk to pedestrians and cyclists. Schlossberg and Brown (2004) [ 44 ] implemented a reclassification system for the road network, estimating walkable and cyclable paths by determining connectable road segment lengths. Using this method, the study reclassified roads based on walkability and cyclability.
Parking utilization (PU).
Dhaka’s parking should be used more efficiently. Large parking lots near transit hubs may lead to excessive driving, so optimizing parking spaces is critical. Conversely, small parking lots can be counterproductive. Monitoring parking occupancy can identify stations with limited parking and decide whether to add retailers or bike parking (if required). However, one study by Ewing et al., 2021 [ 61 ] showed a dilemma among shared, residential, and rented parking spaces in which 51.2%–84.0% of parking spaces were filled during the peak demand near the transit hubs. So, concerning the importance of PU, this study has used GIS and OSM to investigate surface parking (SP) around transit nodes. However, FDOT recommends surface parking of maximum 10%, 70% and 80% of total area for urban core, urban general and suburban areas respectively [ 58 ].
Open/Green spaces (OGS).
Designing optimized amenities and open/public spaces around the transit hubs is critical to creating a liveable environment. According to Appleyard et al. (2019) [ 62 ], individuals’ and society’s overall well-being are positively correlated with stations having higher livability ratings. A pleasing design also impacts the city’s overall quality and helps improve public transit hubs. However, GTOD, introduced by Niu et al. (2021) [ 40 ], expounds on environmental and ecological components emphasizing urban green space (part of green urbanism) and sustainability. Therefore, sustainable criteria OGS has been extracted from existing land use data.
Calculation of TOD index
All spatial indicators related to TOD’s 4D concept (Density, Diversity, Destination Accessibility, and Design) were used in this study. The Quantum GIS (QGIS) 3.22 and Aeronautical Reconnaissance Coverage Map (ArcMap) 10.3 tools were used to calculate and aggregate the indicators. For the SMCA analysis, TerrSet 2020’s IDRISI GIS Analysis was used. The index was created using both vector and raster data formats. When calculating indicators, vector data has some advantages over raster data. Such as:
- Highways and parcels have irregular vector shapes. TOD uses topology and network analysis. As a result, indicators can be analyzed as vector data, which is easier and faster. [ 63 , 64 ].
- Neighborhoods and district divisions collect urban planning data. Vector space is more compatible than raster space due to socioeconomic homogeneity [ 12 ].
However, raster is preferred over vector for calculating the TOD index. IDRISI’s TOD index requires 100x100 raster input. SMCA raster output was used to create heatmaps. This paper combines vector and raster data to make it easier and faster to figure out the TOD index.
Notably, the aggregation of indicators requires the same unit. However, our SMCA indicators have different units. So, all indicators have been standardized using the maximum standardization technique (MST) to give them the same unit. In addition, MST has applied a 0–1 gradient to all values. Usually, the gradient shows how each indicator affects the TOD index. However, a consolidation of ‘benefit’ and ‘cost’ has been used to account for mixed land use, allowing the index to behave as a ‘benefit’ until 0.5. When the value exceeds 0.5, it becomes a “cost” for the index and lowers TOD [ 14 ].
The adopted indicators have been balanced after standardization. Then each criterion was weighted. Typically, each weight indicates the criterion’s importance for the TOD. So, the criteria and indicators have been arranged in order of their importance. However, not every indicator will be linked to TOD rationalization in any project. As stakeholders have different perceptions, the weightings reflect that. According to MCA principles, the indicator weighting is computed before the TOD index. Planners, academics, and community members are often weighed in [ 7 ]. Therefore, academicians from different universities in Dhaka and personnel from DMTCL have been selected as stakeholders in this research.
Respondents were asked to prioritize the TOD index indicators. As a result, respondents assigned a weight to a criterion indicator. Next, Reilly’s (2002) [ 65 ] numbers were combined using a “Borda Count” process. The “importance” options were then sorted according to “importance.” Following order management, the participant’s first option received a single score of “n,” their second option received a score of “n minus 1,” and so on. Finally, the ranks of all respondents were converted to a score for each “candidate,” which was then added together. The candidate with the highest rank received the highest score, while the candidate with the lowest rank received the lowest. The final weights were computed using the rank-sum method and a modification of Singh et al. (2015) [ 55 ] (Table A in S1 Table ). This modified rank-sum approach has been depicted the following equation.
W k = normalized weight for the criterion with rank k
n = total number of criteria in the set
i = index of summation that takes the value from 1 to n
Finally, the weights were loaded into IDRISI, and TOD index maps were generated. Model robustness is vital for SMCA, so sensitivity analysis with some alternative scenarios was performed. Fig 4 depicts a detailed framework for calculating the TOD index using SMCA.
The MRT 6, which is currently undergoing implementation in Dhaka, has been selected to measure the Node-based TOD index. MRT 6 already has seventeen planned stations (nodes). Therefore, the “area of analysis” should be defined to measure TOD near each transit node accurately. Furthermore, TOD is based on creating walkable neighborhoods [ 3 ]. Therefore, we reviewed additional literature to determine the appropriate walking distance. It varies between 250 and 800 meters based on location and demographics. Nevertheless, Singh et al. (2017) [ 7 ] state that a 10-minute walking radius from the station hub should be used to measure TODness. Therefore, we have decided on an 800 m (10-minute walk) buffer between each station ( Fig 5 ) (GIS shapefiles of 17 stations for Fig 5 have been provided in S2 File ).
Figure is similar but not identical to the original image and is therefore for representative purposes only.
To conduct this research, accurate and sincere data collection was performed. In addition, secondary data sources consisting primarily of precise and trustworthy information were utilized. Table 2 depicts the secondary data sources with their corresponding parameters for analysis.
Result analysis and findings
Firstly, a correlation analysis of the indicators has been conducted in this section. The correlation analysis will give insights into the relationship among the indicators, which will help planners and policymakers with proper TOD planning. Secondly, a sensitivity analysis has been executed. Typically, different scenarios are developed with different weightage in a sensitivity analysis. The reason for performing this analysis is that the SMCA is widely regarded as an effective tool for resolving spatial choice quandaries. However, its use of probable outcomes has been called into question [ 66 ]. In addition, some uncertainty is associated with the weights provided by those who lack extensive experience and knowledge [ 67 ]. So, from different scenarios with weightage, we can know the criteria of TOD changes to confirm how robust the model is. Then, a heatmap of the TOD index has been created, which will help the policymakers and urban-transport planners identify the high TOD zones for MRT 6. As a result, there will be alternative options for them to choose the situation better and implement it for a greater purpose. Moreover, a hotspot with spatial autocorrelation has been performed in this analysis for preliminary planning. These hotspot maps will be valuable for proper land use policymaking for the buffer of individual stations. Finally, the ranking of the stations based on the max TOD index has been performed to help policymakers to decide which buffer areas need more concern for TOD improvements.
Correlation analysis of indicators
Fig 6 depicts the partial correlation of nine indicators. There is a strong positive correlation between intersection density and the length of walking or cycling paths. The correlation value is 0.88, indicating that more road intersections provide more accessible walking and cycling paths. Intersecting density is also strongly related to population and employment density. It implies that improved accessibility will result in more jobs and, thus, more people will live nearby. Moreover, the TOD design requirements link well with the diversity indicator. However, an intense negative correlation between land use mixedness and population density has been noticed, suggesting that more people living near TOD stations will have a less balanced land use mix. Residential land use should be balanced with other land uses. For the people serviced by the buffer area of each TOD station, a mix of commercial, industrial, and other land uses with residential land uses will provide a more balanced environment. The relationship between indicators can help policymakers consider transportation and land use in TOD development.
Sensitivity analysis of TOD index
Standardized values of nine indicators (85 th percentile values of all BGCs) have been represented in Table 3 to calculate the TOD index. These values can be used for vivid inferences of the TOD index with the indicators and recommendations for sustainable TOD policies. Moreover, standardization of indicators is a necessary part of the SMCA analysis.
From Table 3 , it has been found that the population density for all the stations ranges from 0 to 0.90. Moreover, for commercial and employment density, the standardized value ranges from 0 to 0.92 and 0.87. However, the maximum and minimum values for diversity are 0.54 and 1.0. However, maximum values for accessibility indicators such as mixedness, length of walkable/cyclable paths, and intersection density are 1.0, 0.91, and 0.87, respectively. Interestingly, there is zero parking space for almost all stations except Bijoy Sarani, Farmgate, Shahbag, BD Secretariat, and DU stations. The maximum value for open space is 1.0 for the maximum number of stations on MRT 6, and the minimum value is 0.11 for Uttara South station.
For sensitivity analysis, different weights were applied to each scenario to calculate the TOD index, with a ranking of the criteria ( Table 4 ). It should be noted that no reference weightage value has yet been developed for Dhaka’s TOD measurement. Furthermore, the exercise of assigning weightage is subjective. The weightage assigned to the analysis can change over time or in different environments. So, changing the weightage within a range [ 67 ] is beneficial for using sensitivity analysis.
However, from Table 4 , it has been found that scenario highest weightage is given to density and land use diversity (0.35) and minimum weightage is given to design (0.10) for base. Similarly, for scenario 2 and 3, maximum and minimum weightage is given to same as base scenario. But maximum weightage value is 0.40 in both cases. For scenario 3, maximum and minimum weightage is given to land use diversity (0.40) and design (0.1) respectively. It is noted that the weightage is given based on different ranking by modified rank-sum approach.
The descriptive statistic of the TOD index of four scenarios for the 17 stations of the MRT line was calculated ( Table 5 ). A comparative study among the stations can be inferred for the MRT 6 with the maximum and lowest TODness. As the reference value of the TOD index is absent for Dhaka, the index can be compared for a similar group of criteria, similar purposes, and the same input parameters. As this study was conducted for the first time and no reference value is available for Dhaka, our TOD index can be a reference source for better TOD planning in the future.
From Table 5 , the maximum TOD index value for all 17 stations was observed within a reasonable range. We can observe that the highest deviation of the max value of the TOD index has ranged from 0.441 to 0.569. However, the max value varies for the stations. The max value ranges from 0.521 to 0.871 for the base scenario. However, for scenarios 1, 2, and 3, the maximum value range is 0.441 to 0.859, 0.473 to 872, and 0.561 to 0.871, respectively. Interestingly, the min value of the TOD index for all stations is 0. Moreover, the highest deviation of the mean value has ranged from 0.333 to 0.379, which is within the allowable limit. Nevertheless, the range of the mean value for the base scenario, scenarios 1, 2 and 3 is 0.172 to 0.429, 0.169 to 0.420, 0.175 to 0.256, 0.163 to 0.427, and 0.183 to 0.43. The range of the max, min, and mean values designated for the stations is identical for all scenarios. It is also to be noted that the stations’ overall ranking for all four scenarios has remained identical, indicating that the sensitivity analysis does not affect the results. Last but not least, the sensitivity analysis shows that the framework for figuring out index values is strong [ 55 ].
Heatmap of TOD index
A pristine view of TODness in different stations of MRT 6 has been observed in the developed heat maps ( Fig 7 ) from the raster data of the TOD index (GIS shapefiles of TOD index heatmap of 17 stations for Fig 7 have been provided in S2 File ). The analysis shows that the buffers of multiple stations at some zones highly overlap. These are the high stimulus zones of TODness. Depot, Pallabi, Mirpur 11, Kazipara, Farmgate, Karwan Bazar, and Shahbag stations show potential zones for TOD. The statistically significant hotspots have also been identified to better understand buffer-based land use planning potentials.
Hotspot analysis of TOD index
First, the spatial correlation of the hotspot values of the TOD index must be calculated before hotspot analysis. The hotspot analysis will be robust if they are statistically significant. ArcGIS 10.3 has been used to calculate spatial autocorrelation.
Spatial correlation analysis.
In our autocorrelation, the null hypothesis is “the spatial distribution of the dataset is not clustered in nature”. However, in Fig 8 , it can be observed that the p-value is statistically significant, and the z-score is positive. Thus, the null hypothesis has been rejected. Therefore, the spatial distribution of high and low values of the dataset has been observed as more clustered than expected. So, underlying spatial processes are random [ 68 ].
Global Moran’s I index has been determined from this spatial statistical analysis. Global Moran’s I value is 0.564. This Moran’s index value is excellent. They range from -1 to 1. As the value is above 0.5, a good correlation can be inferred between the hotspots of the index [ 68 ].
Hotspots of TOD index.
Both Getis Ord Gi* and Anselin Local Moran’s statistical analyses have been performed in this research. Consequently, visual identification has been made from the hotspot map ( Fig 9 ) for the most TOD-influenced stations of MRT 6 (GIS shapefiles of TOD index hotspots of 17 stations for Fig 9 have been provided in S3 File ).
From Fig 9 , it has been found that Mirpur 11, 10, Kazipara, and Pallabi stations are significant for both Getis Ord Gi* and Anselin Local Moran’s statistical analysis, which have been identified as the hotspot clusters. So, it can be inferred that the buffers of these three stations depict the highest potential TOD hotspots. Also, some portions of the Depot, Farmgate, Shahbag, Agargaon, Karwan Bazar, and Motijheel stations show the potential TOD hotspots. The result of the analysis also supports the developed heatmap.
Ranking of stations based on max TOD index
TOD score of different stations varies from different scenarios. However, from sensitivity analysis, the fluctuation of the TOD scores shows reasonable limits. As the cell values differ in the same station buffers, the max value of the tod index has been taken for the analysis. The max value represents the individual station’s TOD value of the whole buffer. The TOD index max value map has been portrayed in Fig 10 (GIS shapefiles of max TOD of 17 stations for Fig 10 have been provided in S2 File ).
A detailed ranking of the stations ( Fig 11 ) has been made based on the max TOD index. Based on the ranking, the stations have been classified into three categories. Among the 17 nodal hubs of the MRT 6, five stations have been identified as top-ranked, seven as medium-ranked, and five as low-ranked.
Ranking of stations based on max TOD index for (a) Top-ranked, (b) Medium-ranked, (c) Low-ranked stations.
It has been observed that the top-ranked stations for all scenarios are Shahbag, Mirpur 11, Agargaon, Kazipara, and Mirpur 10 stations ( Fig 11 ). From hotspot analysis ( Fig 9 ), it can be augmented that three hotspot clusters, Mirpur 11, 10, and Kazipara, are the buffers of top-ranked stations resulting from the max TOD index ranking system. Pallabi, Farmgate, Kawran Bazar, Bijoy Sarani, Uttara Center, Uttara North, and Depot stations have been identified as medium-ranked stations. Based on TOD index scores, it can be concluded that BD Secretariat, Motijheel, Shewrapara, Uttar South, and DU stations are the low-scoring stations that need further improvement.
Spider-webs of indicators of all the stations based on TOD scores have been depicted in Fig 12 for more detailed TOD planning.
Web diagrams of TOD indicators of 17 stations–(a) Shahbag, (b) Mirpur 11, (c) Agargaon, (d) Kazipara, (e) Mirpur 10, (f) Pallabi, (g) Farmgate, (h) Karwan Bazar, (i) Bijoy Sarani, (j) Uttara Center, (k) Uttara North, (l) Depot, (m) BD Secretariat, (n) Motijheel, (o) Shewrapara, (p) Uttara South and (q) DU station (Arranged in order based on TOD score).
From Fig 12 , it has been observed that the maximum value of LUM, CD, and OGS has been observed for the Shahbag station, which is the highest scoring station. Whereas Mirpur 10 and 11 depict almost the same indicator value except for CD, Mirpur 11 shows more value for CD. The maximum potential indicators for the Agargaon station are OGS, LUM, and LUD. However, CD, OGS, and LWC are suitable indicators for the Kazipara station. However, as the lowest scoring stations, DU, Uttara South, Shewrapara, Motijheel, and BD Secretariat stations have different indicator values. The highest indicators for DU stations are OGS and PU. The Uttara south, Shewrapara, and BD Secretariat stations show the highest value for LUM. Moreover, the Motijheel station offers the highest OGS value. However, medium scoring stations show variable indicator values. Therefore, individual station-based indicator analysis for the medium scoring stations will not be significant to discuss. So, based on the findings, the highest and lowest scoring stations are more important than the medium-scoring stations.
TOD index values should be compared, considering local conditions to begin the TOD planning process for a city. The significant finding of this research is that the transit stations that serve many transportation modalities have high TOD index ratings. Most TOD serving stations are Shahbag, Mirpur 11, Agargaon, Kazipara, and Mirpur 10, with high index scores from analyses of all scenarios. Max score ranges from 0.81 to 0.87. These stations are the beating hearts of Dhaka, showing the most significant potential. These max TOD degrees have been found in Dhaka’s urban core stations. Typically, there is a consistent spatial pattern to the TOD degree in terms of its drop from the core to the periphery, regardless of city size [ 69 ]. However, to better plan, each station’s buffer area, the indicators’ values should also be considered. In addition, scores of the criteria such as land use diversity and density are greatly affected by the locations of the nodes, which means that the cost of current public transport services at these nodes is significantly higher than it is for other stations.
Sahabag station scoring 0.871 has a relatively high score among all stations, considered one of Dhaka’s important transport hubs. The reason behind high values can be the highest level of retail facilities being available in this area in Dhaka. Second suitable TOD scoring (0.836) stations is Mirpur 11. Commercial density (1.00) is also highest for this station. So the reasons of highest TOD for these stations support the findings of Ganning and Miller (2020) [ 70 ] that the TOD Index appears to be the main driver of greater retail activity, with a correlation to a higher level of activity density. Other two suitable stations for TOD identified as Kazipara (0.848) and Agargaon (0.844) stations. For both, OGS indicator is common. LWC, LUM and LUD are also important indicators for these high scoring stations. So LUM, LWC, LUD and OGS are the indicators that should be given more importance for TOD planning in Dhaka. OGS correlates positively with LUD indicating that diversity in land use planning will be suitable for livable neighborhoods for the residents. Another critical indicator LUM shows an intense negative correlation with PD, which suggests that more people living near TOD stations have a less balanced land use mix. Therefore, residential land use should be balanced with other land uses. However, a negative correlation of LUM with design indicators indicates that balanced mixedness in land use promotes more walking, cycling, and a livable environment. So, destination accessibility criteria for the LUM indicator should be improved to get more captivity from TOD development. Moreover, according to Zacharias and Zhao (2018) [ 71 ] wide, straight pedestrian routes should be provided to the train stations to improve local accessibility with consideration of design criteria. So, for TOD planning in Dhaka as a developing city, a pedestrian and cyclist-friendly livable community design should be encouraged.
However, the minor scoring station’s index must be observed to identify the criteria for sustainable land use planning for TOD. DU (0.521), Uttara South (0.540), Shewrapara (0.677), BD Secretariat (0.703), Motijheel (0.709), and stations are the lowest-scoring stations. These neighborhoods are primarily residential. Not all nearby transportation nodes have parking areas that accommodate vehicles and non-motorized users.
Regarding the environment, including parks and open spaces, not all stations have been able to keep up. The lowest score has been found for the DU station. From indicator analysis, it has been found that less diversity value (0.00) is behind it. Only educational land use has been observed, indicating that diverse land use balanced with residential will be most suitable for TODness.
In Dhaka, the essential criteria of MRT 6 for TOD are density. Therefore, planners and policymakers should emphasize density while considering TOD. The present land use scenario of Dhaka is densely developed. As this TOD index is the actual TOD scenario of Dhaka’s current land and transport condition, density is the primary supporting tool for TOD development in Dhaka city, which is the inherent strength of the urban form of Dhaka. Diversity is also essential for TOD development in Dhaka, especially for MRT line 6. However, according to Zaręba et al. (2019) [ 72 ], density, location efficacy, and redevelopment strategies are critical for sustainable planning. As density for our study has been more emphasized, redevelopment strategies should be recommended for MRT 6. For proper (re)development policies, according to Song et al., 2021 [ 73 ], institutional barriers should be overcome by land value capturing to make an integrated transit and land development. Moreover, Papagiannakis et al. (2021) [ 74 ] have also emphasized bypassing financial barriers for TOD. Given the high-density characteristics of these neighborhoods of MRT 6, TOD planning and policy in these areas should take lessons from Asian cities such as Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Seoul [ 54 ].
As accessibility is also a well-influencing factor in MRT 6 TOD strategy, accessibility is not in good shape in the adjacent buffer region of the individual MRT 6 station. Hence accessibility should be improved more to get more captivity from TOD development. On the other hand, design criteria influence less considering the present TOD scenario in Dhaka. The main reason is that as TOD hubs are not operational yet, design criteria will affect more towards TODness when more parking space is needed for the stations. Moreover, considering design criteria, to improve local accessibility, wide, straight pedestrian routes should be provided to the train stations [ 71 ].
However, we have proposed walking-based TOD; walking has a high positive correlation for MRT 6 with intersection density which supports most of the literature. Nevertheless, Zacharias and Zhao (2018) [ 71 ] argued that the density of intersections has a negative effect on walking distance, and the presence of commerce has a positive effect. In our case, both support the walking-based accessibility for the TOD. For MRT 6 buffer areas, a high rate of destination accessibility can occur in high commercial land uses with densified employment. High intersection density also increases accessibility and makes a more preferred walking environment.
Furthermore, in Curitiba, making traffic flow smoother, building and preserving affordable housing, and implementing zoning policies were successful. Zonal policies assist the mix of activities, which benefits the local economy and helps raise density. Moreover, regulating land use and urban planning at the zone level, assisted by zonal policies, encourages more people to use the local metro [ 71 ]. However, there is still room for residential and employment density (population and employment density indicators). In addition, pedestrians must be given priority. Moreover, low-cost housing and density should be given more emphasis.
To improve TODness at the node level, some strategies should be taken based on the indicators ( Fig 12 ) that have the most potential for improvement ( Table 6 ).
This paper has developed a framework for measuring TOD quantitatively (TOD index) around all transit nodes of MRT 6 in Dhaka using SMCA. Identifying useful indicators and criteria for MRT 6, quantitative analysis of them for proper correlation, analyzing them spatially station by station, developing a spatial model of TOD index with sensitivity analysis for the robustness of the model, creating heatmap and hotspots of TOD index, and station-based ranking with node level in detail analysis are the main contributory parts of this paper. This paper has also demonstrated how the TOD index is necessary for sustainable planning in a developing city like Dhaka, where no study on TOD has been conducted yet. The paper also demonstrates how the index compares the transit node areas over the urban form or region. Finally, following the analysis of the TOD index, it can be concluded that in Dhaka, MRT 6 development characteristics encourage TOD development. Planners and legislators should keep density in mind while making TOD decisions. Dhaka is heavily built, which provides a range of land use planning difficulties for the future. Due to the city’s high density, Dhaka’s land and transit provisions should be optimized in the TOD index. Moreover, the necessity for diversity is a paramount concern to successfully implementing TOD in Dhaka, especially in the Mass Rapid Transit line. Regarding density and diversity, sustainable development and (re)development policies should be applied not only for MRT 6 but also for the Dhaka regions where TOD represents the city’s future. However, some node, buffer area, and urban level development strategies can be implemented for long-term TOD planning. For example, the node-level policy includes preparing ahead of time for eki-naka development to prevent interrupting MRT routes and operations. Furthermore, buffer area level rules include modal transportation amenities, safety, comfort, and convenience for pedestrians, transit access, and park and ride. Finally, the incorporation of an official urban plan with the proposed MRT line, assimilation into the Detailed Area Plan (DAP) of the MRT district of Dhaka, and promotion of urban development along the transit corridor of Dhaka can be viable options for urban level development planning. Nevertheless, density zoning, reliable transportation infrastructure that fits new development trends, and land readjustment with acute phase development plans can all be recommended policies for (re)development.
Nevertheless, this paper has some limitations, which can be the steppingstone for the future scope of research. Firstly, station clustering was not done in this study for MRT 6. However, this clustering will give insight into node typology for indicator selection, index measurement, and decision making. So, this opens up another research opportunity for clustering TOD stations of MRT 6, which will improve TOD planning and implementation. Secondly, Once MR 6 stations are operational, non-spatial variables such as passenger information, transit fare, transit frequency, passenger boarding-alighting, station-based parking facilities, and amenities can be added to the model, expanding the research scope. Finally, according to Huang and Wey (2019) [ 75 ], ecological variety, available energy regeneration, and a habitable environment should be included in urban planning and design, not merely the sustainability aspect of traditional TOD.
S1 table. indicator weights with criteria..
S1 File. GIS shapefiles of land use, building footprint and road network of 17 stations.
S2 File. GIS shapefiles for MRT line 6 with 17 stations, heatmap, max TOD index.
S3 File. GIS shapefiles for TOD index hotspots.
The authors wish to acknowledge Md. Amin Al Noor for coordination on data collection for this research. We also thank the Editage for the proofreading and for giving proper suggestions for improvement of the abstract part of this paper. Finally, we appreciate anonymous reviewers’ comments to improve this paper’s quality.
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Original research article, quantitative evaluation of tod performance based on multi-source data: a case study of shanghai.
- 1 Department of Architecture, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
- 2 Key Laboratory of Ecology and Energy-Saving Study of Dense Habitat, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely adopted as a primary urban planning strategy to better integrate transit and land use; further, the pedestrian-oriented perspective has been receiving increasing attention. However, most studies so far have only focused on few features and fail to capture comprehensive perceptions in the transportation (T), pedestrian-oriented accessibility (O), and urban development (D) dimensions. New emerging urban datasets provide a more refined and systematic approach to quantify the characteristics of metro station areas. This study offers a more efficient and convenient process and comprehensive approach to measure TOD performance. With a combination of traditional data collected by an official department, high-resolution open data, and innovative technology, large-scale analyses of 347 metro stations in Shanghai were conducted. Fifteen indicators for T, O, and D were chosen to categorize TOD performance into five clusters. Radar charts, boxplots, and colored maps were used to display numerous quantitative factors for each type. Combining the results with the Shanghai Comprehensive Plan (2017–2035) showed that the majority of Cluster 4 is located at the center of the Five New Towns. The correlation analysis between ridership and TOD performance showed that the transportation dimension indicator has a strong correlation with daily ridership, followed by the O and D indicators. Moreover, ridership per capita was found to be affected by resident density, employment density, O value, and D value, whereas no significant correlation was found between ridership per capita and T value. Population plays a pivotal role in metro passenger traffic, indicating ridership per capita had a high, strong correlation with resident density, with R = 0.658 for weekdays and R = 0.654 for weekends. This study reinterpreted the node-place method and 5Ds framework, resulting in a renewal method with new datasets and analysis tools. It contributes to providing pedestrian-oriented TOD planning methodology for urban planners and policymakers by combining T, O, and D dimensions and visualizing the results with current urban planning.
China has undergone urbanization at an unprecedented rate over the last few decades. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, more than 60% of Chinese residents lived in cities in 2020, and this percentage is expected to rise to 70% by 2035 ( 1 , 2 ). The cities' general expansion usually leads to large-scale construction of transportation infrastructure as a result of the increasing travel distance ( 3 , 4 ). For example, urban rail transit is an effective alternative mode that can help mitigate the negative effects of rapid urbanization on the urban transportation system ( 5 – 7 ). Meanwhile, using transit and land-use integration (or “station-city integration”) to develop urban rail transit is one of the most effective strategies, and is frequently endorsed by policymakers ( 8 – 10 ). Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a common response to this integration ( 11 , 12 ), as it encourages maximizing urban development around public transportation stations and forming high-density communities with diverse functions and walkable environments ( 13 , 14 ).
In recent years, China has widely adopted TOD as a primary urban planning strategy ( 15 , 16 ). However, there is still significant progress to be made to achieve efficient TOD, due to the slow growth of theory and practice. In most of China's recent planning strategies, transit station characteristics have received overwhelming attention. In addition, profit-driven land development and fragmentary management have created institutional obstacles to integrating land use and transit ( 17 ). Therefore, governments and developers should sufficiently promote the concept of TOD in local contexts and improve their comprehensive understanding of this concept to better integrate transit and land-use ( 18 – 20 ).
Most recently, a rapid increase in quantitative analytical tools and new urban data have provided new research potential in urban transport research. In China, many pioneering studies utilized big data to access daily travel and activities at fine-grained spatial networks ( 17 , 21 ), and to understand how they interact with social, environmental, and urban forms ( 22 , 23 ). In terms of evaluating urban structure and function, some researchers identified work and home locations and commuting patterns ( 24 – 27 ), while others revealed the urban polycentric structure and function distribution ( 28 – 31 ). Nevertheless, the application of big data for measuring TOD performance has seldom been studied in China ( 32 ).
TOD performance can measure the extent of the existing integration of transit and land use, as well as other attributes, such as pedestrian friendliness, urban form, and quality of public facilities around TOD sites ( 33 , 34 ). Although several studies have generated many insights on quantifying TOD performance, little research has explored how new urban data could furnish unexpected outcomes and improvement. Multi-source urban data, including points of interest (PoIs), location-based service data, street view images (SVIs), and built environment data, offer a larger and more representative sample and a finer scale of spatiotemporal resolution ( 35 , 36 ). New technologies, such as machine learning algorithms and Spatial Design Network Analysis (sDNA) based on ArcGIS, provide novel analysis methods for quantifying the characteristics of road and pedestrian networks ( 37 , 38 ). This can help overcome some limitations of traditional data, including labor consumption, small samples, and low frequency.
In this context, Zhou analyzed a case of 167 metro stations in Shenzhen, combining traditional and non-traditional data (e.g., social media data, digital maps, PoIs, interviews, and surveys) to propose new indicators of TOD performance and its relationship to spatial and behavior characteristics ( 39 ). Nonetheless, this previous study mostly focused on transportation behavior on a citywide scale, paying less attention to pedestrian-oriented urban design as well as transit and land use integration. In addition, other quantitative studies have rarely examined TOD types and variations in China to further optimize future urban planning.
Thus, exploring how metro stations can be integrated into urban spaces under the concept of station-city integration, studying the relationship between transit nodes and urban places in-depth, and developing a quantitative synergy evaluation index via multi-source urban data are all crucial components of prioritizing sustainable transportation and realizing digital management.
The remainder of the article is organized as follows. Section 2 provides a review of the literature review on TOD performance, node-place model, and human-oriented indicators. Section 3 introduces the methods—the city sample, data, and analysis. Section 4 presents the results on five TOD types. Section 5 provides a discussion on urban planning implications and contributions. Finally, Section 6 presents conclusions and limitations.
2. Literature Review
Previous researchers have found that TOD typologies contribute to targeted strategies for TOD promotion ( 40 , 41 ), the identification of prevalent issues ( 42 , 43 ), and investment estimates ( 44 ). During the late 20th century, many researchers suggested the idea of mixed-use, compact developments with pedestrian-friendly built environments. The “3Ds” ( 45 )—density, diversity, and design—are commonly regarded as the most fundamental indicators for evaluating the TOD performance of railway station areas. However, by combining destination accessibility and distance to transit ( 46 ), the “5Ds” became more systematic standards.
The node-place theory provides a practical method for evaluating TOD performance based on travel demand (“node”) and land use (“place”) ( 47 ), which subsequent studies have referred to as the “T” (node) and “D” (place) dimensions, respectively ( 48 ). A node index was created using the connection, frequency, and diversity of transport services, while a location index was developed using factors such as the functional mixture, number of inhabitants, or number of employees. Five TOD typologies (i.e., balance, stress, dependency, unsustained place, and unsustained node) were identified when two indices were converted into an XY diagram. The station is defined as an “unsustained node” when T exceeds D. It is an “unsustained place” when D surpasses T. The node-place theory is capable of and effective in assessing the balance between transportation supply (T) and surrounding urban development (D) under the station-city integration concept.
However, locations in the node-place method were criticized for being Transit Adjacent Development (TAD), rather than TOD ( 49 , 50 ). Accordingly, a significant amount of research has introduced numerous modifications and extensions. Table 1 summarizes selected studies on the quantification of TOD performance. Notably, of the 27 publications, 14 referred to walking and pedestrian indicators. Among them, several researchers had introduced a new dimension to extend the classic “node-place” model. Vale ( 50 ) proposed the pedestrian shed ratio as a measure of pedestrian friendliness. Based on this, Lyu ( 48 ) established an additional “Oriented” (O) dimension of functional and morphological characteristics and selected 18 out of 94 systematic variables to assess Chinese context-based TOD in Beijing. Recent studies have extended “node-place” model to “node-tie-place” model ( 51 ) and “node-functionality-place” model ( 52 ) by adding functionality indicators ( 51 , 52 ). Moreover, several previous studies have also emphasized pedestrian-oriented perspective as an important dimension in transit station areas ( 11 , 39 , 53 – 58 ). Nevertheless, pedestrian-friendly dimension quantitative studies are rarely conducted to comprehensively examine the TOD performance.
Table 1 . Comparison of the indicators used in the reviewed literature to measure TOD performance.
Although many studies have begun to employ quantitative approaches to investigate the relationship between metro station accessibility and neighborhood vitality, a majority of them still rely on the traditional manually collected data. Thus, there is a need for a more systematic and human-oriented approach to evaluate TOD performance in metro station areas, especially in high-density cities. In this study, based on multi-source data and quantitative approach from the pedestrian-oriented perspective, we opted to combine the pedestrian-friendly dimension with T and D. With reference to earlier studies, we considered specific pedestrian-friendly features of the “oriented” dimension that can receive interventions by policymakers, urban planners, or designers as practical TOD planning tools.
3. Data and Methods
3.1 analytical framework.
The four key steps of the present study were data collection, element extraction, evaluation, measurement, and guidance ( Figure 1 ). First, metro lines and stations, 3D building information and PoIs, the third economic census, and the street network of Shanghai were gathered. Second, three critical TOD performance variables were extracted from the dataset. Each dimension was evaluated by five sub-indicators, the calculation details of which will be discussed later. Third, the evaluation process had two stages: (1) to create five TOD performance categories, hierarchical cluster analysis was utilized to organize the dataset into a cluster tree; (2) radar charts were then used to directly display numerous quantitative factors for each type. Therefore, a TOD performance measurement system was created to provide planners and policymakers with a better understanding of existing TOD and to diagnose common problems and design targeted policies for special station types.
Figure 1 . Analytic framework.
3.2 Study Area: Shanghai
Shanghai, China's metropolis, has what is officially the longest railway network worldwide ( 59 ). According to the Shanghai Transportation Industry Operation Bulletin, as of June 2021, the city has completed 460 metro stations and 19 lines, with a total operational length of 772 km. The metro railway is Shanghai's major mode of transportation, carrying over 10 million passengers each weekday. However, the performance and types of stations vary significantly, as do the surrounding land use and morphology. Thus, Shanghai provides a sufficient number of cases, and it is essential to analyze the TOD variants and typology to discover common problems and offer targeted strategies.
Local governors have introduced the TOD concept to land-use planning and adopted the TOD as a critical strategy for sustainable urban development. Recently, the Shanghai municipal government announced the Fourteenth 5-Year Plan for Shanghai Comprehensive Transportation Development, which emphasizes station-city integration as a more specific requirement for metro station construction. In particular, building a systematic and comprehensive transportation system for new towns is highlighted in this plan to achieve internal high-quality traffic ( 60 ). In addition, Shanghai has outlined its plan for digital transformation, aiming to become a global capital for digitization by 2,035. Therefore, a data-driven approach to systematically measuring TOD performance seems urgent for understanding and promoting better place-making.
3.3 Measuring TOD Performance via Three Dimensions
This study used Shanghai's existing metro stations in 2019 as cases, which comprised 347 metro stations and 18 metro lines ( Figure 2 ). In accordance with the TOD theory and comfortable walking distance in Shanghai ( 9 ), the research scope (RS) of the built environment surrounding each metro station was within a 500-meter radius. In the context of a Chinese city, Lyu ( 48 ) conducted a systematic review of TOD indicators and divided them into three categories. Considering the occurrence frequency of each indicator in earlier literature ( Table 1 ) and their data availability, we selected 15 indicators from three dimensions, “Transportation (T),” “Pedestrian-oriented (O),” and “Development (D),” to measure the TOD performance of the aforementioned stations ( Table 2 ). The T dimension represents transport development in metro station areas, D dimension reveals the land use development, and O dimension represents the pedestrian-oriented functional and morphological characteristics in metro station areas.
Figure 2 . The study area and 500 m metro service area.
Table 2 . Overview of indicators.
For three dimensions, with reference to the earlier literature ( 25 , 48 , 52 ), we first chose the indicators “Number of metro lines,” “Metro frequency,” “Accessibility (betweenness) of the metro station,” “Number of bus stops,” and “Number of parking lots” for T dimension; “Density of road network,” “Intersection density,” and “Number of entrances and exits” for O dimension; and “Function mixture,” “Employment density,” “Population density” for D dimension. Second, to show an overall character of walking capability around the metro station, we introduced new indicators to provide a more precise perspective; both O2-Density of pedestrian network and O3- Accessibility of pedestrian network were calculated by sDNA ( 61 ), based on pedestrian network from Baidu Map. Third, with the help of built environment data, we used “Floor area ratio and Density of PoIs” to enrich the “D” dimension.
Multi-sourced urban data, including traditional and non-traditional data, were collected to represent aforementioned indicators. For example, on the one hand, for non-traditional data, 77,724 street polyline from Open Street Map (OSM) (2019), 559,777 street polyline and 754,607 building plots data from Baidu maps API and Python (2019), and a total of more than 2.7 million PoIs data from Gaode Map (2019) were collected. On the other hand, traditional data provided by Shanghai metro official website and Shanghai census was used to represent the physical characteristics of metro stations and social attributes of surrounding blocks.
Then, further data preprocessing was conducted in ArcGIS. For building plots data, each building with a height below 3m or over Shanghai's highest building (640 m) was removed. For PoIs data, we deleted some unimportant information, retaining only the name, geographical location, and multilevel categories' fields. Next, repetitive records and any record with publication time after July 16, 2019 were deleted. As for multilevel categories of this PoIs dataset, we used the second-level category to sift out bus stations and parking plots. The top-level category, used to calculate function mixture, was grouped into nine categories according to the types of residents' daily activities and the actual functions of each PoIs, including residential communities, traffic facilities, commercial and business, tourist attractions, food and shopping, education facilities, government and public services, financial services, and public facilities ( 62 ). Among them, those in the commercial and business categories were replaced with the same type of Baidu PoIs, since each Gaode PoI in this category represents one shopping mall rather than an individual retail store by Baidu PoI.
Thereafter, all datasets were intersected with RS separately. As a result, 65,981 polylines and 154,480 building plots of Baidu Map, 20,465 polylines of OSM, and 169,168 PoIs of Gaode Map were extracted. In the finalized data analysis, which is demonstrated below, the resultant data matrix had 347 rows, one for each station, and 15 columns, one for each indicator.
3.3.2 Transportation Dimension
As previously stated, the T dimension was used to depict the station's convenience for automobiles and the surrounding environment. The number of metro directions, bus stations, and parking spaces, along with metro frequency and metro network accessibility, were chosen to represent the “T” component. For example, the number of metro directions and metro frequency can indicate metro station size, whereas the other three indicators can indicate how convenient it is to get to this station by vehicle.
The number of metro directions and metro frequency were obtained from Shmetro's official website ( 63 ), which is the administrative authority for Shanghai's metro railways. The number of metro directions distinguishes terminal stations; however, the number of metro lines obtained directly from the website does not. The metro frequency indicated the number of metro trains that would run through the station per hour. Python and AutoNavi's Map API were used to capture 2,764,864 PoIs. Following that, the numbers of bus stations and parking spaces, which are typically impossible to estimate manually, were indicted by the number of matching functions of PoIs within a 500-meter radius of each station. The measure of betweenness centrality of each line between two stations was calculated by sDNA ( 61 ) to reflect the flow potential of each link of the metro network ( Figure 3 ). Betweenness centrality was measured using the following equation:
Figure 3 . Betweenness centrality of Shanghai metro network.
where n y z x is 1 if x lies on the shortest path from y to z and 0 if it does not.
The betweenness centrality of each station is the average value of links within each station area.
3.3.3 Pedestrian-Oriented Dimension
The O dimension was used to reflect the station's pedestrian accessibility and the surrounding environment. Similarly, the density of the road network, pedestrian network, and intersections, and the number of metro station entrances and accessibility of the pedestrian network were chosen to represent the “O” component. For example, the number of metro station entrances can demonstrate how many ways citizens can walk to the station, whereas the other four indications can illustrate how convenient it is to reach the station on foot.
Except for the number of metro station entrances, which was obtained from Shmetro's official website, the other four indicators were calculated on ArcGIS, based on the road network from the Open Street Map (OSM) platform and the pedestrian network from Baidu; the later dataset contains more branches than the earlier one. Specifically, road network density was calculated by dividing the total length of the main roads in an RS by its area; the density of the pedestrian network and intersections were the total length and the intersection number of pedestrian roads in an RS over its area. Finally, as shown in Figure 4 , the accessibility of the pedestrian network was captured by the betweenness hybrid (BtH500) of pedestrian network use, sDNA ( 37 ).
Figure 4 . Hybrid betweenness centrality of the pedestrian network by the software sDNA (radius at 500 m).
3.3.4 Development Dimension
The final component was the D dimension, which was used to describe the development level of the station's surrounding built environment. The plot ratio, density of PoIs, functional mixture, employment density, and population density, which is more connected to society and economics, were chosen to symbolize the “D” component. Plot ratio and employment/population density, for instance, can be used to demonstrate the density of people and buildings inside the RS. The other two indicators, the density of PoIs and functional mixture, can substantially define its diversity.
These five indicators originate from various sources. First, the footprint and height information of buildings of 754,607 buildings plots were retrieved via Baidu maps API and Python to get FAR (floor area ratio). Second, the total number of PoIs over the range of the relevant RS was used to calculate PoI density ( Figure 5 ). Further, the functional mixture was quantified using the Shannon entropy of the nine categories of PoIs ( 64 ). The formula used is as follows:
Figure 5 . Example of nuclear density of PoIs.
where SW i represents the Shannon–Wiener index of each station area, P i is the proportion of urban facilities belonging to the i th type of functional categories, and R is the total number of main functional categories (9 in our analysis).
3.3.5 Indicators Integration
To obtain the final integrated TOD performance, the abovementioned three components were added with equal weight. Before integrating all indicators, they were rescaled to have minimum and maximum values of 0 and 1, respectively, using the following formula:
4.1 Quantitatively Measuring TOD Performance
In Figure 6 , the box plots depict the descriptive statistics of various variables. The mean is represented by the x in the box, the median is represented by the line across the box, and the first (Q1) and third (Q3) quartiles are represented by the bottom and top of the box, respectively. The lengthy upper whiskers on all box plots imply that TOD performance varies depending on the variable's higher value. T and D's box plot positions are similar and low, showing that most of stations perform overall poorly on station-city integration.
Figure 6 . Boxplots for T, O, and D values (normalized).
Each variable was rated and then divided into five classes by natural breaks (Jenks) to determine the geographical distribution of the imbalanced TOD performance. The lowest quintile received a 1, whereas the top quintile received a 5. Figure 7 displays the score of three components for assessing TOD performance at the metro station-level in Shanghai.
Figure 7 . Visualization of (A) Transportation (T), (B) Pedestrian-oriented (O), and (C) Development (D) dimensions of TOD performance (dark color indicating high values and light color representing low values).
T component is shown in Figure 7A . The high values of the first and second grades are all within the inner ring, especially the stations of Lines 2 and 8 and those near the Lujiazui commercial business district (CBD) area. The north part of the Xuhui area is particularly notable, as its stations show high values despite its marginal location near the inner ring, such as Yishanlu, Xujiahui, Jiaotongdaxue, and Shanghai Stadium stations. This is mostly due to the fact that they are transfer stations with appropriate transportation facilities nearby.
As seen in Figure 7B , the number of the highest listed station for the O component is significantly larger than the other two. They were mostly evenly dispersed over the inner ring. Nonetheless, the most intriguing discovery was that the O values of the aforementioned unusual station in T and D were significantly reduced. Therefore, three variables of most stations are not in a coordinated development, while sharing the same characteristic of a decreasing tendency from the center to the periphery.
In comparison to T, D has fewer top-level values, but they are gathered more downtown ( Figure 7C ). Except for Longboxincun station, which is on the outer ring's boundary, almost all the top-ranked stations are in the most prosperous historical center. However, all these stations are surrounded by dense residential areas and CBDs. Another difference is that the second-highest stations on this map are significantly more dispersed than stations in the second-highest class of T component. This suggests that the degree of development inside the outer ring is reasonably even. This can also be seen in Figure 6 , where the median and mean of D are almost equivalent, while the median and mean of T diverge the most.
4.2 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis
A hierarchical cluster analysis, which is a multivariate statistical method for grouping cases according to the similarity of their characteristics, was performed to classify the data. In this study, we classified stations using all 15 variables. The dendrogram shown in Figure 8 summarizes the clustering process and reveals five representative clusters. This cutoff number was chosen to obtain more representative clusters. Then, we focused on the five clusters to identify similarities and differences between them. The radar charts in Figure 9 highlight the average ratings of major sections in TOD performance, allowing for visual comparison. Figure 10 depicts the number of clusters and their spatial distribution. When Figures 9 , 10 are taken together, we can observe that each cluster had the following key characteristics:
Figure 8 . The hierarchical cluster analysis is based on three variables.
Figure 9 . Rader charts for each variable by clusters.
Figure 10 . TOD performance by clusters in Shanghai.
Cluster 1—high TOD performance: The results for the three indicators for stations in these clusters were excellent (>2.0). T, O, and D all scored well in these groups, suggesting that the three variables were fairly balanced. Except for Shijidadao station in Pudong district, they are all situated at the center of the old town. Other stations in Pudong, although closer to the Lujiazui Financial Centre and Huangpu River, showed poor performance. This means that the busy areas may be uneven in TOD performance, although they are economically developed.
Cluster 2—relatively high performance except for T: The O and D indicators both showed reasonably high scores of 2.0 and 3.0, respectively. Variables in Cluster 2 are similar to those in Clusters 3 and 4 in terms of shape. In contrast to the other counterparts, the T component (1.5) was noticeably inadequate. This type of station could be found in the inner ring and surrounding Daxuelu area, Lujiazui area, Changshou, and Xujiahui road, which are Shanghai's subcenters. In this type, the transportation system could not sustain the exceeded growth intensity and vitality.
Cluster 3—medium performance: The three indicators in these clusters had mediocre scores (1.0 < scores < 2.0). The majority of them were found between the inner and outer rings. They also occurred in a consistent linear pattern. The cause for these unpleasant outcomes was similar to that in Cluster 2, but the built environment in their surrounding regions was poorer quality.
Cluster 4—relatively low performance, especially T: The three indicators for stations in this cluster had relatively low scores. Some of the stations of this type were in the middle ring, some were in the outer ring, and others were beyond the outer ring. However, the stations of this type beyond the outer ring of appeared where road network density suddenly increased. In addition, when we combined their spatial distribution with Shanghai's regional policy, some unexpected findings were revealed. The locations of these metro stations perfectly matched the core area of new towns in the Fourteenth 5-Year Plan (2021–2025). The plan contributed significantly to the growth of suburbs since the regions around these stations are equivalent to a quiet neighborhood in the inner ring. However, defects were still in evidence, which we will discuss in the next section.
Cluster 5—poor TOD performance: This cluster was fundamentally low-performing, with all indicators' ratings below 1.0. The vast of these metro stations are located in remote areas. In general, the south of Shanghai performed worse in TOD than the north, resulting in the city's uneven growth on a wider scale.
It is worth mentioning that we compared our results with previous research ( 51 , 52 ), and found some differences. Our study, to some extent, is consistent with that of Li et al. suggesting that some metro stations in central areas are balanced (Cluster 1) in T and D. However, in reality, a number of central stations are not balanced ( 65 ). More than a half of the stations in the inner ring are Clusters 2 and 3. It is easy to notice in the radar chart that the T dimension is slightly lower than D in Cluster 2 and the overall TOD performance is relatively poor in Cluster 3.
5. Discussion and Conclusion
5.1 shanghai comprehensive plan (2017–2035) and implications for tod planning.
The traditional core region of Shanghai, Puxi's seven districts, showed pretty good TOD performances. The TOD performance in Pudong New Area was the most unequal, with TOD categories diminishing from the inner to outer ring. Minhang and Baoshan were found to have the most Cluster 4 stations among the eight suburban districts, indicating that they are significantly more developed than the other six fringe areas. The northernmost district, Chongming Island, was excluded, since it did not have a metro station. As for the other areas, Shanghai announced a local Comprehensive Plan (2017–2035), which emphasizes the development of “Five New Towns,” including Qingpu, Fengxian, Jiading, Nanhui, and Songjiang. These new towns are envisioned as a comprehensive node city that prioritizes public services and living environment quality, representing a development shift from the urban core to new towns. In addition, the TOD categories mentioned above can also demonstrate the plan's effectiveness to some extent.
Differentiation can be noted between their TOD performance scores, although all new towns have relatively low performance. They only contain Clusters 4 and 5 stations. Moreover, the majority of Cluster 4 is located in the center of the new town. Those places were once satellite cities built 20 years ago. The numbers of type 4 station are, however, different in each of the five new towns. Notably, Jiading, Songjiang, and Qingpu each have more than three of this type, whereas Fengxian has only one, and Nanhui has none. This illustrates that, in comparison to other areas, Nanhui and Fengxian are inadequate in terms of population density, transportation, functional diversity, and living convenience. This is in line with the realities of spatial planning and transportation.
Therefore, targeted optimization guidelines should be introduced to different categories for their distinctive characteristics. For Clusters 4 and 5, which are the most potential categories, where their TOD surrounding areas are barely constructed, it is critical for the new territory development plan to integrate transportation planning and urban planning into the whole framework and make rather high-intensity constructions. For Clusters 2 and 3, where the T indicators are relatively low, planners can build new metro lines connecting them between the inner and the outer rings, reducing the inconvenience of a detour transfer. As for stations in Cluster 1, introducing more public areas and amenities could be beneficial for further improvement.
5.2 Transit Ridership, Transit Ridership per Capita, and TOD Performance
The correlation between ridership and TOD performance was analyzed to reveal the relationship between TOD performance and expected outcomes ( Table 3 ). The correlation was analyzed with Pearson's correlation. Statistical significance was defined as a two-sided p -value of <0.05. Daily ridership data for 1 weekday (July 16) and 1 weekend day (July 20) of 2019 was used. As anticipated, the ridership on both weekdays and weekends increased with the TOD performance index. More specifically, the T value, which relates to transport infrastructure, was strongly correlated with daily ridership ( R = 0.660 for weekdays and R = 0.634 for weekends). the O indicator was more strongly correlated with the ridership on weekdays ( R = 0.612) than on weekends ( R = 0.558). The D value, which measures the development of the station area, had a relatively lower correlation, with R = 0.580 for weekday and R = 0.551 for weekend, respectively. Moreover, comparing with daily ridership, the exiting ridership in morning peak hours has even stronger correlation with both T and O indicators, and has a slightly lower correlation ( R = 0.543) with D value, indicating that the T and O dimensions are more important for commuters in choosing to ride the metro than it is for other types of train riders. This was in general consistent with existing studies, such as Zhou et al. ( 39 ).
Table 3 . R correlation between ridership, ridership per capita, and TOD performance.
We then explored the impact of TOD performance on ridership per capita. The indicator of ridership per capita had a high, strong correlation with resident density, with R = 0.658 for weekdays and R = 0.654 for weekends, indicating that the population plays a pivotal role in metro passenger traffic. In addition, employment density, O value, and D value were significantly correlated with ridership per capita. Among them, people's willingness to travel by metro was more affected by job density and O value. No significant correlation was found between T value and ridership per capita, indicating that the impact of T value on ridership relies on population density.
5.3 Contributions and Limitations
In high-density cities, such as Shanghai, TOD construction is a critical component for both economic growth and daily wellbeing. The classic node-place method is unable to achieve the pedestrian-friendly and human-oriented goals of a sustainable city. By incorporating the pedestrian-oriented dimension in the classic “node-space” method and 5Ds framework, this study provided a comprehensive framework for measuring TOD performance.
Although various supplementary methods have been conducted to measure the accessibility of pedestrian networks, few of them have shown the overall character of walking capability around the metro station. Unlike previous studies, this study offers a data-driven and more efficient approach toward conducting an inclusive and fine-scale framework to measure TOD performance. With a combination of traditional data collected by an official government department, high-resolution open data, and innovative technology, large-scale analyses will be easy to conduct. The method can be quantitatively achieved from the pedestrians' point by combining new techniques with more precise datasets, such as the pedestrian network, the metro ridership, and 3D built environment data. Moreover, the findings of this research were summarized and described in radar charts, box plots, and colored maps, making the structured analysis easy to understand, providing an operable and effective methodology to support urban planners and policymakers by visualizing the results with the ongoing Shanghai Comprehensive Plan (2017–2035). The simple visualized results can also be shown to communities with a developing application on mobile phone, allowing the TOD performance to be assessed using public awareness.
In the future, we can further or enhance this study in the following aspects: First, the indicator of the O dimension is insufficient. New urban data and technology can be examined, such as SVIs and emotion sensors combined with virtual reality, could reflect pedestrians' feelings more in-depth. Second, the numbers of workers and inhabitants were only represented by the official census data. Changes in population density are vital for future studies. Consistent location-based service data and mobile phone data can help with this information. Finally, TOD indicators are interdependent with each other when classifying its typologies ( 65 ). For follow-up research, experts in urban fields should be invited to verify the validity of the chosen indicators and determine their proportions by using the analytic hierarchy process.
Data Availability Statement
The datasets analyzed for this study are included in the article/table, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding authors.
LZ: conceptualization and funding acquisition. DQ and LZ: data collection, methodology, software, and writing—review & editing. DQ and XH: formal analysis and visualization and writing—original draft. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.
This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52008297); Shanghai Pujiang Program (21PJC114).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
We want to thank Hengjia Li for assistance in data analysis and preparation.
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Keywords: transit-oriented development (TOD), TOD performance, pedestrian-oriented, multi-source urban data, station-city integration
Citation: Qiang D, Zhang L and Huang X (2022) Quantitative Evaluation of TOD Performance Based on Multi-Source Data: A Case Study of Shanghai. Front. Public Health 10:820694. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.820694
Received: 23 November 2021; Accepted: 17 January 2022; Published: 21 February 2022.
Copyright © 2022 Qiang, Zhang and Huang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Lingzhu Zhang, firstname.lastname@example.org
This article is part of the Research Topic
The Built Environment and Public Health: New Insights
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Transit-oriented development, denver union station.
$155 million RRIF loan & $146 million TIFIA loan
Transbay Transit Center
$171 million TIFIA loan
Moynihan Train Hall
$526 million TIFIA loan
Interested in TOD financing, including commercial to residential conversions?
Take the first step, participate in an informational meeting with our team, click here to register for one of these dates: .
Monday, Nov. 27th from 1:30 to 3 p.m. ET
Monday, December 4th from 1:30 to 3 p.m. ET
Monday, December 11th from 1:30 to 3 p.m. ET
Monday, December 18th from 1:30 to 3 p.m. ET
View the slides from the November 13th informational meeting
Click here to view the recorded Nov. 13th meeting. Please enter this passcode exactly as displayed: ?3cbgx^3
Also, check out the updated/new:
Tod policy statement, access the updated tod faqs.
After participating in an information session, if you are still interested in learning more about financing for your TOD project, email [email protected] with the below information to determine if your project may be eligible for our programs:
Applicant • Proposed Borrower • Public or private partners Project • Name • Location (site address & nearest transit or rail station/facility) • Brief Description (scope of project; include info sheets or website if available) • Status & timeline (desired loan close, construction start & finish) • Plan of finance (funding sources [private, federal, other public], total project cost, financing need/loan size)
1. Entering into formal credit review process with the Bureau requires the project sponsor to provide funds for the Bureau’s external advisors’ fees of $250,000 (initial deposit) at the beginning of the credit review process. Would you be prepared to meet that obligation as well as any advisory fees in excess of the initial deposit should they arise during the process? 2. Can the project sponsor guarantor meet common commercial real estate market lender requirements such as maintaining liquidity of 10 percent of the requested loan amount? 3. Can the project sponsor guarantor meet common commercial real estate market lender requirements such as maintaining a net worth of 100 percent of the requested loan amount? 4. What is the status with the construction contract (i.e. hard costs) and permitting (i.e. soft costs)? Was the construction contractor identified and provided final quote? 5. Do you have a completed market study for this project or if not, when do you plan to do obtain one? 6. Does the project sponsor have an executed Regulatory Agreement with a state or local municipality to restrict rents on the subject property? 7. Will you be able to prepare a preliminary sources and uses table for the financing that incorporates the TIFIA/RRIF loan?
Transit-oriented development (TOD) creates dense, walkable, and mixed-use spaces near transit that support vibrant, sustainable, and equitable communities. TOD projects include a mix of commercial, residential, office, and entertainment land uses.
The FAST Act expanded RRIF and TIFIA program eligibility to include TOD projects and related infrastructure. To be eligible for loans through these programs, TOD projects must comply with the TOD-specific eligibility criteria, summarized below, the general provisions of the TIFIA and RRIF programs, and all applicable federal requirements. General information on the RRIF and TIFIA programs can be found in the Credit Programs Guide .
TIFIA 49 program expands loan sizes for TOD and transit projects - visit the TIFIA 49 page
DOT TOD Resources
FTA Joint Development Guidance : Joint development refers to the coordinated development of transit facilities with non-transit private development, including residential, commercial, and mixed-use development. Joint development projects physically and/or functionally integrate transit and non-transit improvements and leverage public and private contributions to share benefits and costs. FTA-assisted joint development features the use of FTA financial assistance in the form of FTA funds or FTA-funded real property and for which FTA guidance applies. FTA has recently published changes to its Joint Development Guidance (Circular 7050.1B) . The changes increase flexibility for transit agencies to pursue joint development projects, which FTA hopes will result in more value capture opportunities that help create value for both transit systems and surrounding communities.
FTA TOD Planning Grant Program : The Pilot Program for TOD Planning provides funding to local communities to integrate land use and transportation planning with a new fixed guideway or core capacity transit capital investment. Comprehensive planning funded through the program must examine ways to improve economic development and ridership, foster multimodal connectivity and accessibility, improve transit access for pedestrian and bicycle traffic, engage the private sector, identify infrastructure needs, and enable mixed-use development near transit stations.
FTA Value Capture Overview : Value capture strategies generate sustainable, long-term revenue streams that can help repay debt used to finance the upfront costs of building infrastructure, such as transit projects. Revenue from value capture strategies can also be used to fund the operations and maintenance costs of transit systems. Value capture strategies are public financing tools that recover a share of the value transit creates. Examples of value capture strategies used for transit include: tax increment financing, special assessments, and joint development.
FHWA Value Capture Overview : The FHWA Center for Innovative Finance Support provides information and case studies on value capture mechanisms and innovative financing strategies for transportation projects, including transit, transit-oriented development, and joint development. Bureau loans for TOD projects may be leveraged to support land value capture or, conversely, serve as the financing instrument through which land value capture tools are leveraged to construct public infrastructure.
FTA Capital Investment Grants (CIG) Program: CIG is a competitive and discretionary grant program that provides matching funds for transit capital investments. FTA assigns project ratings based on two categories of statutory criteria: project justification and local financial commitment. Existing land use and economic development effects are two of the six measures that factor into FTA’s rating on project justification. Subfactors for these measures include transit-supportive land uses, plans, policies, and tools, as well as evidence of their performance and impact. FTA guidance notes that joint development is a particularly important strategy for promoting station area development. In addition, CIG funds may be used to support joint development expenses as a component of the transit capital project.
- BRT Planning Guide
- Transit-Oriented Development
- Why TOD: Problems and Solutions
33.1 Why TOD: Problems and Solutions
Let’s have a moment of silence for every American stuck in traffic on their way to a health club to ride a stationary bicycle. Representative Earl Blumenauer, United States Congress, 1948-
The forms of land development that best support pedestrians—and therefore public transport riders—are often not in place or complete at the time of a prospective BRT corridor’s planning or construction. These characteristics are in fact rarely found outside historic districts and older transit suburbs of the pre-automobile age.
Urban spaces that have been designed or retrofitted since the advent of the mass-automobile age are generally adverse to pedestrians in two key aspects. First, cars degrade the pedestrian realm through direct nuisances ranging from air pollution and noise pollution to collision hazards and the severance of pedestrian routes by fast-moving car lanes. Second, the basic structure of urban space that fits automobile travel is of a very different scale than that fitting pedestrian travel.
The mass-automobile age started as early as the 1910s in the oldest industrialized nations and began massively impacting cities across the world in the second half of the 20th century. Severe conflicts between the speed and spatial needs of automobiles and those of pedestrians and animals were largely solved by prioritizing motor vehicles at the expenses of pedestrians.
The rise of personal automobiles triggered rather different effects on city streets than the mechanized public transport that had appeared in industrial metropolises of the 19th century. Railroads and streetcars allowed vast metropolitan expansion and a heightened degree of separation between residential and workplace uses, but they still relied on a strong pedestrian realm to provide access to stations at both ends of trips. Mechanized urban public transport expanded the reach of people on foot by providing rapid connections from walking area to walking area. Automobiles allowed door-to-door transport to the privileged segments of population that could afford them and led to the neglect and decline of the public realm of pedestrians and cyclists.
The combined availability of affordable cars and government-supplied roads led to an ever-increasing number of motorists and lengths of their motorized trips. Consequently, driving became the norm in many cities around the world. Congested urban roads were widened and ended up severing communities. The standards and regulations governing the arrangement and design of roads, streets, and new buildings were codified to fit personal cars as a primary mode of transportation. Automobile-centric suburbs, soon dubbed “urban sprawl” for their low density and their disconnection from human scale and aptitude developed, while older, pedestrian-scaled urban areas fell out of favor, often being razed and redeveloped according to so-called “urban renewal” policies.
In a vicious circle, the policies, regulations, and design methods put in place to cope with the traffic, nuisances, and safety issues resulting from motorization triggered more motorization. The generalization of driving-based lifestyles in turn required the construction of ever more roads, interchanges, driveways, garages, and parking facilities, the supply of which was never enough, since traffic increased as soon as new roads or lanes were built. Conceptions of the “good life” now were centered on the ownership and use of cars. Households equipped with multiple cars expected to drive and park them.
Motorization left many behind. Public transport declined along with the pedestrian realm in urban sprawl and urban renewal areas. Low-density settlement patterns did not generate sufficient ridership, resulting in poor service, if any public transport service at all. In dense urban areas, trams and bus speeds went down, as cars jammed the streets, as well as the frequency, connectivity, and quality of service, as riders shifted in numbers to private vehicles. Urban spatial segregation was reinforced, since places characterized by functional and social aspects could be kept physically distant, and yet still be integrated through the use of cars. Meanwhile, the poor who could not afford to maintain an automobile, the young, the old, the women who lacked access to and resources to procure motor vehicles, and all who were unable or unwilling to drive, faced increased travel time and costs while losing access to urban resources.
The negative impacts of car-dependent urban development became obvious as early as the 1950s and 1960s in some countries, with the increase in number of trips and distances traveled, along with a cohort of negative impacts, ranging from road congestion, road casualties, noise and air pollution, and fossil energy consumption to the health ramifications of insufficient physical activity, social segregation and exclusion, unnecessary land consumption, and greenhouse gas emission. Road revolts sprang up in many communities traversed by high-volume road projects.
Today, similar processes of car-dependent urbanization are still rolling on in cities around the world, blind to their well-documented, long-term unsustainability. Motorization is massive in many emerging and developing economies.
Many cities still fall into the trap of prioritizing car-oriented infrastructure.
Solutions to car-dependent urban development, insufficient public transport, and degraded pedestrian realms lie in the revamping of public transport, the restoration of urban public realms where people want to be on foot, and the curbing of excessive traffic and parking. The solutions come from bringing people and activities closer together in functional, walking- and cycling-oriented places that can be effectively and efficiently linked by rapid public transport.
These goals have been on the agenda of a small but growing number of cities for at least the past 60 years. The most advanced concepts of modern urban development have evolved considerably in the second half of the 20th century towards more people-friendly and less car-dependent forms. New development, as well as the revitalization of pre-automobile urban fabrics, have been implemented with increasing sophistication and success in cities around the world, from Curitiba, Bogotá, and Singapore to Stockholm, Copenhagen, Barcelona, Portland, Oregon, USA, Vancouver and Toronto, Canada, and Melbourne, Australia, to name a few. In the 2000s, major world cities such as London, Paris, and New York overturned their policies on transport, urban development, and the pedestrian and cycling realm quite spectacularly. From China to Argentina, cities around the world are turning to a new era of walking-, cycling-, and transit-oriented urban development.
- Immersion Visit
- Detailed Project Report
Development, chapter zero | china, chapter zero | ethiopia, chapter zero | india, chapter zero | united states, executive summary.
The Transit Oriented Development Framework for Indian Cities is a study undertaken by the National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi with funding support from the Prosperity Fund, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Government of United Kingdom. This study will develop a framework on principles of i) integration of land-use and transportation, ii) sustainable neighbourhood development and iii) inclusion of economic, social and gender needs within land-use and housing mix. The goals of this study are to:
- Expand the TOD framework to understand the importance of necessary and sufficient conditions in Indian cities, thereby enabling a more structured approach to TOD. The TOD paradigm has often been advocated by professionals in the transportation field. The various implementations around the world and their effects are well documented. The nature and the scale of impact of TODs differ according to the inclusion/exclusion of the guiding principles and resulting constructs (such as design, diversity, design etc.). The renewed emphasis on high density urban living necessitates consideration of dispersion of open spaces, of focusing on environment sustainability in construction practices and of addressing inclusion and accessibility needs.
- Document examples of global, UK and Indian cases of Transit Oriented Development. The term ‘Transit Oriented Development’ is a recent American codification of the land-use-transportation integration practiced for a long time in Europe and East Asian countries. Often used to describe singular development shaping a city block above or near to a transit station, the term TOD has manifested differently in other countries such as Hong Kong, Japan, Netherlands and United Kingdom. Even Indian cities such as Mumbai, despite absence of a formal TOD code till recent times, have evolved their urban structure around the suburban railway system. The UK examples of Canary Wharf and Kings Cross also demonstrate this amply. The listing of various cities around the world will provide a richer understanding of these various typologies of TOD, beyond the formal codified norms.
- Develop a set of guiding principles for the study objectives listed above for the Indian Smart Cities to adopt in their TOD plans. Also develop a model DPR implementing TOD in Indian Smart Cities.
This research aims to achieve its objectives through the following deliverables:
- Best Practices document for Transit Oriented Development
- Set of guidance documents
- Model DPR document
The research traces the evolution of Transit Oriented Development globally, in UK and more recent implementations in Indian cities, along with the impacts. Its purpose is to:
- Examine interpretation of TOD principles in Indian cities and thereby recognise the gaps that need to be addressed for inclusive development
- Understand the gaps that will help to evolve future policy for TOD as Indian cities start to develop their land-use and transportation networks
- Identify constructs that extend beyond the formal parameters of density, diversity and design to address issues of housing, non motorised transportation, parking management and other travel demand strategies that affect the efficiency and attractiveness of public transportation systems within a city.
This website provides additional resources such as video interviews with Municipal Commissioners from Indian Smart Cities implementing TOD, datasheets for the case studies and links to other TOD resources. This section of the website has been structured as follows:
- Urbanisation and Urban Sprawl looks at the Indian urban growth and structural changes. It discusses the different challenges associated with the urbanisation process in India. It presents an overview of the traditional evolution of transportation and its various modes along with suburbanisation as a phenomenon in Indian and global cities. It addresses the issues of declining public transit shares and increasing vehicle ownership in the country and their relationships with the cities’ urban growth. This part of the document gives a comprehensive picture of the complicated struggle ahead of Indian cities for a sustainable and inclusive growth.
- Transit Oriented Development discusses why Indian cities should adopt it as an approach for managing their urban growth. This part also explores some of the barriers and enablers in the process of implementation of a TOD along with a system of classifying it. TOD can be implemented both as a Greenfield or a Brownfield project, but its success is dependent on unequivocal integration of transit and land-use. These integration factors or ‘Constructs’ as presented in this study include the globally accepted 3Ds of design, diversity and density along with mobility (parking management, non-motorised transportation, public transportation) and (affordable) housing, which are somewhat new to Indian Cities. This part is a detailed discussion of some of the key moving pieces of a TOD.
- Case Studies presents TODs from India, UK and other countries. The section illustrates early adoption of land-use-transportation integration before the term ‘Transit Oriented Development’ was coined. Tokyo demonstrates the ‘Rail + Property’ model of development, which is also followed in Hong Kong. Portland and Curitiba illustrate the use of different modes of transit - light rail for Portland and Bus Rapid Transit for Curitiba for intensifying development and bringing in economic growth. In India, Delhi, Mumbai and Ahmedabad present three different cases of development focused on three different modes of transportation - Metro, Railway and Bus - with each city attempting to address its basic challenge of moving people. UK demonstrates multiple successes in integration of transit and land-use for improved quality of life in Canary Wharf, King's Cross and New Street Station. The purpose of this part of the document is to illustrate success of certain solutions across various national and global cities.
- Potential for TOD in India looks at the two factors that are driving the scaling of TOD implementations in India - the expansion of Metro systems and the National Smart City Mission. To capture the impact of transit and land-use relationships, the current existing Service Level Benchmarks as outlined by Ministry of Urban Development are also studied in this section and recommendations for additional indicators are made.
- Guidance Documents are three handbooks presenting an analysis of TOD in Indian smart cities, a discussion on Game Changers and a list of indicators for TOD in Indian cities.
Scope and Limitations
Capturing the urban complexities in cities can be an unending and possibly futile pursuit. Cities in India have undergone a rapid transformation in the last decade. Most of the Tier I, II and III cities, incentivised by JnNURM mandates, are for the first time developing their City Development Plans and Comprehensive Mobility Plans, the two dealing with perspective planning and transportation respectively. The understanding of the implications and data gathering to monitor the plans is still evolving due to a lack of concurrency of data relating to housing and transportation. Moreover, even mega-cities such as Mumbai and New Delhi are only in their second or third development plan formulation or implementation. So while this study comes at a time of increased public transportation investments in Indian cities and coincides with formulation of the cities’ development plans in many cases; it is based on a rather short horizon of understanding urban complexities. Coincidentally, the market reform process of 1990s coincides with many of the city development plans being taken up. While market forces undoubtedly, have till now and continue to shape the nature of Indian cities (similar to global cities), the interrelationships are too complex to capture in this study.
This website is aimed to equip the reader with an understanding of global best practices in TOD, identify gaps in the selected Indian cities and make recommendations to overcome these gaps. It is not a policy document, instead, as a framework it aims to support the development and operationalisation of TOD Projects as part of a city wide strategic planning approach under the umbrella of the Indian Smart Cities Mission.
Despite the limitations, it aspires to open up to the reader, the richness of Transit Oriented Development. The various case studies signify variations in TOD; the variations occur across mode of transit, geographic scale of TOD and the type of approach to include the various constructs (described in part II). Given that cities, even in the same country, differ considerably in their urban evolution, this website should be used to as a quick reference for building upon the best practices rather than a comprehensive evaluation of the transit and land-use dialogue.
A deeper understanding will not overwhelm the decision makers in Indian cities, on the contrary it will help streamline the planning processes in their TOD journey. While going through this website, the readers will identify similar existing conditions and the roadblocks to achieve TOD success in their cities - thereby enabling them to recognise the complexities of TOD, break them down into incremental constructs, jumpstart the implementation and finally scale the achievements.
Urbanisation And Urban Sprawl : A Perspective On India's Urban Growth
India’s rapid economic development, especially since the 1990s is intrinsically related to its urbanisation process. The structural changes taking place in the economy and related to poverty alleviation are both outcomes and accelerators of this urbanisation. This process has generated positive benefits for India’s gross domestic product and jobs for the young demographic dividend. Today, Indian cities generate two-thirds of India’s GDP, 90% of tax revenues, and the majority of jobs, with just one-third of the country’s population (New Climate Economy, 2014). It is projected that by 2030, while the urban population of India shall grow to 40.76%, the share of GDP contributed by urban areas shall touch approximately 70% (NHB, 2013). However, gaps remain in the overall quality of life for the urban residents.
Transit Oriented Development
Dispersal as a form of decentralisation lies at the heart of patterns of development that are environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Rapid expansion of cities is inevitable given the speedy urbanisation that accompanies the exponential growth of population and rising incomes. However, planning mechanisms that have led to single-use low density development with disparity in the job-housing ratio are primarily to blame for the ill effects of sprawl. Transit Oriented Development or TOD encourages compact urban growth that helps to reap the economic benefits of urbanisation and enhances socio-economic productivity by improving resource efficiency and quality of life. It is therefore imperative to focus on development of dense, socially-mixed neighbourhoods in cities. Such areas promote human-scale urban environments complemented by healthy public green spaces, vibrant markets, and a range of affordable housing and public transportation options to maintain liveability.
This section presents case studies of Transit Oriented Development in 10 cities from across the world. They represent various modes of public transit and different appraoches to development. While some cases illustrate success as a result of deliberate planning and long strategic growth management, others showcase incidental success resulting from juxtaposition of high quality transit, mix of land use and high population density. The section specifically looks at cases from UK, highlighting their successful station area development.
Potential for TOD in India
Indian cities are developing at a rapid pace with the support of various national level schemes and missions. There is a clear shift towards an integrated approach and strategic planning. This is particularly evident in India’s Smart Cities Mission which is focused on stimulating development and investments in Indian cities. This part looks at the mission and the potential for TOD in these and other cities. The first part discussess the TOD projects from the Smart City Proposals of cities selected in the 1st year of the mission. The second section presents some estimates of economic potential generated by TOD around all the metro projects in the country along with a discussion on development potential of railway and bus systems. Institutional factors and service level benchmarks at the city level are also discussed in this part.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT
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CASE STUDIES COMPILATION OF GOOD AND INNOVATIVE PRACTICES
© 2021 The World Bank TOD K P
LEVEL 1 SCREENING
A comprehensive list of cities from low-middle income countries were 1. Mexico City, Mexico shortlisted as potential candidates for case studies. This list of case 2. Bogota, Colombia studies was derived from: 3. Lima, Peru • Case studies already included in World Bank publications/ workshops and presentations 4. Recife, Brazil • Part of GPSC/ World Bank-identified city TOD list 5. Curitiba, Brazil • Representative of the TOD framework as well as geographic 6. Mumbai, India distribution: 7. Delhi, India o Scale- City/ Corridor/ Station 8. Hubli-Dharwad, India 9. Nanchang, China o Context- Urban/ Suburban/ Greenfield 10. Shenzhen , China o Mode of higher order transit- BRT/ MRT/ Heavy Rail 11. Guangzhou , China o Size of city- Large and medium-sized cities (Tier 1 and Tier 2) 12. Shijiazhuang, China 13. Tianjin, China 14. Hong Kong SAR, China 15. Ho Choi Minh City, Vietnam 16. Hue, Vietnam 17. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia LIST OF BEST PRACTICE CITIES 18. Jakarta , Indonesia 19. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 20. Dakar, Senegal 21. Abidjan, Africa 22. Johannesburg, South Africa 23. Cape Town, South Africa 24. Santiago, Chile 25. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
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LEVEL 2 SCREENING
The following table provides the updated list of relevant COMPLETE LIST OF CITIES EVALUATED FOR LEVEL case studies based on World Bank’s input, case studies 2 SCREENING & RECOMMENDED CITIES FOR CASE recommended by experts and peer-reviewers, WRI/ITDP STUDIES: and IBI projects that explain good practices and innovative 1. Delhi, India strategies from countries at low to medium income levels. The South Asia intent is also not to duplicate existing case studies already 2. Hubli-Dharwad, India compiled by World Bank. E.g. Kings Cross TOD, London, UK. 4. Hong Kong SAR, China Relevance of the Case Study to the Scale and Development context is also provided along with relevance to specific 5. Shenzhen, China Asia knowledge product(s). Key criteria for selection were based on 6. Guangzhou, China the following factors: 7. Seoul, Republic of Korea • Is there policy-level support for promoting TOD at one or more governmental levels- central, state, local? 7. Mexico City, Mexico America • Has TOD been applied at more than one scale- City/ 8. Santiago, Chile Corridor/ Local (neighborhood)/ Station? 9. Cape Town, South Africa • Are there any TOD projects at the station scale Africa implemented (operational/ under construction/ tendered/ 10. Johannesburg, South Africa development agreement in-place)? • Does the city/ example represent a case where the conventional planning paradigm was challenged to implement TODs (e.g. land banking, land readjustment, PPPs).
Disclaimer: The Transit-Orientated Development Implementation Resources & Tools knowledge product is designed to provide a high- level framework for the implementation of TOD and offer direction to cities in addressing barriers at all stages. As the context in low and middle-income cities varies, the application of the knowledge product must be adapted to local needs and priorities, and customized on a case-by-case basis.
© 2021 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank.
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SOUTH ASIA | CASE STUDY DELHI, INDIA
Source: Unified Traffic and Transportation Source:Infrastructure UTTIPEC (Planning & Engineering) Centre URL:(UTTIPEC) 2018 ©UTTIPEC. Reproduced with http://uttipec.nic.in/writereaddata/linkimpermission from UTTIPEC; further permission ages/7037716675.pdfrequired for reuse.
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Geographic Context South Asia (India) – National Capital Region, India
Scale City, Corridor, Neighbourhood, Station
Context Urban, Suburban, Greenfield
Mode of Higher Order Transit Metro ( Delhi Metro Rail Corporation)
Size of City (Population) 16.7 million (Tier-1)
Case Study Covered in WB Publication No
The National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi is the fastest Much of Delhi’s growth is observed along the outskirts of the growing city-region and the second most populous urban area city in areas like Gurgaon, Noida, Ghaziabad and East Delhi. The in India. The metropolitan region spans a collection of cities city at large exhibits large block sizes, low densities, segregated and suburban settlements across the three states of Delhi, land uses etc. which reflects vehicle-centric planning. This has Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana. In 20 years between 1991 and not only had catastrophic effects on the air quality of the city 2011, the city region has grown in size from 685 to 1114 sq km, but has also resulted in congestion that can now essentially and grown in population from 8.7 to 16.3 million. The steep rise be described as a gridlock. In response, the DMRC began in population can be contributed primarily to migration from construction of the metro network in 2002. By 2018, until the smaller towns and villages from across the country attracted writing of this study, DMRC has built over 8 lines spanning 332 by growing job opportunities in new developments in the km. The metro network has brought huge relief to the average outskirts of the city. This growth of working-class households commuting population. However, the sprawled nature of Delhi was supported significantly by the first-of-its-kind metro system has made it difficult for the metro to expand its accessibility as network developed by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) effectively. In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy was in 2002. An average of 2.6 million commuters use the metro launched, which emphasized the importance of public transport daily1. and the need for Transit-oriented Development to leverage this investment. The Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure Planning & Engineering Center (UTTIPEC), formulated to envision a unified and integrated mobility outlook for the entire region, identified a need for Transit-oriented Development (TOD) to accompany metro development in the city-region and began creating the TOD Draft guidelines in 2008.
CASE STUDIES 503 Figure 2: Source: Delhi TOD Policy Manual 2016 ©WRI. Reproduced with permission from WRI; further permission required for reuse.
OVERALLTOD K TODP STRATEGY The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was jointly set up by the Government of India and Government OVERALLof Delhi in 1995. TOD The STRATEGY construction of the network was planned in 4 phases. Phase I: A total of 65 km long network with 58 stations and the following 3 routes (initial parts of Red, TheYellow Delhi Metro and RailBlue Corporation lines) were (DMRC) built withinwas jointly the setlimits up byof DelhiPhase-III: state, stations Consisted progressively of 11 extensions started to the to existing open linesfrom the 25Government December of India2002 and to Government11 November of Delhi 2006. in 1995. The and two additional ring lines (Pink and Magenta lines). This 5 constructionPhase II :of A the total network of 124.63 was planned km long in 4network phases . with 85 stationsexpansion and theincluded following 28 underground 10 new routes stations and and a total of Phaseextensions I: A total ofwas 65km built, of railout with of which58 stations seven was routes planned are for extension 167.27km. spurs of the Phase I network, three were Phasenew I. Initialcolor-coded rail development lines and was three constrained routes withinconnect the toDelhi other Phase cities IV:(Yellow is expected Line toto beGurgaon, complete Blue in 2021 Line which to Noida totals to limitsand and Blue stations Line were to Ghaziabad) built and opened of the between national sDecember capital region,100km. outside the physical limits of Delhi state, in the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. 2002 and November 2006. The TOD Policy in Delhi was framed within the Influence Zone At the end of Phases I and II, the cumulative total length of the network became 189.63 km with 143 Phase II: A total of 124.63 km long network with 85 stations along MRTS corridor, designated as the Transit-oriented stations progressively becoming operational from 3 June 2008 to 27 August 2011. and 10 new routes and extensions were built, out of which Development (TOD) Zone in the Master Plan for Delhi 2021, sevenPhase are an-III of includes the Phase 11 I network. extensions Color-coded to the existing lines and lines as modifiedwell as buildingwith the latest two ringrevisions lines in (Pink 2017. andThis Magentazone comprises lineslines connecting. It has to28 adjacent underground cities were stations, created 2 (Yellow new lines Line andto 11of route all the extensions, areas lying within totaling 500m 167.27 of the metro km. transit corridor Gurgaon,Phas eBlue IV isLine expected to Noida toand be Blue complete Line to Ghaziabad). in 2021 which These totals on toeither 100km. side. This area is expected to be delineated in the stretchedThe TOD from Policythe national in Delhi capital was region, framed outside within the thephysical Influence Zonal Zone Development along MRTS Plans corridor, to avoid designated ambiguity. The as Master the Plan limitsTransit of Delhi Oriented state, to the Development states of Haryana (TOD) and UttarZone Pradesh. in the Master incorporates Plan for TOD Delhi as 2021a redevelopment,modified withstrategy, the encouraginglatest At therevisions end of Phases in 2017. I and This II, thezone cumulative comprises total oflength all the of the areas lyingprivate within landowners 500m toof assemble the metro and transit redevelop corridor lands on that have networkeither became sides. 189.63km,This area including is expected 143 stations to be delineatedover time. in thehigh Zonal TOD Developmentpotential2. Plans to avoid ambiguity. OperationThe Master of the networkPlan incorporates initiated between TOD June as a 2008 redevelopment to August strategy, encouraging private land owners to 2 2011.assemble and redevelop lands that have high TOD potential.
Figure 1: TOD Influence Zone Delineation| Source: Delhi TOD Policy Manual, 2007 ©Delhi Development Authority. Figure 1: TOD Influence Zone Delineation (Source: Delhi TOD Policy Manual) The Transit-oriented Development Principles adopted by the INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION FOR DENSITY TOD Policy to guide the framing of regulations include: The Transit Oriented Development Principles adopted byThe the Master TOD Plan Policy of Delhi to guide 2021 thesuggests framing requirements of for 1. regulationsPedestrian include:and Non-Motorized Transport Friendly decentralized infrastructure and resource conservation facilities, Environment1. Pedestrian and Non-Motorized Transport Friendlyspecifically Environment including: 2. Connectivity2. Connectivity and Network and DensityNetwork Density • Recycling of treated wastewater with a dual piping system 3. Multi-modal3. Multi Interchange-modal Interchange • Groundwater recharge through rainwater harvesting, conservation of water bodies and regulating groundwater 4. Inducing4. Inducing Modal Shift Modal by easing Shift accessby easing to public access transport to public transport and dis-incentivizing private motor and dis-incentivizingvehicle use. private motor vehicle use. extraction • Treatment of sewage effluent for recycling for non-potable 5. Placemaking5. Placemaking and Ensuring and Safety Ensuring Safety 6. High-Density, mixed-use, mixed-income development near uses such as gardening. 6. High Density, mixed Use, Mixed Income Development near Stations Stations • Passive cooling systems to ensure energy efficiency • Solar heating systems are recommended on all plots for roofs of 300sqm or above. • Incentive FAR and ground coverage is offered for implementation of the above. 504 CASE STUDIES TOD K P
Figure 3: Delhi MRTS and Transport Corridors | Source: Master Plan of Delhi 2021, 2007 ©Delhi Development Authority.
Figure 2: Delhi MRTS and Transport Corridors (Source: Master Plan of Delhi 2021) CASE STUDIES 505 TOD K P
KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF under the respective State Acts, whose responsibility it is to STAKEHOLDERS acquire public amenity land and issue development permissions; and the Developer Entity (DE), who undertakes to participate in The stakeholders involved in implementation of the Delhi TOD the TOD scheme. The roles and responsibilities of each entity Policy include primarily the Delhi Development Authority (DDA), during the development permitting process is shown below: whose responsibility it is to evaluate TOD schemes and give development permissions; Competent Authority (CA) instituted
21 Step process for TOD CA DDA DE
- DDA delineates TOD - CA is appointed by Zone1 in the ZDP and notifies the2 concerned local bodies - DE can sell - The EWS the same. DDA constitutes & under their respective acts 17or transfer saleable 18housing component notify CA. for implementation of TOD component under its created by the DE shall regulations. share/ownership to the be subject to quality prospective buyers only assurance checks, as after the prescribed land prescribed in this regard (public spaces, public by Govt./DDA. roads, public parking, etc ) and EWS housing component is handed over to the DDA/Delhi Govt. - Competent Authority STEP 1 3 - DDA sets up TOD along with assistance from 4 Pre- DDA to prepare/ approve Fund to be used exclusively STEP 4 conceptual Influence Zone for maintaining and upgrading 20 - Surplus funds approval Plans (IZP) the services within the TOD Certification received by local body Stage scheme area by way of EDC charges, FAR charges, auction of advertisement rights and donations received 19 - Monitoring for upgradation of the mechanism for public amenities shall be spaces, public roads, invested in high interest public parking, etc. post yielding government completion and take securities - Applicant self- appropriate penal action in evaluates5 the site on a geo- case of violation of norms spatial interface to check to ascertain eligibility
- Accrued interest, Public parking charges shall 21be used locally by Local body also be utilized for creation, upgradation and maintenance of public roads, especially footpaths, cycle tracks, public transport systems and all public amenities available/ to be provided within the public RoWs - Developer entity - DE submits within TOD zone. (DE)6 prepares TOD scheme7 and other scheme based on the required documents in criteria specified in the the prescribed format for MPD-2021 and the TOD approval of Competent regulations Authority TOD COMPLETE
33 36 - Competent Authority - Competent issues - In the event of 8 9 - Penalty reviews and processes the approval of scheme to 14non-completion of the project 13is imposed on the submitted application the DE beyond the deadline, the developer entity in case under computerized single validity of the sanctioned of delay in completion of window clearance system TOD integrated scheme / development; DE has to m building plan shall be deemed re-apply for approval. cancelled, and re-approvals have to be taken by DE before any work is taken up. STEP 2 STEP 3 Preparation Implementation
- The CA shall - DE to pay CA, first - Status of TOD 15 10 11 recover the additional FAR - instalment equivalent to 25% schemes updated daily on charges and balance EDC 16A - Competent Authority of the External Development centralized database (excluding the first instalment issues completion and Charges (EDC) as may equal to 20%* of EDC) from occupancy certificate. be prescribed before the the DE in a staggered manner approval of the Layout Plan/ in 4-6 instalments, before the B - Completion certificate TOD scheme issue of completion certificate can be issued for premise/ to the DE. building level plan within any approved phase of development, subject to obtaining the part / full completion certificate for infrastructure - DE to complete construction within 5 years for projects development works of that 12≤10 Ha, or within 7 years for all larger projects counted from the phase. date of its issuance, failing which all approvals would need to be renewed
Figure 4: TOD Roles and Responsibilities Scheme | Source: Delhi TOD Policy Manual, 2007 ©Delhi Development Authority. 34 506 CASE STUDIES
DESIGN STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE TRANSIT USE
The TOD Policy Manual suggests design strategies for TOD that • Green Buildings: The built form of the development is govern the Development Control Regulations incorporated in required to achieve a minimum of 3 stars or gold rating as the Master Plan of Delhi 2021. The Development Control Norms per the Indian Green Building Standards include the following strategies for land parcels measuring 1 HA • Traffic Impact: Is expected to be assessed and mitigated or more3: through traffic management measures. • FAR and Density: Higher densities are allowed for In addition to the above norms, the Master Plan also prescribed all developments that are planned on individual or Street Design Regulations to be followed within the streets amalgamated land parcels of size of 1HA or more. A planned in a development under the TOD scheme. The street minimum mandatory Floor Area Ratio (FAR) is imposed for design elements are intended: housing for the economically weaker section. This norm is • Promote Preferable Public Transport Use intended to encourage land pooling as a redevelopment • For Safety of All Road Uses by Design strategy in the TOD influence zones. Larger land parcels allow DDA to extract land for public use including open • For Pedestrian Safety, Comfort and Convenience on All spaces and transit plazas. Streets • Mix of Uses: Minimum 30% residential use, 10% • For climatic comfort for all Road Users commercial use, and 10% public amenities are compulsorily • To ensure universal accessibility and amenities for all street required on all land parcels irrespective of their dominant users land use as per the Master Plan. Within the minimum • To reduce Urban Heat Island Effect and Aid Natural Storm residential area requirement, the Master Plan mandates Water Management housing units to be of smaller sizes. This is intended to encourage economic diversity within transit influence zones. Smaller unit sizes allow buyers the flexibility of purchasing FINANCIAL MODEL small units in case of budget limitations and purchasing There is no single financial model that can be identified in Delhi. multiple units and combining them in case of larger family Some of the expected sources of revenue are through the sale sizes. However, in practice, this requirement has been the of FSI, external development charges (EDC) and betterment most difficult to meet, because it increases the planned charges. density of the development substantially. This, in turn, Extra FSI charges as per the Master Plan are as per standard increases the infrastructural and parking requirement for the rates, irrespective of land use/ use premises, to avoid any development. complications to change the use of FSI in future. This is both • Road Network: A minimum 20% of the land is required to an advantage and a disadvantage as the uniform FSI rates for be reserved for roads, adhering to principles of 250m c/c commercial and residential in Delhi, either adversely affect road density of vehicular roads and 100m c/c density of the the affordability of residential or there are chances for the pedestrian network. These roads will be handed over to the government to lose the opportunity to earn from the commercial Government as public roads, but will be maintained and FSI. kept encroachment free by the DE. Though the resources of finance (direct collection and land value • Open Spaces: A minimum 20% of the land is required to capture) have been identified, the use of revenue generated from be reserved for green open spaces for public use, adhering TOD is not ensured through the regulations. to principles of inclusion and another 10% green space for private use. In parcels smaller than 1 HA, private open space is allowable in the form of common terraces, rooftops or podiums. • Public Facilities: Public facilities like schools and health facilities are required to be provided as part of the development.
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TIMELINE: ACTIONABLE STEPS • 1991- Region was 685 sq km with a population of 8.7 million The TOD Policy Framework has been tested in different • 1995- DMRC was jointly set up by the Government of India models of TOD pilots in Delhi, the most well-known being the and Government of Delhi Karkadooma station in East Delhi. The proposed site of the pilot TOD project of Karkadooma lies within Zone- E of the • 2002- Began construction on first metro network by Delhi Zonal Development Plan, the land use of which is residential. INFRASTRUCTUREMetro Rail Corporation (DMRC) PROVISION FOR DENSITY More than 70% of the site falls within the 500m influence zone • TheDecember Master Plan 2002- of DelhiPhase 2021 1 starts suggests requirements for decentralized infrastructure and resource conservation faciliteis, specifically including: of two metro stations at Karkadooma, therefore the norms for • 2006- National Recycling Urban of treated Transportation waste water Policy with dualwas pipinglaunched system ‘Influence Zone’ shall be applicable. The figure below illustrates Ground water recharge through rain water harvesting, conservation of water bodies and regulating three conceptual designs that follow the TOD norms4. • Novemberground 2006- water Phase extraction 1 competes • 2008- UTTIPEC Treatment began of sewage creating effluent the TODfor recycling Draft Guidelines for non-potable uses such as gardening. Passive cooling systems to ensure energy efficiency • June 2008- Solar Phaseheating 2 systems begins are recommended on all plots for roofs of 300sqm or above. • 2011- Region Incentive was FAR 1,114 and sq ground km with coverage a population is offered of 16.3 for implementation of the above.
million IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES • August 2011- Phase 2 completes The TOD Policy Framework has been tested in different models of TOD pilots in Delhi, the most well- • known2017- beingModified the Karkadoomaand revised stationMaster inplan East for Delhi. Delhi 2021 • The2018- proposed DMRC sitemetro of pilotnetwork TOD has project 8 lines of Karkadooma spanning 332km lies within Zone- E of the Zonal Development Plan, the land use of which is residential. More than 70% of the site falls within the 500m influence zone of two • 2021- Phase 4 expected completion metro stations at Karkadooma, therefore the norms for ‘Influence Zone’ shall be applicable. The figure below illustrates 3 conceptual designs that follow the TOD norms4.
DesignFigure 5: option TOD Design 2 was Options favored | Source during: Delhi the TOD stakeholder Policy Manual, consultation 2007 ©Delhi Developmentprocess which Authority. was conducted to prioritize civic amenities. The stakeholders consisted of resident welfare associations, trader associations, NGOs and civic society institutions, schools and local ward counselors.
Design option two was favored during the stakeholder The stakeholders consisted of resident welfare associations, consultation process which was conducted to prioritize civic trade associations, NGOs and civic society institutions, schools amenities. and local ward counselors.
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KEY LESSONS REFERENCE
The following key takeaways should be derived from the Delhi 1. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. 2018. “Delhi Metro example: Interchange Stations Increase to 16, Ridership Registering Steady Growth.” http://www.delhimetrorail.com/press_ • The TOD policy in Delhi prescribes strict norms to follow reldetails.aspx?id=bhc0DzbE6tklld and is, therefore, a comprehensive approach to planning TOD. 2. Mehta, Prerna V., Neha Mungekar, and Merlyn Matthew. • Delhi is trying to provide affordable housing in TOD but 2016. “Transit Oriented Development Manual – Delhi TOD Policy and Regulations Interpretation.” World with the strict percentage, it can restrict the market to Resources Institute. http://wricitieshub.org/publications/ participate. transit-oriented-development-manual-delhi-tod-policy- • With regards to parking, Delhi is adopting a one-size fits-all regulations-interpretation approach even with various TOD typologies: city center 3. TOD, suburban TOD, commercial TOD, Residential TOD. Delhi Development Authority. 2007. “Master Plan for Delhi - 2021.” Ministry of Urban Development. https://dda.org.in/ • Even though Delhi has stringent TOD policies and urban ddanew/pdf/Planning/reprint%20mpd2021.pdf design guidelines, there is still a lack of clarity in terms of the implementation process. 4. Uttarwar, P.S., and Paromita Roy. 2015. “Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Policy - East Delhi Hub - Kadkadooma TOD project.” UTTIPEC. http://urbanmobilityindia. in/Upload/Conference/ae9770cd-2c9c-4599-80b6- 3f0cd3a83bfe.pdf 5. Transit Oriented Development for Indian Smart Cities. 2016. “Case Studies.” National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) and Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Government of UK. https://tod.niua.org/todfisc/book.php?book=1§ion=4
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SOUTH ASIA | CASE STUDY HUBLI DHARWAD, INDIA
Source: Deccan Herald 2017 ©DH
URL:Source: Hubli-Dharwad BRTS Company Ltd 2016. https://www.deccanherald.com/content©HDBRTS. Reproduced with permission from /645738/notHDBRTS; -furtherfull-launch permission-brts required-public.html for reuse.
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HUBLI DHARWAD, INDIA
Geographic Context South Asia (India) – Karnataka, India
Scale Regional, Corridor
Mode of Higher Order Transit Bus Rapid Transit System (Hubli Dharwad BRTS Company Ltd.)
Size of City (Population) 0.97 million (Tier-2)
CITY SUMMARY URBAN CONTEXT
Hubli and Dharwad are twin cities in the state of Karnataka and The urban character of both Hubli and Dharwad cities is found located at a distance of around 20km from each other. Hubli- to be complex, and the old city areas in both cities have been Dharwad is the oldest city in Karnataka state with strong cultural retained their original and traditional character. They are acting and historical importance and is also the second-largest urban as religious nodes and are with narrow streets and inefficient settlement in Karnataka after Bengaluru. While Dharwad is the infrastructure services. However, in other areas, due to the district headquarters and Hubli is the business hub. availability of services, cultural attractions, proximity to city core
According to Census 2011, the city had a population of 9.43 has always been under constant development pressure and lakhs. HDMC‘s population accounts for 4% of the urban resulted in over densification. While fringe areas are exhibiting a population of the state and 90% of the urban population of the different development pattern which is comparatively organized district. The population density in Hubli-Dharwad has been growth pattern. Both cities exhibit medium density with medium- on an increase during the past three decades. The density rise buildings with average 3-4 storeys. increased from 1,837 persons per sq. km in 1971 to 4,292 As per the Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act, 1961, persons per sq. km in 2011. However, the area of the corporation the Hubli-Dharwad Urban Development Authority (HDUDA) was remained the same. constituted in the year 1987 for undertaking the responsibility of
There is a steady and high volume of passenger traffic between physical planning, and its jurisdiction includes the HDMC area the twin cities. Currently, this demand is catered by the and about 10 km area beyond HDMC, to include villages that 1. NWKRTC through a bus-based system and private vehicles. could eventually become part of the urban area in future Though buses account for only 7-11% of total traffic flow on the • Disjointed City Form: Hubli Dharwad grew organically as road between Hubli and Dharwad, they carry about 70-80% two different cities, which were amalgamated in 1964 into a of people. A BRTS has been conceived along the P.B. road single municipal corporation. Even though their economies between Hubli and Dharwad, in order to meet the increased are interdependent, structurally these cities have remained demand for ridership. disjointed connected only by the present-day BRT corridor. Most development between the 2 cities is sprawling in
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nature, which physically divides the 2 cities and forces Hubli-Dharwad has a road network which is dense but with intense urban development outwards and away from the constrained right-of-ways in the city cores. The two city cores primary corridor. are connected by PB Road, the only arterial road in the twin
• Urban Sprawl: Availability of large tracts of land with cities, which was also formerly a national highway. National urbanizing potential and very little demand has led to Highway, radiating from Hubli center, including NH4, which is proliferating urban sprawl. Sprawl poses a threat to the recently developed to bypass the traffic passing through these forested and agricultural lands around the city cores. city cores. The constraints in road ROWs in the employment centers limits densification potential and results in congestion.
The spatial vision envisaged by the CDF 2030 is a compact Hubli-Dharwad today stands on the brink of a reformation in polycentric city with dense urban cores linked by efficient public urban development. There the Spatial Development Framework transport networks to mixed-use, complementary sub-centers, created as a guide for the City Development Framework (2030), situated within a protected and integrated natural environment1. seeks to address five major issues in Hubli-Dharwad’s spatial Development triggers in the area are ongoing projects like the and social landscape1: widening of P.B. road, upcoming Hubli Dharwad BRT, Hubli • Lack of spatial vision for the cohesive development of the airport modernization, proposed electrification and doubling of city the railway line, inland container depots, goods yard along with • Urban sprawl and fragmentation improved Mumbai-Chennai road corridor etc. High land values in Hubli and Dharwad have led to haphazard development • Increasing pressure on the natural environment adjoining PB road and it needs to be streamlined to ensure infrastructure optimal utilization of the road widening as well as the upcoming • Spatial inequalities and the jobs-housing mismatch Hubli Dharwad BRT1. The City Plan (Vision 2030) promotes land • Exclusion and disconnection emanating from use that supports transit. The Development Density Framework suggests a differential density paradigm for the city. It proposes • High potential underused areas higher densities and FAR allowances for areas with higher • Disconnected street networks amenities and higher accessibility to jobs and city services. • Inefficient residential densities and land use diversity Primarily, the framework is defined with the metropolis boundary as the base. The strategies towards setting the TOD framework and the implementation strategies have been adopted from the Hubli • The Metropolis Boundary - Reimagining the Metropolis Dharwad 2030 City Development Framework. They have been Boundary as a potential Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) summarized below. allows for enforced limitations to new development outside of it. This area measures 220 sq km. However, developing the entire metropolitan area with the same OVERALL TOD STRATEGY density of development will lead to sprawled development. Accordingly, the next layer of density is defined, a high Hubli-Dharwad area is currently undergoing rapid population growth Zone measuring 83 sq km. growth. The proposed BRT will further fuel this growth. To cope • High Growth Zone – Proposed Zone A – This zone includes with this, transit-oriented development is proposed along the all high demand and high opportunity areas as well as corridor. This BRT system will minimize sprawl and will serve as future strategic areas of growth. Within this zone, larger a ready to use commuter system for the additional population. mix of uses and higher FAR should be proposed to enable Also, the proposed revision of the comprehensive development compact and mixed-use development. The HDUDA Master plan (CDP) for Hubli Dharwad in 2015 is an opportunity to Plan already recommends more intensive uses in “Zone incorporate the TOD principles. Incorporating TOD into the A”. It is proposed therefore that the High Growth Zone be development plan will help in delivering efficient, comfortable considered for inclusion in the Master Plan as Zone A. and affordable mobility options to its citizens. The urban cores However, unlike the Master Plan, this zone must be allowed of Hubli and Dharwad are 22km apart which is one of the higher FARs to accommodate the market demand. primary factors defining the spatial growth pattern of the twin- city region.
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• The final layer of the differential density is the TOD Zone, The development structure of a city must be imagined in parallel the areas within walking distance of the new BRT corridor with a transportation network that can support its growth and connecting Hubli and Dharwad. TOD Zone - This zone has ensure equitable accessibility at all stages of growth. In addition the advantage of access to a high capacity, high-frequency to the BRT Corridor and the Proposed Bypass Road, a network public transport system, which is expected to catalyze of priority roads and corridors are identified, that contribute to compact, mixed-use, and inclusive development. the spatial strategy of growth.
Figure 6: Density Framework for TOD | Source: Hubli Dharwad 2030 City Development Framework 2014 ©IBI Consultancy India Pvt Ltd.
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Figure 7: Proposed Transportation Framework as per Master Plan 2031 | Source: Hubli Dharwad 2030 City Development Framework by IBI Consultancy India Pvt Ltd.
KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Transformation Cell which in turn shall establish a continuous medium of interaction with the city and rural residents to enable OF STAKEHOLDERS resident inputs to inform the Framework.
The Hubli Dharwad 2030 City Development Framework (CDF), While the DA shall be the Nodal Agency for the Spatial Growth as the first of its kind in India, is set up to prepare Hubli Concept and Density Framework, as this will allow an integrated Dharwad for the future by creating a vision and path for the city-rural approach to guide economic growth in the study future even before new programs at the State and Central level area, the HDUDA, HDMC, KIADB, and Gram Panchayats will be are introduced1. All potential opportunities for funding and responsible to implement the proposals for setting up of growth financing can be streamlined to achieve the vision set forth in nodes and growth corridors within their jurisdictions. the Framework. Along with providing a larger Vision, the CDF also proposes immediate actions that the city agencies can adopt using existing sources of funds. A break-up of the CDF components and relevant implementation roles is illustrated in the figure below.
The Dharwad District Administration is envisioned as the Authority that will own the first three components of the Framework and be responsible for integration across sectors and jurisdictions. The implementation and monitoring of the Framework shall be within the scope and mandate of sector- specific and jurisdiction-specific agencies. The Primary Vision and Goals and Targets shall be monitored by a City
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Figure 8: Proposed Transportation Policy Framework | Source: Hubli Dharwad 2030 City Development Framework 2014 ©IBI Consultancy India Pvt Ltd.
STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE The revenues earned through the tools listed above shall be shared between the HDBRTS and HDMC as per mutual TRANSIT USE agreement. This source of revenue shall be used by HDBRTS The HDBRTS, under the aegis of DULT shall be the Primary for operations and maintenance of the BRTS system and Nodal Agency for the TOD Zone DCR and Urban Design shall be used by the HDMC to implement crucial public realm Guidelines. The HDUDA shall incorporate the TOD Zone improvements. DCRs into the Master Plan, while the implementation of the DCRs and Urban Design Guidelines shall be done by a TOD IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES Implementation Committee set up within the HDMC. The special regulations for Transit-oriented Development are OPPORTUNITIES intended to be provided to areas within walking distance of
• Compact city cores connected by a high-capacity BRTS the corridor to incentivize high-density growth that can take system offers the opportunity to create more well- advantage of transit and reduce reliance on private vehicles. The connected compact cores. HDUDA Provisional Master Plan 2031 identifies a special BRT impact area which is 500m on either side of the BRT corridor • A large potential for intensification exists in many and is earmarked as the TOD zone. underutilized areas, without sprawling to natural areas.
TOD Incentives provide an opportunity to earn increased revenues through:
• Sale of Premium FAR
• Increased revenue through property taxes levied on higher built up areas CASE STUDIES 515 TOD K P
The lack of existing market demand in the TOD Zone will make it ENDNOTES difficult to attract developments that are high density and mixed use. Hence the Hubli Dharwad city plan proposes the following 1. Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India and World key strategies1: Bank. 2014. “City Development Plan for Hubli Dharwad, 2041.” Accessed October 12, 2018. http://www.hdmc.mrc.gov.in/sites/ 1. Create Statutory Regulations that encourage compact hdmc.mrc.gov.in/files/HDCBUD.pdf development – Decreased setback requirements and parking requirements will enable compact development in 2. Chisholm, Gwen. 2001. “Design-Build Transit Infrastructure the TOD Zone. In addition FAR and other incentives should Projects in Asia and Australia.” Transit Cooperative Research be offered for high density mixed-use developments in the Program. Accessed October 12, 2013. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/ TOD, the follow the urban design guidelines. onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_53.pdf
2. Institute a Land Taxation Scheme that incentivizes compact development
• Vacant Land Tax in High Growth Areas - Vacant land tax is proposed for all land parcels that are left undeveloped for a period of 5 years after implementation of the HDUDA Master Plan 2031 and the special TOD Zone regulations. Vacant Land Tax places a higher emphasis on taxing the land itself rather than on its improvements. This system will intend to incentivize compact development in areas identified for high-intensity growth and discourage land purchase and development in low growth areas.
• Higher Registration Fees in Moderate Growth Areas – high registration fees are proposed to discourage the sale of land in moderate growth areas to discourage speculative buying. Instead, Government authorities should be encouraged to purchase and bank lands near future growth nodes in moderate growth areas.
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ForewordForeword In an era of rapid social, economic and technological change, Hong Kong as an international city in a globalised world is facing huge challenges, both externally and internally. Externally, we are facing erce global and regional competition. Many of our neighbouring major cities, especially those in the Mainland and Southeast Asia , are advancing quickly to take advantage of the unprecedented economic growth in the eastern hemisphere. Besides, with the completion of several major regional transport infrastructure developments in the coming few years, Hong Kong’s geographical connection ASIA | CASE STUDY and economic integration with the fast growing Pearl River Delta region and beyond will be greatly enhanced, giving rise to both opportunities and challenges. Internally, we have a rapidly ageing society and an even more rapidly ageing building stock. There is a pressing need for developable land for housing, economic activities and community facilities. At the same time, there is an ever growing community demand for a better quality of life. Hong Kong needs to respond strategically and swiftly HONG KONG SAR, CHINA to meet these challenges and to tap into new opportunities.
“Hong Kong 2030+: Towards a Planning Vision and Strategy Transcending 2030”, a vision-driven, pragmatic and action-oriented strategic plan, is our response. Our vision for Hong Kong is that it continues to be a liveable, competitive and sustainable “Asia’s World City”. To this end, the updated territorial development strategy reects three underlying aims: enhancing liveability in our high-density compact city; embracing economic challenges and opportunities; and creating capacity for sustainable growth.
This strategic plan will guide Hong Kong’s planning, land and infrastructure development, as well as the shaping of our built and natural environment, beyond 2030. Our ability to create and use land resources wisely will have a direct bearing on whether the people of Hong Kong can enjoy a more satisfying living environment, with better essential services and facilities, and have a more ful lling and diverse quality of life, with opportunities for recreation, leisure and culture be tting their individual tastes. Yet, in taking forward development projects, we need to be guided by the concept of sustainability and maintain respect for our environment. This strategic plan is a blueprint for the long-term sustainable development of Hong Kong, which is important for our future, and that of future generations.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank my colleagues of the Planning Department who have been driving the formulation of Hong Kong 2030+, and the various government bureaux and departments, professionals and experts who have provided their valuable input to this strategic plan. This latest update to our territorial development strategy builds upon previous strategic plans. It is a plan that transcends generations and the term of a single government. We are putting this strategic plan to our community for consideration, and I sincerely hope to hear your views on the direction we should take for the future of Hong Kong. Let’s work together to plan for a liveable, competitive and sustainable Hong Kong.
Source: Hong Kong Development Bureau and Planning Department 2016 ©Hong Kong 2030+.
Paul MP Chan
Splendors of Victoria Harbour Secretary for Development The splendors of Victoria Harbour
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HONG KONG SAR, CHINA
Geographic Context East Asia (China)
Mode of Higher Order Transit Hong Kong MTR (Mass Transit Railway)
Size of City (Population) 7.4 million (Source: Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong SAR, China (web)
Case Study Covered in WB Publication Yes
CITY SUMMARY in Mumbai, and 29,800 people per square kilometer in Surat (Gujarat). The city’s resilience and its high quality of life index Hong Kong SAR, China is one of the world’s leading international have helped in placing it as one of the top five liveable cities financial centres with a long history of designing and in Asia. On the other hand, the high cost of living expenses, implementing a robust and sophisticated multimodal public housing affordability and deteriorating air quality are some of transportation network. The network is estimated to move over the challenges that the city continues to address through its 12 million passengers a day which includes automated people integrated long-range planning process. mover systems (escalators and moving pavements), two high- Governed under the structure of “one country, two systems”, capacity railways, trams, buses, mini and double-decker buses, Hong Kong SAR, China has capitalized on its autonomous taxis, and ferries. It is estimated that public transport trips make status and strategic location to emerge as one of Asia’s leading up 90% of the daily journeys in Hong Kong SAR, China, the metropolises with a strong sustainable development agenda. highest rate in the world. The Hong Kong rapid transit railway The integration of land use, transportation demand management system, known as the MTR, which alone caters to nearly 4.7 and rail transit has been one of the hallmarks of Hong Kong million daily trips. SAR, China’s evolution as a compact city with one of the most URBAN CONTEXT profitable mass transit systems in the world. In Hong Kong SAR, China, all lands are public-owned (except the land on which St From the lens of urbanization and city form, Hong Kong John’s Cathedral stands) and the government can lease or grant SAR, China’s compactness can be attributed largely to its the land to public entities. constrained geography and topography consisting of several Hong Kong SAR, China’s “Rail + Property” development model islands, hills, and the sea. While the city has some of the highest has enabled the city to maximize the limited area available for urban area densities in the world, only 30% of its total area is development in and innovative and aesthetic manner while at built-up resulting in relatively low gross densities compared the same time enable its transit agency to generate revenues to other Asian cities. Hong Kong SAR, China is estimated to finance investments in transit infrastructure and high-quality to have an urban area density of 26,100 people per square public realm design. In addition to this successful development kilometer as compared to 31,700 persons per square kilometer
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model, Hong Kong SAR, China’s transportation demand a large shareholder.8 The following discussion highlights some management strategies such as car registration fees and transit- of the key elements of Hong Kong’s successful experience first policies have also played a substantial role in making Hong with creating transit-oriented development communities with Kong one of the success stories of Transit-oriented Development a special emphasis on MTR’s integrated property and rail in the world. development model within the organizing framework: enabling
The MTR is financed, constructed and operated by the Mass governmental policies, planning and design processes, Transit Railway Corporation (MTR)- currently serving as a private use of innovative financial investment tools, and supporting entity with Hong Kong SAR, China’s administration serving as implementation mechanisms.
OVERALL TOD STRATEGY
The R+P development model is a cooperation between public and private interests using the TOD concept to concentrate development around a new MTR stop. The government hands out development rights around the station to the railway company, who in turn develops the land and can gain profit from the rising property values. By using this strategy the huge investments in new rail lines can be returned by profits from property development.
The initial investment in Hong Kong’s mass transit system was limited to a 20 kilometer stretch, constructed in 1972. In the early years, two agencies were charged with operating the rail service- Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTR) and Kowloon- Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC). In 2000, MTR was partially privatized with no subsidies received from the
Figure 9: Hong Kong’s Railway Network in 2021 | Source: Hong Kong Railway government in theory. Subsequently, in 2007, MTR merged Development Strategy 2014 TOD Design Options ©Hong Kong Transport and with Kowloon-Canton Railway (KCR) Corporation. Through Housing Bureau. its development control legal framework, transit-first policies and a shareholding in the MTRC, the government of Hong Kong has successfully created an environment that provides financial flexibility and development control which ensures public interest related to transit-oriented developments in the city.
Figure 10: MTR Stakeholder Roles | Source: MTR Corporation Limited 2014 ©MTR.
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The following table outlines some of the key enabling policies and legal framework used in support of transit and property development9:
Policy: Land Development9 Key Features
Incentive-based approach to encourage the corporation Grant of exclusive property development rights of the to plan and develop sites in a financially viable manner by station areas to MTRC in exchange for its commitment “internalizing” benefits from rail and property development; 1 to provide and improve mass transit railway as an Eliminates the costs associated with land banking and essential mode of public transportation. acquisition Established MTRC as an independent corporation with Government’s commitment to remain as the majority government as a major shareholder to strengthen the shareholder of the MTRCL after the privatization for at role of transit agency as the single entity to serve as least 20 years and own no less than 50% of shares and 2 the master planner, property developer and property votes of the MTRCL; Lower transaction costs with single manager as well as generate revenues to sustain the entity as opposed to multiple agencies transit service.
3 Permit joint ventures in real estate development with private sector investment in TODs
Use of Transfer of Development Rights combined with commitment to encourage redevelopment of existing 4 areas rather than allowing for suburban development
Table 1: Source: IBI Group
The supporting public transportation system policies that have enabled TOD projects to flourish in Hong Kong’s case include6:
Policy: Land Development6 Key Features
Limiting private car ownership Initial registration tax ranging from 35% to 100% of the vehicle cost. and usage High fuel tax
Transit service coordination White Papers on transportation policy and protection (1980s) Prohibited direct competition by other PT/feeder modes along the rail routes
Service proliferation and Railway Development Strategy, which set out development plans for four new rail lines or competition (1990s) extensions. White Papers on transportation policy
Service rationalization and Public transport interchanges are a required component of new railway stations to consolidation facilitate inter-modal feeder services Increase the proportion of rail-based public transport journeys from 33% in 1997 to 40–50 Table 2: Source: IBI Group
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Hong Kong’s planning system comprises development KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES strategies at the territorial level and various types of statutory and departmental plans at the district/local level. In 1996, a OF STAKEHOLDERS consolidated plan known as the Territorial Development Strategy Tang et al. (2004) identified the following four key elements (TDS), the highest hierarchy of town plans, came to fruition. It behind the R+P approach in their study of the Integrated Rail- provides a board, long-term framework on land use, transport Property Development in Hong Kong9: and environmental matters for the planning and development of 1. Policy. Favorable government support of transit and land- the territory. use integration, expressed by land grants and financial In addition to acting as the transit operator and real estate assistance to MTRC; developer, MTR has a significant role in the master planning and 2. Process. Forward-looking planning, management, and controlling the development processes in collaboration with the control procedures that ensure an efficient approach from private sector. MTRC works in close collaboration with the city project inception to completion; planners to define various parameters of station area planning from the time any plans to extend or construct new rail transit 3. Project. High-quality real estate projects that appeal to lines are proposed. These parameters include: tenants, shoppers, and transit users; and
• Transit Alignment; 4. Organization. An entrepreneurial entity that balances the financial interests of investors with larger societal goals. • Station Locations; The main agencies involved in shaping urban development • Land values; policy and its integration with transit services in Hong Kong • Density potential; include:
• Financial returns; • Land Development Corporation • Long-term planning objectives; and
• Land use mix based on market demands and zoning constraints.
Figure 12: Institutional Mechanism of “R+P” Model | Source: MTR Corporation Limited 2011 ©MTR. Reproduced with permission from Transport and Housing Bureau; further permission required for reuse.
The LDC, founded in 1988, negotiated in length with owners to acquire land and to demonstrate that it was aquired in a fair and reasonable manner before applying to the Secretary Figure 11: TODs as a “Necklace of Pearls” | Source: UC Berkeley 2010 ©UC for Planning, Environment and Lands for compulsory land Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport. Reproduced with permission from resumption. The LDC was replaced by the URA in 2001. Transport and Housing Bureau; further permission required for reuse.
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• Urban Renewal Authority (URA)- statutory government • Mid-Rise Residential (MR): medium-density, predominantly agency; housing projects on medium-size plots;
The URA was established in May 2001 under the Urban • Large-Scale Residential (LR): predominantly residential uses Renewal Authority Ordinance, to replace the Land Development on large sites with comparatively low plot ratios; and Corporation, as the statutory body to undertake, encourage, • Large-Mixed Use (LM): mixture of housing, offices, retail, promote and facilitate urban renewal of Hong Kong, with a view hotels, and others on large sites with medium plot rate. to addressing the problem of urban decay and improving the living conditions of residents in old districts.
• Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTRC)- statutory corporation with government as a majority stakeholder listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange;
Originally established in 1975, to “construct and operate, under prudent commercial principles, an urban metro system to help meet Hong Kong’s public transport requirements8”; MTR was re- established in 2000 as MTR Corporation Ltd. MTR Corporation is involved in businesses outside of transportation, including residential and commercial development, property leasing and management, advertising, telecommunication services and international consultancy services.
• Hong Kong Housing Society- Founded in 1948, the Hong Kong Housing Society is the second largest public housing Figure 13: Classification of MTR Stations according to the Built-Environment provider in Hong Kong. It is a major urban renewal agent, Type and key clustering variables | Source: UC Berkeley 2010 ©UC Berkeley which began its Urban Improvement Scheme (UIS) in 1974. Center for Future Urban Transport. Reproduced with permission from Transport Under the scheme, dilapidated buildings in the urban areas and Housing Bureau; further permission required for reuse. were acquired/resumed and redeveloped into modern
housing blocks. Station Area Planning and “Podium” Development
As discussed above, the 2nd and 3rd generations of MTR DESIGN STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE property developments have exerted a strong focus on TRANSIT USE pedestrian integration and connecting with the surrounding communities. The figures shown below illustrate the conceptual MTR’s transit-oriented development (TOD) model follows the model followed by MTR in some of its recent property ‘network of pearls’ urban development model, which designates developments as some of its large-scale developments were widely spaced transport hubs connected through a fast transit raised public concerns related to alienating the surrounding network. Majority of the new R+P projects are defined by well- neighborhoods, creating wall effects with towers that reduce design station area plans that ensure “seamless integration” with air ventilation and increasing housing costs within these its surrounding neighborhoods. Each station area is unique and developments. varies by virtue of its contextual relationship with surrounding properties. Cervero and Murikami (2008) classify the R+ P One of the typical station architecture styles representative of projects into five broad typologies8. These include: Hong Kong’s development in the last two decades or so, is the “podium development” model16. The podium model involves • High-Rise Office (HO): high-rise, predominantly office uses building above the railway station, a “podium” retail level that on small sites; can be accessed through the street level. Residential and • High-Rise Residential (HR): high-rise, predominantly commercial towers often sit on top of the podium level that are residential uses on small sites; accessible from the station and the street level. The podium’s
• High-Rise Residential (HR): high-rise, predominantly roof is also seen in many instances serving the dual function of a residential uses on small sites; landscaped park with community facilities for the residents.
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Figure 14: Overview of MTR’s concept of R+P Development | Source: MTR Corporation Limited 2011 ©MTR. Reproduced with permission from MTR; further permission required for reuse.
Figure 15: Podium Development Typologies in Hong Kong | Source: Dr. Sujata S. Govada ©UDP International. Reproduced with permission from Transport and Housing Bureau; further permission required for reuse.
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Invest: Rail + Property (R+P)-Hong Kong’s Joint Since its inception in the late 1970s, MTR has focussed on Development Financing Model leveraging its property assets as a source of revenue by
Since all lands are owned by the government in Hong Kong and undertaking diverse real estate development projects in the leased to the private sector on a 50-year lease (renewable once lands surrounding above the transit stations. MTR’s strategy to for the same time period), pursue integrated property development has been the driving force for attracting the right mix of residential and employment MTR receives assistance from the government in the form of densities that continues to improve the viability of its public land grants and development rights. This implies that MTR transit system serving its dense urban cores. What helped Hong has to function as a self-sufficient entity able to generate its Kong apply the principles of value capture so effectively was the own revenue for operation maintenance and infrastructure “combination of high population density, public land ownership, improvements.
Figure 16: MTR System and Properties | Source: MTR Corporation Limited 2014 ©MTR. Reproduced with permission from MTR; further permission required for reuse.
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and low automobile dependency”. The R+P programme could be successful joint development models in contemporary urban divided into three stages: planning practice in terms of achieving the economic, social and
1st Generation: This initial stage of the R+P programme used growth management goals envisioned through implementation solely a financing mechanism to recover the transit infrastructure of TODs. In Hong Kong’s case, this principle has also enabled investment costs and yield a net profit from nearby property the MTR to be classified as one of the most profitable transit developments as single-use properties above new stations systems in the world. The financial mechanism for the R+P along its Urban Line. development is relatively simple- MTR receives from the government the right to purchase 50-year leases on lands 2nd Generation: The 2nd generation of the programme was and in return pays a land premium to the government on a influenced by Hong Kong’s growth as a financial hub in the “Greenfield no railways basis” . Next, the MTR invests in the global market resulting in large-scale foreign-direct investments transit infrastructure and develops the property either on its own and international property developers.10 During this phase, the as a developer or in partnership with the property developer. development models transitioned from single-use properties to With time, the property values increase because of its proximity “mixed-use, pedestrian-oriented town developments examples to the rail transit network and its integration with the station. of place-making” along the new Airport Express and Tseung The increment in values is captured by MTR to invest in new Kwan O line extensions, also aimed to better connect jobs near infrastructure as well as offset the maintenance and operation the airport with residential areas concentrated in the traditional costs. urban core.10 In some cases, for example on lands with technical complexities 3rd Generation: The 3rd and the present generation of the R+P such as development above stations, MTR generally sells the programme coincides with the opening of the fifth MTR subway land only after having built the foundations and thus undertakes line are more typical of “greenfield TODs” built on undeveloped a part of the construction activities as an alternative profit or reclaimed lands from the sea, encompasses a diverse set source. In addition to selling development rights, MTR generally of urban and suburban areas (in the New Territories). These negotiates a share in the future property with the selected sites encompass nearly 62 hectares and are planned based developer and profits and/or receives a co-ownership. MTR on unique station typologies that are context-sensitive and has also been successful in developing a strong portfolio of integrate innovative architectural and urban design concepts to residential and commercial real estate projects that the agency create new destinations for the growing city. The most recent has constructed, leased and rented. Finally, MTR often remains of such developments was the large Pop Corn shopping centre involved in the development as a property manager, generating development which was built in conjunction with Tseung Kwan O additional incomes that way. At the end of 2011, MTR owned station. and rented over 85,000 residential units and 750,000 m² of As mentioned earlier, the R+P model is one of the most commercial and office spaces in Honk Kong.
Figure 17: Property Rental Income, MTR (Left) and MTRC Revenue 2001-2005 Average (Right) | Source: MTR Corporation Limited 2014 ©MTR. Reproduced with permission from MTR; further permission required for reuse.
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Figure 18: A case summary of Hong Kong’s Rail + Property development | Source: UC Berkeley 2010 ©UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport. Reproduced with permission from Transport and Housing Bureau; further permission required for reuse.
INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION FOR DENSITY
To help create capacity for sustainable growth, which is one of the building blocks proposed under Hong Kong 2030+, a smart, green and resilient city is proposed. It focuses on the scope that are relevant to land use planning, mobility and infrastructure in the built environment and is particularly applicable to new development areas and new neighbourhoods where comprehensive planning is more feasible.
Three building blocks of the territorial development strategy are proposed for achieving the vision and overarching planning goal. These building blocks are translated into spatial terms in a conceptual spatial framework.
Figure 19: Hong Kong’s Railway Network in 2021 | Source: Hong Kong Development Bureau and Planning Department 2017 ©Hong Kong Development Bureau and Planning Department.
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Building Block 3 Fig. 28 General Smart, Green and Resilient City Framework for the Built Environment Creating Capacity for Sustainable Growth A Smart, Green and Resilient City Strategy Key Approaches Key Principles
Minimisation Mitigation Adaptation Resilience Smart Principles T To minimise demand for and use To mitigate any adverse impacts of To undertake appropriate To prepare for and enhance Green Principles of the resources and impacts of the development adjustment measures to deal with responsiveness of our city to development on the natural any anticipated unavoidable urban and climate problems and Resilient Principles environment impacts maintain functional operation Value Creation Institutional Governance Tools Common Spatial Data BEAM Plus System ICT Platform Benchmarks Infrastructure Carbon Appraisal The signing of the Paris Agreement in 2016 signi ed a collaborative international The SGR city strategy includes three aspects of the built environment: commitment to combat climate change. As a global city upholding its (i) promoting sustainable planning and urban design; environmental stewardship, Hong Kong should better prepare for or even take (ii) fostering smart mobility; and the lead in embracing the urban challenges of the 21st century, notably climate (iii) devising an integrated smart, green and resilient infrastructure system. Devising An Integrated Smart, Green and Resilient Infrastructure System change. A city strategy based on the smart, green and resilient (SGR) principles is It focuses on minimising demand for use of resources, promoting low-carbon instrumental to achieving this. smart economy and living, reducing carbon emissions, enhancing city eciency, Green building, energy saving and Sustainable urban drainage and ood Infrastructure for green transport As can be seen from the general SGR city framework, SGR embraces a whole array promoting business productivity, improving quality of urban living and waste-to-energy protection (e.g. electric vehicle charging) of aspects concerning the built environment, and Hong Kong 2030+ will focus on enhancing climatic resilience. It will be supported by a common spatial data Resilient to landslides, ooding, the scope that is relevant to land use planning, transport, infrastructure and infrastructure and a robust network of ICT infrastructure. Integrated waste management Total water management typhoon, etc. building development. All in all, the strategy calls for an innovative, vigilant, adaptive and forward-looking mindset that permeates all levels, aspects and stages of city planning and development. Promoting Sustainable Fostering Smart Planning and Urban n Tow s and Design ew D Mobility N reen is e nd G Buil t r t a din r u ar ban Farmin g ic Promote multi-modal t m r g s Minimise demand for and S U t u s public transport with smart F use of land resources travel choices and low carbon
Smart and green planning Promote walking and and design at dierent cycling, and provide scales smart travel information for better choice
Promote low carbon and / Integrated intelligent S s smart economy m e transport system ti ar i t a un Climatic resilient planning n nd m s Expand rail network eig green com ict hb str ourhoods/di
58 59 Figure 20: Smart, Green and Resilient City Framework for the Built Environment | Source: Hong Kong Development Bureau and Planning Department 2017 ©Hong Kong Development Bureau and Planning Department.
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 3. Project. High-quality real estate projects that appeal to tenants, shoppers, and transit users; and Tang et al. (2004) identified the following four key elements 4. Organization. An entrepreneurial entity that balances the behind the R+P approach in their study of the Integrated Rail- financial interests of investors with larger societal goals. Property Development in Hong Kong9: 5. From a perspective of defining the roles and relationships 1. Policy. Favorable government support of transit and land- of these agencies pertaining to the “R+P Development use integration, expressed by land grants and financial Model”, the following illustrations provide a summary of the assistance to MTRC; institutional arrangement and functions that have ensured 2. Process. Forward-looking planning, management, and successful implementation of TOD projects in Hong Kong11. control procedures that ensure an efficient approach from project inception to completion;
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Figure 21: Institutional arrangement for R + P Development Model | Source: MTR Corporation Limited 2011 ©MTR. Reproduced with permission from Transport and Housing Bureau; further permission required for reuse.
KEY LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST a. High population concentrations and densities are associated with high MTR station ridership. PRACTICES b. Private housing units clustered around MTR stations tend to Lessons Learned from Hong Kong applicable to Global exert a greater impact on the ridership than public housing. cities c. Mixed land uses, compact environment and exciting street- An important lesson from the Hong Kong experience is that level activities in the existing urban districts promote MTR integrating transit with land-use can yield the finances needed ridership. to support TOD. The use of “Value Capture” as an infrastructure d. New development districts with attractive design, financing concept that seeks to capture land value created by commercial facilities and efficient pedestrian connections along new infrastructure, particularly transit. Value capture is effective rail corridors enhance MTR ridership. Pedestrian connections in financing transit infrastructure, particularly in dense and must be convenient, direct, safe and pleasant for these congested settings. This is due to the high perceived importance developments to be successful and to increase property values. for improved accessibility and an institutional capacity fit to support transit. Accessibility benefits present enormous The R+P program applied by the MTR Corporation in Hong Kong opportunities for recapturing some of the value created by has been central to the success of Hong Kong in developing transit investment in land values and effectively supplement the its rail system. The R+P program enabled MTR Corporation traditional forms of revenue for transit systems, like fares. to capture real estate income to finance part of the capital and running costs of new railway lines, and to increase transit The study by Tang et al. (2004) on Study of the Integrated Rail- patronage by facilitating the creation of high-quality, dense and Property Development Model in Hong Kong confirm the positive walkable catchment areas around stations. relationship between property development and MTR ridership as follows9: The following three key concepts applied in the R+P program are essential to the program success and can be adopted by global
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cities with railways as the trunk transit mode, by taking the ENDNOTES transit-oriented development mechanisms to help finance new rail lines14 : 1. Chisholm, Gwen. 2001. “Design-Build Transit Infrastructure Projects in Asia and Australia.” Transit Cooperative Research Financial Sustainability Approach: The value for a rail Program. Accessed October 12, 2013. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/ company to only under-take those rail investments that can onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_53.pdf achieve a targeted rate of return (after factoring government support, in the form of land rights provided at before-rail price, 2. Lam, William H.K. and Michael G.H Bell. 2002. Advanced used in a R+P program, or cash subsidies) to be financially Modelling for Transit Operations and Service Planning. Elsevier sustainable. Publishing.
Market-driven Approach: The need to plan development 3. MTR Corporation Limited. 2014. “Investor’s Information.” along each rail line comprehensively, with multiple Accessed October 6, 2018. https://www.mtr.com.hk/en/corporate/ stakeholders and partners, and to define the scale and timing investor/patronage.php of such developments based on market demand, location 4. “Demographia World Urban Areas, 9th Annual Edition.” March characteristics and institutional capacity. 2003. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.demographia. Risk management approach: The value for a railway company com/db-worldua.pdf. to bring in relevant expertise and transfer a large part of 5. The University of Hong Kong. 2017. “Basic Knowledge of Land commercial risks to private developers through PPPs and Ownership in Hong Kong.” Community Legal Information transactions with external partnerships. Centre. Accessed October 15, 2017. http://www.hkclic.org/en/ topics/saleAndPurchaseOfProperty/basic_knowledge_of_land_ ownership_in_hong_kong/q1.shtml Tiry Corinne, 2011, Hong Kong, An Urban Future Shaped by Rail Transport, retrieved online on November 12, 2013 at http://chinaperspectives.revues. org/647#ftn1
6. Lo, Hong K., Siman Tang, David Z.W. Wang. 2008. “Managing the accessibility on mass public transit: The case of Hong Kong.” Journal of Transport and Land Use, 1, 2 (Fall 2008): 23–49. http:// jtlu.org
7. Tiry, Corinne. 2011. “Hong Kong, An Urban Future Shaped by Rail Transport.” Accessed online on November 12, 2013. http:// chinaperspectives.revues.org/647#ftn1
8. Cervero, Robert and Jim Murakami. 2010. “Rail Property Development: A Model of Sustainable Transit Finance and Urbanism.” UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport.
9. Tang, B.S, Y.H. Chiang, A.N. Baldwin, and CW Yeung. 2004. “Study of the Integrated Rail-Property Development Model in Hong Kong.” Research Centre for Construction & Real Estate Economics. Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
10. Murukami, Jim. 2010. “The Transit-Oriented Global Centers for Competitiveness and Livability: State Strategies and Market Responses in Asia.” University of California Transportation Center.
11. Hang-Kwong, Thomas HO. “Railway and Property Model- MTR Experience.” Presentation at Building and Real Estate Advanced Lecture Series, 2011. Accessed November 12, 2013.http:// www.bre.polyu.edu.hk/Happenings/2011Photo/20110412_
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12. PWC. 2013. “Which Financial Mechanisms for Urban Railway Stations?” Accessed October 25, 2013. http:// www.thecityfactory.com/fabrique-de-la-.cite/data. nsf/01771FA4413266A2C1257BF300556EC7/$file/financial_ mechanisms_railway_stations.pdf
13. BS Tang, YH Chiang, AN Baldwin and CW Yeung, 2004, Study of the Integrated Rail-Property Development Model in Hong Kong, Research Centre for Construction & Real Estate Economics Department of Building & Real Estate Faculty of Construction & Land Use, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
14. The World Bank. 2017. “Railway Reform: Toolkit for Improving Rail Sector Performance.” Accessed October 25, 2013. http:// documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/529921469672181559/ Railway-reform-Toolkit-for-improving-rail-sector-performance
15. Hong Kong Transport and Housing Bureau. 2014. “Railway Development Strategy 2014.” https://www.thb.gov.hk/eng/psp/ publications/transport/publications/rds2014.pdf
16. Govada, Dr. Sujata S. n.d. “Large-scale Development - ULI and the Asia Society.” UDP International. https://asiasociety.org/files/ uploads/331files/Sujata%20Govada.pdf
17. Hong Kong Development Bureau and Planning Department. 2017. “Hong Kong 2030+.” https://www.hk2030plus.hk/
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ASIA | CASE STUDY SHENZHEN, CHINA
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Mode of Higher Order Transit Metro (Transport Commission of Shenzhen Municipality & Shenzhen Metro Group)
Size of City (Population) 11 million (Tier-1)
China’s population is rapidly urbanizing, with 70% of its citizens In the 1990s, the economy in Shenzhen continued to grow expected to be living in urban areas by 20303. Shenzhen is no exponentially, with a significant increase in secondary industries. exception, with a rising population of 11 million and the fastest The market-oriented policies allowed for foreign investment, urbanization rate in Eastern Asia.1 With such fast growth and which has led to continuous growth in the manufacturing a large urban realm, the provision of adequate and readily industry. available public transportation is an essential part of combating With such immense growth, Shenzhen has started to design and avoiding the congested road conditions that result in large and develop a new development strategy for the city called the populations. Metro integration within large cities is known as an “Shenzhen 2030 Urban Development Strategy.” Amongst this effective, but expensive method of providing public transit. strategy is a focus on public transit, emphasized at the city’s Shenzhen is one of China’s most rapidly growing cities in terms most major form of infrastructure development moving forward. of economy and urbanization. With over 11 million people In meeting this goal for improved public transit, the city began its residing within the city in the Guangdong province, its large strategic planning of a metro in 1998. The resulting metro and its urban extent allows for a fairly low population density of over funding methodology remain a model for transit implementation 2,000 people per square kilometer.1 This is substantially smaller in Asia. when compared to its counterparts in Asia. Shenzhen has become one of the frontier cities that is leading the economic growth of China as the first of the nation’s five Special Economic Zones (SEZ).2Special economic zones receive allowance from the government for more flexible, free market-oriented economic policies. Shenzhen is unsurprisingly designated as an SEZ, as after less than twenty years of development, it has transformed from a small fishing village to one of the largest metropolises in China.
CASE STUDIES 533 TOD K P
OVERALL TOD STRATEGY & CITY STRUCTURE
IMPACT ON URBAN FORM The improved convenience, accessibility and quality of life The second phase of the metro development was much more allowed for by transit attracts development, intensification and cognizant of subsequent increases in land values and used this investors to the rail corridor. The R+P funding mechanism is to incentivize the SZMC to assist in funding the rail development. largely dependent on using the consequent increase in land Special auctions of land were used to ensure that the metro value to incentivize the involvement of private stakeholders. company would receive land at a discounted price. Moreover, The scarce availability of land in Shenzhen, due to its hilly land concessions were refunded to the company as capital topographic nature, allows for continued high housing prices. investments, which gave SZMC use of the land for no charge, It is this scarcity which motivates the joint development while also allowing the value captured after the construction of 3 undertaken by Shenzhen, SZMC and MTR. the metro to be kept by the company.
The first phase of subway development was guided by Finally, in the third phase of metro development, land-equity government investment. Lacking experience with substantial investments were engaged in place of capital investments. transportation infrastructure projects like the metro, Shenzhen This agreement granted undeveloped land along the corridor failed to capitalize on integrating property development with to a third-party, thereby incentivizing involvement through the public transit development. In the Chinese context, the notion promise of land-value appreciation. In the case of the MTR, land of transit-oriented development has yet to become supported premiums were shared 50/50 between the private entity and the by planning policy. The inflexible nature of Chinese planning government, in exchange for a build-operate-transfer agreement 3 policy does not allow the integration of transit and property (BOT). development, and measures such as up-zoning for high-density Overall, the strategy for utilizing land values in funding the metro development surrounding the rail corridor are not triggered construction after establishing an R+P mechanism involved by transit creation. The lack of integration of the interrelated creating value, realizing that value and recycling it. Creating systems led to the first phase of development largely ignoring value involves the strategic siting of routes, stations and land value, as the time-consuming nature of changing policy to updating zoning parameters to allow for more profitable transit- support TOD would have led to too many delays.4 oriented development along the rail corridor. This value must then be realizes by transferring land use rights to the involved stakeholders in exchange for joint development of the subway that captures land value premiums for the land developed after the metro construction. Finally, these land values can be recycled by using the land value appreciated to fund future transit and urban design projects that will further increase land values.
Figure 22: Land Value’s integral role in the R+P funding Progress | Source: World Resources Institute 2017 ©WRI. Reproduced with permission from Transport and Housing Bureau; further permission required for reuse. 534 CASE STUDIES TOD K P
FINANCIAL MODEL In the context of Shenzhen, the rapid growth and economic Consequently, the government used special auctions to transfer affluence the city is experiencing lends to the application and land to Shenzhen Metro. Traditionally this land would have to viability of Metro-led transit-oriented development (TOD). be auctioned in an open, public auction.3 However, the city As a central manufacturing city, connectivity to surrounding ventured to pilot special auctions for R+P development projects. metropolitans in the Pearl Delta River Region could be improved Special terms restricted the number of bidders, ensuring that with the introduction of a metro system. Specifically, the strategy Shenzhen Metro would obtain the land at a low price.3 looked to improve connection with Hong Kong SAR, China. To Finally, land concession fees paid by the metro company justify such a large undertaking, the innovative funding approach were diverted to fund capital investments for the subway. This of Rail + Property (R+P) funding was experimented with, a complex method allowed the city to grant land-use rights to the trailblazer of its kind. subway company free of charge, while also allowing Shenzhen R+P funding not only encourages both state-owned and private Metro inherit the land premiums captured in the future.3 metro companies to participate in R+P projects, but also uses This three-phased financial scheme was not only an incentive innovative land-use rights transaction methods to overcome for private entities to become involved, but also reduced the 3 current barriers within the land-leasing system. During the early costs and risks undertaken by the government. Through a stages of R+P implementation, it was realized the R+P was a build-and-transfer (BT) arrangement for property development, new concept for local developers and led to increased costs construction risks were minimized and the private stakeholders 3 and risks for private companies . Particularly impacted was local were held accountable for their involvement in the project metro company—Shenzhen Metro Group. To incentivize SMG, team. The implementation of R+P is vital to the success of the the local government reduced its cost and risk burdens through Shenzhen metro project and is a financial strategy that could 3 a complex financial arrangement . The R+P financial scheme in improve the viability of metro projects going forward. 3 the context of Shenzhen can be separated into three phases: government-led capital investment, auctions with special conditions and land-concession fee reimbursement, and land equity investment.3
The first, government direct investment, was scaled back to reduce public costs and to place a larger onus on private companies to invest. The Shenzhen city government, Reform and Development Commission, and Planning Commission proposed to decrease of government investment in capital costs from 70 to 50 percent, forcing the metro company to use bank loans and property development to make up the difference.3
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KEY STAKEHOLDERS & GOVERNMENT DESIGN STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE RELATIONSHIPS TRANSIT USE
Traditionally, the onus for large infrastructure projects, such as The success of Shenzhen’s R+P planning can also be attributed this, falls on the government and public to fund and implement. to a streamlined and coordinated planning process that integrates However, this case study exemplifies the beneficial shift from multiple disciplines. Shenzhen borrowed from Hong Kong SAR, government-led to mixed-model funding of public transit projects. China’s experience to streamline the details of the different Shenzhen’s exploration with R+P includes a partnership between phases of rail transit plans and to adjust its planning process.3 the government and key stakeholders, the Shenzhen Metro Group This adjustment allowed for the creation of synergies between rail and the MTR Shenzhen Corporation. Both private entities shared transit plans and the overall urban planning process, paving the in the responsibility of financing the metro through an incentivized way for successful TOD.
approach that captures the future land value and resources The coordination between land-use and transit plans in Shenzhen following the completion of the project. occurs at the route level by bundling zoning revision with transit The Shenzhen Metro Group Co. (SZMC) was enacted in 1998 planning.3 Specifically, once the route plan of new metro lines is as a large-scale proprietor under the control of the state-owned determined, an independent market analyses can be conducted Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the and land-use surveys can pinpoint vacant lots with high Shenzhen government. Creating the state-owned private entity development potential. The planning institute can then collaborate allowed responsibility for metro expansion, construction and with the metro company and other governmental departments, operation to be held in the private sector. Today, the private entity to shortlist land lots for joint development. The zoning of is responsible for the continued operation of the metro system these properties will be discussed by stakeholders to reach a it constructed and looks to continue to improve the safety and consensus. Normally, the FAR of developable sites near metro comfort of existing services.5 stations is increased significantly, and more diverse land uses are
The MTR Shenzhen Corporation was the second stakeholder permitted. This draft route plan with zoning proposals will be then in the construction of the Shenzhen Metro. The corporation submitted to the municipal planning committee (led by the mayor 4 is Hong Kong SAR, China’s major rail developer, as well as a of the city) for further deliberation. significant land developer. Their role in the metro construction was Despite this innovative process, Shenzhen’s integrated planning incentivized by offering them pre-rail value for land abutting the experience remains limited, when compared with Hong Kong rail corridor, lending to profitable and discounted development for SAR, China. As the “master planner and designer,” the MTR the corporation. Corporation is actively engaged in the entire urban planning process, whereas in Shenzhen they play a weaker role in the The evolution of the Shenzhen Subway’s financing mechanism has planning process and only route-level plans are determined.3 This benefited from more than 10 years of efforts by the Shenzhen city late-stage engagement may lead to missed opportunity for joint government, dramatically altering the process of obtaining capital development, thereby restricting the extent to which transit plans investment for large infrastructure projects. Instead, a flexible could be optimized.3 Thus, to fully achieve designs that reflect mechanism of cost recovery was created that made infrastructure transit-oriented development, the policy framework that allows for costs a shared public-private investment and revenue generator.3 This approach was effective in incentivizing the subway company integrated land use and transit planning must be advanced. to participate in R+P programs and ensuring the financial sustainability of subway projects. R+P development leverages INCLUSIVITY & AFFORDABLE TOD the partnership between the public sector, transit companies, SYSTEMS and developers for a collaborative financing and development scheme. By capturing the land value appreciation that follows The Songgang rolling stock depot is a typical example of the R+P transit projects, R+P can successfully finance large infrastructure development occurring in the suburbs of Shenzhen (Type 1). It is investments without long-term debt for stakeholders.3 located near Bitou Station along Line 11 and borders Shenzhen and Dongguan. The depot covers an area of 42.09 hectares and is zoned as a “special control zone,” based on future anticipation for subway construction4. In line with the aspirations of local communities, this land will not only be served by public transit services, but will be equipped with mixed uses and community facilities.4
536 CASE STUDIES TOD K P
These include4: ROADBLOCKS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE • Affordable housing on land above the rolling stock depot— In the Chinese context, the notion of transit-oriented FAR 2.0. development has yet to become supported by planning policy. • Schools and residential housing east of the depot—FAR 3.0. The inflexible nature of Chinese planning policy does not allow the integration of transit and property development, and • Commercial and office developments near Bitou Station— measures such as up-zoning for high-density development FAR 6.0 surrounding the rail corridor are not triggered by transit creation. Along with the renewed affordability of R+P housing along the rail corridor, using the metro costs only 2 yuan for the first 4 To improve from a situation like this they largely ignoring land kilometers of travel. While this is accessible, riders from more value at the beginning phases, as the time-consuming nature affordable and periphery locations in Shenzhen may experience of changing policy to support TOD would have led to too many higher metro costs, as prices vary based on distance. This delays. Then they established an R+P mechanism involved potential lack of affordability further justifies the integration of creating value, realizing that value and recycling it. TOD design strategies like active transportation with the metro KEY LESSONS system. Adaptations and inclusions such as improved walkability The following key takeaways should be derived from the could assist in keeping the metro system as affordable as Shenzhen example: possible.4 • R+P funding uses innovative land-use rights transaction IMPLEMENTATION OF SOLUTION methods to overcome current barriers within the land- leasing system. APPROXIMATE TIMELINE • The successful transition from a State-owned subway • 1998- City began strategic planning of a metro. Shenzhen company to Private-owned subway companies. Metro Group was enacted • Streamlining and coordinating the planning process by • December 2004- Metro service began integrating transit planning, land use planning and financial • June 2011- 5 more lines were opened planning allowed for the creation of synergies between the • 2016- Line 7 ,9,11 Opened series of rail transit plans and the overall urban planning • 2030- Planed completion target process. ACTIONABLE STEPS • Identify needs/ Take Inventory • Create Strategy Plan (Phases) • Identify Key Stakeholders • Find Funding • Mitigate Competition • Optimize/ Utilize Land Value • Create Design Strategies to Encourage Transit Use
KEY LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES
SUMMARY Shenzhen’s metro system is a precedent for effective metro implementation, as its funding methodology improved the affordability of the mode for local governments and allowed for a public-private partnership in funding transit.
Although the Shenzhen metro construction may not be a perfect example of TOD, it shows definite strives towards becoming transit-oriented and its R+P funding strategy stands as an exemplary model for increasing the viability of metro systems within low-mid income cities. CASE STUDIES 537 TOD K P
1. Atlas of Urban Expansion. 2016. “Shenzhen, Guangdong.” http://www.atlasofurbanexpansion.org/cities/view/ Shenzhen_Guangdong 2. The Economist. 2010. “The spirit of enterprise fades.” The Economist. http://www.economist.com/node/15331470 3. Xue, Lulu and Wanli Fang. 2017. “Rail Plus Property Development in China: The pilot case of Shenzhen”. World Resources Institute. https://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/ Rail_Plus_Property_Development_In_China_The_Pilot_ Case_Of_Shenzhen.pdf 4. Shenzhen Urban Planning and Land Resource Research Center. 2013. “Overall Planning and Design of 7 Metro Superstructure in the Phase III Construction”. 5. Shenzhen Metro Group Co. Ltd. 2016. “Group Company Profile.” http://www.szmc.net/page/eng/about_szmc. html?code=9110
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CASE STUDIES 539 TOD K P
ASIA | CASE STUDY GUANGZHOU, CHINA
Source:Source:Terrence Arch Daily 2018Zhang ©Terrence / Arch Zhang; Daily Reproduced with permission from Terrence Zhang; further permission required for reuse. URL: https://www.archdaily.com/791640/parc- central-benoy
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Scale City and Corridor
Mode of Higher Order Transit BRT and Metro
Size of City (Population) 25 million (Tier-1)
Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong province and the Prior to the introduction of the Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit third-largest city in China with over 14.5 million residing within (BRT) system, congestion, gridlock and overcrowding, were in. Located North of Hong Kong SAR, China along the Pearl words that characterized the former public bus system of River, the city is rapidly growing in density, with nearly 1,800 China’s Guangzhou. The city of over 14.5 million residents was people per square kilometer. The city is well-known as both tasked with the difficult challenge of reforming the flawed transit a commercial center and a bustling port city with a sprawling system to more effectively serve the users along Zhongshan population.2 Avenue, a central truck road, particularly.4 Adopting a method of
As one of China’s largest metropolitans, meeting the demands relieving the high demand placed on the bus and road systems of a rapidly growing population places a burden on Guangzhou’s along the corridor was a necessary adaptation to improve public resources and services. The drive towards being a the efficiency and success of their transit systems. These developed and world-class city required the strategic thinking challenges led way to the creation of Guangzhou’s Bus Rapid that led to the initiation of the Bus Rapid Transit system. Transit (BRT) system, which would soon become one of the Particularly, Zhongshan Avenue is the corridor that links the most successful of its kind in Eastern Asia. The 2011 Sustainable most rapidly growing districts within Guangzhou. At its most Transport Award winner for innovative transport solutions, western point, the Tianhe District on Zhongshan Avenue is Guanzhou’s BRT is a leader of its kind. Executive Director of the home to intensive growth and densification, with large-scale Institute for Transportation and Development Policy has stated high-rise development and a new rail station residing within “Guangzhou’s transformations are nothing short of amazing… it. At the end of the 22.5 km corridor, the Huangpu District is The new BRT system is changing perceptions about bus-based also dense and nature and urbanizing to include large high-rise and high-quality mass transit. We hope all cities, not least those 5 A good example communities and developments. With the urbanization and in the US, will be inspired by these examples”. of successful transit-oriented development (TOD) and BRT intensification occurring along Zhongshan Avenue, updating the implementation, the system is a prime illustration of the success transit networks to support this growth will be vital to the city’s transit can bring a city. prosperity and overall efficiency.2
CASE STUDIES 541 TOD K P
Although Guangzhou is void of specific policy promoting To achieve such success in their BRT system, Guangzhou development along the BRT corridor, in practice, the city’s used careful planning and analysis to justify such a large-scale planning authorities are more inclined to allow higher-density system. With twenty-six stations along a 22.5 kilometer stretch developments in recognition of the need for improved traffic of the city’s most congested roadway, the strategic approach conditions. The authorities are also open to relaxing minimum includes express routes, designated bus lanes, direct metro parking standards in light of the BRT’s presence. connections and higher-capacity buses.1 Moreover, the system would support some of the world’s highest flows and capacity, OVERALL TOD STRATEGY & CITY with buses arriving at stations every ten seconds during peak hours. Demand analyses played a large role in designing the STRUCTURE system, with each BRT station designed to have separate east A BRT system was determined to be the most economical and westbound waiting platforms located on corresponding and timely method to overcome the shortcomings of the city’s sides of the bus lanes. Their sizes have been calibrated to meet transportation networks. The alternative, building a metro modeled demand and the needs of bus operations. Some system, posed the challenge of huge capital costs and delays stations are as short as 55 meters while Gangding, the busiest in resolving congestion. Enacting this strategy was not without station in the world at 55,000 daily riders, is 250 meters long (the 2 its challenges, as authorities had to overcome decades’ worth world’s largest) and has multiple pedestrian bridges for access. of disjointed and piecemeal transportation planning within the The construction of the system was phased, with the first phase city’s street network. Years of slow service and delays on the completed in February of 2010. Paired with the improvement bus system also left negative perceptions of bus transit with city of active transportation networks and supplementary transit residents. systems along the BRT corridor, the approach proved to be the Despite the circumstances, Guangzhou successfully opened relief required for the congestion experienced along Zhongshan its 22.5-kilometre BRT corridor in February of 2010.2 It was Avenue. structured with the goal of reducing congestion on one of the city’s busiest roads, Zhongshan Avenue. With aims of improving the overall efficiency of the existing bus system, combatting congestion and its environmental impacts and changing public perception, the BRT represented a step towards transit-oriented development. Today, the Guangzhou BRT boasts of 850,000 average weekday riders, making it the busiest bus corridor in Asia (and the second-busiest bus corridor in the world, after Bogota).2 The Guangzhou BRT’s passenger flows are more than three times than those in other BRT systems within Asia.
Figure 23: Gangding Station before (left) and after (right) the implementation of the BRT | Source: ITDP 2011 ©ITDP. Reproduced with permission from ITDP; further permission required for reuse.
542 CASE STUDIES
KEY STAKEHOLDERS & GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIPS
In achieving such a successful implementation of the BRT system, stakeholder collaboration of both public and private entities was vital. Preliminary planning for a BRT system in Guangzhou began in 2003 by the Guangzhou city government. With no exemplary high-capacity BRT systems in China, the city was considering other corridors with significantly high congestion. To help with this the government enlisted the aid of The Institute of Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) and Guangzhou Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute (GMEDRI) for the planning and design. The two groups drafted the concept plan and carried out demand analyses and corridor comparison. They also drew up the operational and traffic plan, which included opening the BRT to more than one bus operator and allowing the buses to run both inside and outside the BRT corridors. The overall infrastructure funding for the project was provided by the Government of the People’s Republic of China. Once the plans were constructed they were run by the operating agency GZ BRT Management Company and seven private bus companies.7
Financial Model Capital costs for the Guangzhou BRT project reached 950 million Yuan (USD 103 million), which although high, is about one-twentieth of the per-kilometer costs of the alternative, a metro expansion.2 The cost-effective investment was a more efficient way of increasing capacity and did not lead to increased consumer costs, due to significant government subsidy to reduce fare prices. The consequent benefits and cost-saving measures initiated through the BRT, including reduced operating costs, time savings, and reduced emissions and thereby emission credit and reduced consumer trip and health costs would pay for the project in just one year. The financial return on this initial government investment justifies the use of the BRT as a resolution for the congestion issues faced in Guangzhou. TOD K P
In achieving such a successful implementation of the BRT Public and green space improvements along the BRT corridor system, stakeholder collaboration of both public and private became a priority after its initiation. Guangzhou began entities was vital. Preliminary planning for a BRT system in implementing a greenway improvement project in 2010, creating Guangzhou began in 2003 by the Guangzhou city government. hundreds of kilometers of green corridors across the city. With no exemplary high-capacity BRT systems in China, the This scheme saw the restoration of the Donghaochong Canal, city was considering other corridors with significantly high an ancient canal that dates back to the Song Dynasty, which congestion. To help with this the government enlisted the aid of several BRT routes serve. The effort is part of a major project The Institute of Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) to clean up waterways around the city, including several canals and Guangzhou Municipal Engineering Design and Research connecting with the BRT corridor.
Institute (GMEDRI) for the planning and design. The two groups Additionally, cycling has received higher priority, with fully- drafted the concept plan and carried out demand analyses and separated and updated bicycle lanes built along both sides of corridor comparison. They also drew up the operational and the entire BRT corridor. Bicycle sharing programs have been traffic plan, which included opening the BRT to more than one enacted along the corridor, offering over 5,000 bicycles to bus operator and allowing the buses to run both inside and citizens and thereby reducing motorized trips by over 7,500 outside the BRT corridors. The overall infrastructure funding daily, according to the ITDP.1 The corridor also offers safe, for the project was provided by the Government of the People’s free bike parking along the bus route. Pedestrian safety and Republic of China. Once the plans were constructed they were comfort was also prioritized through the enactment of the run by the operating agency GZ BRT Management Company BRT in Guangzhou, with the addition of new street crossings, 7 and seven private bus companies. pedestrian bridges connecting BRT stations to adjacent FINANCIAL MODEL buildings and, whenever possible, seamless urban design and architecture that lend to a more comfortable walking Capital costs for the Guangzhou BRT project reached 950 experience. These investments have significantly improved million Yuan (USD 103 million), which although high, is about perceptions of pedestrian safety and the quality of the walking one-twentieth of the per-kilometer costs of the alternative, environment.2 a metro expansion.2 The cost-effective investment was a more efficient way of increasing capacity and did not lead to increased consumer costs, due to significant government Aggregate yearly operating 93 million yuan (USD 14 million) subsidy to reduce fare prices. The consequent benefits and cost savings cost-saving measures initiated through the BRT, including Value of aggregate time 158 million yuan (USD 24 reduced operating costs, time savings, and reduced emissions savings (2010) million) and thereby emission credit and reduced consumer trip and Average yearly value of 25 million yuan (USD 4 million) health costs would pay for the project in just one year. The certified emission credits financial return on this initial government investment justifies the Aggregate consumer savings 672 million yuan (USD 103 use of the BRT as a resolution for the congestion issues faced in on trip cost in 20 10 million) Guangzhou. Yearly reduction in health Unknown costs from respiratory illness Table 3: Annual value created by the BRT System | Source: ITDP 2011 ©ITDP. Reproduced with permission from ITDP; further permission required for reuse.
CASE STUDIES 543 improvements in Guangzhou, as a shift towards improving the image and functionality of the BRT TODcorridorK hasP come to exist.
Until recently,INFRASTRUCTURE the Donghaochong PROVISION FOR Canal DENSITY was a pollutedrunning mostly ditch under running an elevated mostlyexpressway. under Uncontrolled an urban development had encroached on the banks of the canal, Although the Donghaochong Canal restoration project was not elevated expressway. Uncontrolled urban developmentand buildings had were encroached periodically flooded on when the waters banks overflowed of directly coordinated with the BRT project, improvements in this the banks, sometimes spilling sewage into adjacent residential the canal,area and and inbuildings public spaces wereand pedestrian periodically facilities along flooded the when waters overflowed the banks, and commercial properties. Starting in 2009, a 3-kilometer sometimesBRT spillingcorridor will helpsewage retain high into levels adjacent of transit passengers, residential and commercial properties. Starting stretch of land along the Donghaochong Canal was cleared by ensuring that corridors for accessing BRT by walking and in 2009, a 3-kilometer stretch of land along the Donghaochongand turned into a greenway, Canal featuring was world-class cleared walking and and cycling are attractive and vibrant. A similar transformation of a turned into a greenway, featuring world-class walkingcycling andfacilities cycling and popular facilities new green public and spaces. popular In the drab streetscape into a spectacular public space was achieved surrounding area, more than 329,000 square meters of new new greenthrough public the restoration spaces. of the In Lizhiwan the Canal,surrounding which also opened area, more than 329,000 square meters of 3 commercial real estate is being developed.3 The Donghaochong new commercialin 2010. These real serve estateas examples is of being the shift towardsdeveloped. transit- The Donghaochong Canal Museum, Canal Museum, housed in two historic villas, recently opened oriented development and corridor improvements in Guangzhou, housed in two historic villas, recently opened providingproviding information on the canalon andthe its canal history. The and greenway its as a shift towards improving the image and functionality of the history. The greenway project attracts people to live,project work, attracts peopleand toplay live, work,and and has play andbecome has become a a BRT corridor has come to exist. popular free swimming area in the summer. popular free swimming area in the summer. Until recently, the Donghaochong Canal was a polluted ditch
Figure 24: The Donghaochong Canal before and after restoration efforts to improve the vital public space along the BRT corridor. | Source: Far East BRT Planning Co., Limited ©Far East BRT Planning Co. Reproduced with permission from Far East BRT Planning Co.; further permission required for reuse.
INCLUSIVITY & AFFORDABLE TOD SYSTEMS Along with improved modal options for BRT users, affordability However, not only low-income households are enjoying the has also significantly improved with the creation of the BRT benefits of the project. Higher-income households along the INCLUSIVITYsystem. Bus & faresAFFORDABLE have undergone substantial TOD simplification SYSTEMS BRT corridor, often car owners, initially opposed the BRT, and restructuring as a part of a citywide low-fare program. fearing traffic conditions would worsen because of the reduced Previously most bus fares were 2 Yuan (USD 0.30), though some road space for cars. Contradictorily, the BRT has improved not Along withlonger improved routes had fares modal as high asoptions 5 Yuan. As for of 2010, BRT all route users, only affordability bus speed and travel has time, also but also significantly private car speeds and improvedfares with cost the 2 Yuan, creation a deliberate ofattempt the by BRT city government system. to Bustravel fares time. With have an encouraged undergone and incentivized substantial use of public simplificationsubsidize and and makerestructuring the BRT system moreas aaccessible part of to alla citywidetransit, lowless private-fare vehicles program. on the road Previously has been beneficial most for bus farescitizens. were Also, 2 withinYuan the (USDBRT system, 0.30), riders arethough allowed free some bothlonger the BRT routes system and had those fares who decide as tohigh travel byas private 5 bus transfers, whereas outside the BRT system they must pay vehicle. Yuan. Asa ofsecond 2010, fare to alltransfer. route Smart fares Cards provide cost frequent 2 Yuan BRT, a deliberate attempt by city government For those without cars, the BRT system has significantly users a discount as well: after the first fifteen rides in a month to subsidize and make the BRT system more accessibleenhanced regional to all accessibility citizens. by reducing Also, the within amount ofthe time subsequent fares are 1.2 Yuan. All of these changes have the BRT system, riders are allowed free bus transfers,needed whereas to travel around outside the city. the It has BRT also reduced system travel costs, effect of decreasing the average fare price for BRT riders.2 they must pay a second fare to transfer. Smart Cardsas users provide can transfer frequent for free from BRT BRT buses users to other busesa discount as well: after the first fifteen rides in a monthserving subsequentdifferent routes. The faressystem bodes are well1.2 for Yua lower-incomen. households by allowing them simple access to the city center, All of these changes have the effect of decreasingwhile the retaining ave ragetheir lower-value fare price property for on the BRT periphery of the 2 riders. city. This increased affordability can be attributed to the success of the overall system. 544 CASE STUDIES However, not only low-income households are enjoying the benefits of the project. Higher-income households along the BRT corridor, often car owners, initially opposed the BRT, fearing traffic conditions would worsen because of the reduced road space for TOD K P
IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSIT ROADBLOCKS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS Enacting this strategy was not without challenges, as authorities had to overcome decades’ worth of disjointed and piecemeal APPROXIMATE TIMELINE transportation planning within the city’s street network. Years of slow service and delays on the bus system also left negative • 2003- Preliminary planning for a BRT system began perceptions of bus transit with city residents. The methods • 2005- Conceptual plan, demand analysis & corridor used to improve were careful planning and analysis to justify comparison6 such a large-scale system. Demand analysis played a large • 2006- Phase 2 planning; traffic, operational and design role in designing the system. The project also supports a 6 planning; & demand analysis for Phase 1 comprehensive approach to transportation planning in rapid- • 2007-2008- Implementation planning & design6 growth scenarios, as congestion cannot be resolved without a • 2009- 3km stretch along Donghaochong Canal was cleared balanced modal share and shift in user attitude. and turned into a greenway KEY LESSONS • 2010- First phase of construction completed February The following key takeaways should be derived from the ACTIONABLE STEPS Guangzhou example: 1. Identify needs/ Take Inventory • Adopting a method of relieving the high demand placed on 2. Conduct Analysis of Area the bus and road systems existing along the corridor were a necessary adaption to improve the efficiency and success 3. Create Strategy Plan (Phases) of their transit system 4. Identify Key Stakeholders • The Guangzhou BRT boasts 850,000 average weekday 5. Find Funding riders. 6. Optimize/ Utilize Land Value • Public/ Private Partnership. 7. Create Design Strategies to Encourage Transit Use • Exemplifies modal connectivity and encourages active 8. Market to Encourage Active Transport transportation as a supplementary mode, with updated cycling and pedestrian infrastructure that is both safe and of KEY LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST world-class design. PRACTICES
SUMMARY A good example of successful TOD and BRT implementation, the system is a prime illustration of the success transit can bring to a city. The success of the project will undoubtedly bring transit-oriented development that intensifies and urbanizes the city along the Zhongshan corridor, lending to a more environmental and social-inducing urban form. Evidence from around the world shows that when high-quality transit service is in place, it encourages denser, more mixed-use land uses, setting a land use pattern more conducive to walking, biking, and transit in place of automobile trips. If this investment in multi-modal transportation encourages even a very small fraction of the several million people who live along the Zhongshan corridor to forgo a car purchase the impacts on GHGs is very large.4 Further, if local developers capitalize on these alternative transport assets and build dense, walkable, mixed-use housing developments with low parking ratios, the impact will grow larger than estimated here and be better sustained over time.
CASE STUDIES 545 TOD K P
1. Center for Clean Air Policy. 2013. “Developing Sustainable Transportation with the Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit System and Multi-Modal Transport Network.” CCAP Booklet, China Transport. http://ccap.org/assets/CCAP- Booklet_ChinaTransport.pdf 2. Huges, Colin, Xianyuan Xhu. 2011. “Guangzhou, China: Bus Rapid Transit Emissions Impact Analysis.” ITDP. https://www.itdp.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/GZ_ BRT_Impacts_20110810_ITDP.pdf 3. Far East Mobility. 2018. “Donghaochong canal and greenway.” Urban Development Best Practice Case Studies: BRT & Urban Transport Planning. http://www. fareast.mobi/en/bestpractices/donghaochong 4. Suzuki, Hiroaki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Luchi. 2013. “Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development.” The World Bank, Urban Development Series. 5. Morris, Jessica, and Stephanie Lotshaw. 2011. “Guangzhou wins 2011 Sustainable Transport Award for innovative transport solutions.” Institute for Transportation & Development Policy. https://www.itdp.org/guangzhou- wins-2011-sustainable-transport-award-for-innovative- transport-solutions/ 6. Fjellstrom, Karl. 2010. High capacity BRT planning, implementation & operation: Case study of the Guangzhou BRT. ITDP. Accessed July 24, 2018. http://www.uncrd.or.jp/ content/documents/5EST-B2B3.pdf 7. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. 2018. “How to Move Nearly 30,000 People per Hour Across a City.” Development Asia. Accessed July 25, 2018. https:// development.asia/case-study/how-move-nearly-30000- people-hour-across-city
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CASE STUDIES 547 TOD K P
ASIA | CASE STUDY SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Source:Adrianna Adrianna Guzman Guzman 2018 ©Adrianna Source:Guzman. Reproduced with permission from Adrianna Guzman; further permission required for URL:reuse.www.photopix.co.nz
548 CASE STUDIES TOD K P
SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Geographic Context East Asia (Republic of Korea)
Scale City, Neighbourhood, Station and Corridor
Context Urban and Suburban
URBAN CONTEXT The rail network in Seoul is now one of the largest in the world and carries 8.4 million passengers per day—more than twice With over 22 million residents and a population density of 10.4 the daily passenger volumes on the New York subways and the million inhabitants over a land area of 605 square kilometers, London underground. 6 Seoul is one of the largest and fastest growing mega-cities in The main problem, however, was poor bus service, which, in the world. Amongst this population, only a small percentage turn, encouraged increasing car use. Although it did not deal of Koreans have access to a car (2 per 1,000 persons) as of with the core problem of unregulated private bus firms, the 1970. Although ownership has increased vastly over the last 30 Seoul Metropolitan Government made several attempts to years, with 215 of every 1,000 currently owning a vehicle, this improve bus service and ridership. The first curbside bus lanes increase can be attributed to the inadequate transit provision were installed in 1984 and expanded to 89 km by 1993, 174 within Seoul.1 The result of such demand is a burdened bus km by 1994, and 219 km by 2003.4 The network of reserved system, characterized by both high passenger volumes, lengthy bus lanes helped speed up bus travel somewhat, but it did not ride durations and distances and reduced bus speeds. Demand succeed in raising bus use. Clearly, more drastic changes were greatly outweighing the public provision of transit, a drive necessary. Hence, Myung-Bak Lee, the former mayor of Seoul, towards transit-oriented development (TOD) became a necessity implemented more pressing reforms that involved generating to solve the overwhelming congestion and declining bus quality car-dominated areas, reclaiming space for pedestrians, and experienced in the city. fully integrating a BRT system supported by policy interventions Until 1974, Seoul was almost entirely dependent on bus and technical advocates. Due to such high densities, the Seoul services with intensive congestion, passenger volumes and trip metropolitan government over the years has also aggressively distances. This encouraged the creation of an urban rail system. sought to decentralize growth, mainly in the form of building Seoul’s first metro line was enacted in 1974 and has since grown master-planned new towns sited on the region’s periphery. to a total of 487 km in 2004 with close to 400 stations.
CASE STUDIES 549 TOD K P
OVERALL TOD STRATEGY & CITY KEY STAKEHOLDERS & STRUCTURE GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIPS
Over the past several decades Seoul has followed a pattern of The former Mayor Lee, and the Seoul Development Institute American-style sprawl with a rise in private automobile ownership. (SDI) were crucial in enacting far-reaching reforms for Seoul’s However, population densities in Seoul have historically been and public transit system. When elected in June 2002, Lee remain high by global standards.5 The city of Seoul itself, along promised to improve the public transport system in Seoul and with the port city of Incheon and surrounding Kyunggi Province, commissioned a series of comprehensive studies performed constitute the Seoul Metropolitan Area (also called the Seoul by the research division of SDI.4 The studies resulted in National Capital Area), with more than 23 million inhabitants—the recommendations for the modernization of the metro and world’s second-largest urban agglomeration.5 In 2006, Seoul and bus fare structures and payment systems, better integration Incheon combined had the sixth-highest population density in the of bus and metro services, an expanded network of reserved world (16,700 people per square kilometers).5 bus lanes, and a complete overhaul of the organization and 4 The transport specialists at SDI, led The deep reform of public transport in Seoul has been a major operation of bus services. by Dr. Gyengchul Kim and Dr. Keeyeon Hwang, were the main step towards retaining its competitive edge. The former Mayor technical advocates for these changes, while Mayor Lee and of Seoul, Myung-Bak Lee, led the charge of reinvesting in his staff provided the necessary political support.4 Seoul. In 2001, Lee ran for mayor of Seoul, largely on a platform of reinvigorating the central city as means of creating a more sustainable yet productive city.3 His platform called not only for expanding public transit services, but also for reducing the ecological footprint of private cars by reclaiming urban space consumed by roads and highways. “Why scar the interior of the city,” he reasoned, “to funnel suburbanites to office jobs in the core?”3
INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION FOR DENSITY A major culprit was the network of elevated freeways into central Seoul—facilities that severed longstanding neighborhoods, formed barriers and created visual blight5. Although freeways provided important mobility benefits, Lee recognized that those Elevated Freeway benefits had to be weighed against their nuisance effect.
Public transit had to be substantially expanded and upgraded to absorb traffic. The city did so by extending subway lines and creating seven new lines of exclusive median-lane buses (stretching 84 kilometers, later expanded to 162 kilometers) and 294 kilometers of dedicated curbside bus lanes.3
LAND TENURE & LAND VALUE CAPTURE The freeways to greenways conversion created higher market demands. The greenways along the TOD corridors further boosted land value and development activity along these busy corridors. When the elevated freeway existed housing prices within three kilometers fell.2 This shows the previous blight that Mayor Lee spoke about. When the freeway was convert to a Urban Greenway greenway the housing prices within 2km of it rose as much as 8%. Figure 25: Freeway to Greenway Conversion2 | Source: The World Bank 2013 ©Seoul Metropolitan Government 2003. Reproduced with permission from 2 More high-value industries and commercial parcels also came WB; further permission required for reuse. to the corridors near the greenway. This spoke volumes for the community’s values. Quality of place won over a car dominance.
550 CASE STUDIES the metro. Bus routes and stops have already been relocated to facilitate short and easy transfers between the bus and metro. To further facilitate bus-metro transfers, the city is now constructing 22 major transfer centers that will offer passengers convenient,K P sheltered bus stations providing real-time information about metro as well as bus services.TOD DESIGN STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE TRANSIT USE
One of the first major changes was an entire redesign of the bus network to integrate more than 400 different bus routes. All bus services are now grouped into four types, color-coded for passenger ease.
To coordinate bus services, the Seoul Metropolitan Government set up a new Bus Management System (BMS) using advanced intelligent transport system (ITS) technology. Global positioning system (GPS) terminals located in every bus now permit a central bus control center to monitor all bus locations and speeds, adjust the number of buses per route, communicate with bus drivers, and provide real-time information to passengers.4 The new BMS facilitates more dependable bus service and optimizes service distribution by adjusting bus assignments and schedules to conform to travel demands.1
In addition to the complete redesign of the route network, the system of dedicated bus lanes was expanded from 219 km Figure 26: Bus Rapid Transit Corridor in Central Seoul2 | Source: The World 4 2 to 294 km, with more expansions planned. Most significant, Bank Figure 2013 ©World 1: Bus Bank. Rapid Reproduced Transit with Corridor permission in from Central WB; further Seoul however, is the development of a true BRT network with permission required for reuse. INCLUSIVITY & AFFORDABLE TOD SYSTEMS dedicated center bus lanes, high-quality median bus stops, real- 3 time information integration and state-of-the-art buses.Add section The Seoul Metropolitan Government now views BRT as a much more economical and efficient way to provide publicIMPLEMENTATION transport OF TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS services than metro expansion, which can take many years to construct and requires large capital investments. Approximate timeline
Nevertheless, the extensive rail system in Seoul remains1953 -theFirst public bus began services backbone of public transportation. Better integrating1970 bus- Only 2 in every 1000 people had access to a car services with the metro is, therefore, essential. Bus1974 routes- Seouland Conducted its first metro line, 8km long stops have already been relocated to facilitate simple1984 transfers- First curbside bus lanes were installed between modes. The city is currently in the process1993 of building- Bus lanes expanded to 89km 22 additional transfer centers as well. 1994- Bus lanes expanded to 174km 2001- Myung-Bak Lee ran for mayor on the platform of reinvigorating the central city as means of creating a more sustainable yet productive city June 2002- Lee was elected and promised to improve the public transport system 2003- Bus lanes expanded to 219km December 2003- Results from studies performed by SDI were published recommending coordination and modernization of the metro and bus systems. January 2004- Mayor Lee conducted public relations campaign to explain the benefits of reform July 2004- Start date for implementation of reform 2004- Metro line expanded to 487km and bus lanes expanded to 294km July 2009- Metro line 9 opened for operation
CASE STUDIES 551 TOD K P
IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSIT KEY LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS PRACTICES
APPROXIMATE TIMELINE6 The dramatically altering reforms of July 2004 completely restructured bus services in Seoul and increased demand- • 1953- First public bus began services based control over routes, schedules, and other aspects of • 1970- Only 2 in every 1000 people had access to a car service. An integrated metro and bus system allow for seamless • 1974- Seoul Conducted its first metro line, 8km long transition between modes and a far superior overall public • 1984- First curbside bus lanes were installed transport system. Central to the reforms was the introduction of • 1993- Bus lanes expanded to 89km an entirely new system of fully-separated BRT routes. • 1994- Bus lanes expanded to 174km Studies have proven that BRT systems around the world can provide excellent express service at a fraction of the cost of • 2001- Myung-Bak Lee ran for mayor on the platform of new rail systems. The experience with BRT in Seoul has been a reinvigorating the central city as means of creating a more resounding success. sustainable yet productive city • June 2002- Lee was elected and promised to improve the ROADBLOCKS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE public transport system One roadblock appeared right after the major reform in which • 2003- Bus lanes expanded to 219km there was tremendous service disruption, public discontent, and • December 2003- Results from studies performed by political uproar. A smooth transition to the completely new bus SDI were published recommending coordination and routes, fare structure, and fare payment system required more modernization of the metro and bus systems. time. In particular, there should have been a trial period to test the reforms on a selective basis instead of immediately adopting • January 2004- Mayor Lee conducted public relations them system-wide. Mayor Lee created campaigns to inform campaign to explain the benefits of reform the citizens about this major reform however he only ran the • July 2004- Start date for implementation of reform campaign for six months prior to the start date. To improve this • 2004- Metro line expanded to 487km and bus lanes in the future, more time and effort to distribute the appropriate expanded to 294km information to the public before implementing the reforms • July 2009- Metro line 9 opened for operation should be planned. ACTIONABLE STEPS KEY LESSONS 1. Identify needs/ Take Inventory The following key takeaways should be derived from the Seoul 2. Create Strategy Plan (Phases) example: 3. Establish Policies • Mayoral-led efforts 4. Identify Key Stakeholders • Minimized network of elevated freeways 5. Optimize/ Utilize Land Value • Both BRT and metro lines were exponentially increased in length 6. Create Design Strategies to Encourage Transit Use • Integrated Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) 7. Market Plan • Created 400 bus routes and constructed 22 major transfer centers.
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1. Development Institute. 2004. “Monitoring bus service systems: For Seoul bus system reform programs, Seoul, South Korea.” Seoul Development Institute. 2. Suzuki, Hiroaki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Luchi. 2013. “Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development.” The World Bank, Urban Development Series. 3. Seoul Development Institute. 2003. “Guidelines for implementation of the transportation system reform in Seoul: Bus operation system.” Seoul Development Institute. 4. Seoul Development Institute. 2003. “Guidelines for implementation of the transportation system reform in Seoul: Policy for public transportation fare.” Seoul Development Institute. 5. Atlas of Urban Expansion. 2014. “Seoul”. http://www. atlasofurbanexpansion.org/cities/view/Seoul 6. Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. 2005. “Origin and development of the Seoul metropolitan subway system.” Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. http://www.smrt.co.kr/english/ smrt/state_smsc. jsp?m1=1&m2=4.
CASE STUDIES 553 TOD K P
AMERICAS | CASE STUDY MEXICO CITY, MEXICO
Source: Mexperience / Foreign Native Source: Mexperience 2016 ©Foreign Native. URL:Reproducedhttps://www.mexperience.com/mexico with permission from Foreign Native; - cityfurther-to-be permission-known required-as-mexico for reuse.-city/
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MEXICO CITY, MEXICO
Geographic Context South America (Mexico)
Scale City, Corridor, and Station
Mode of Higher Order Transit BRT Metrobus and Metro
Size of City (Population) 21.4 million (Tier-1)
Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, is home to over 17 million The improvements have also produced modest reductions in people and a population greater than any other city in North emissions of greenhouse gases and smog.
America. The city has a population density of approximately The Metrobus greatly enhanced the public sector’s direct 1 8,400 people per sq. kilometer and is growing by 2.5% annually. involvement in the planning of key transportation services With such an immense population and an urban area that is and administrative faculties, which had suffered throughout gradually becoming denser, various issues have come to arise previous decades. This outcome is arguably just as—if not as a result. Congested travel modes, significant pollution and more—important than BRT’s impacts on mobility, safety, and smog, and unsafe transit systems are each a result of the growth pollution. Mexico City’s surface transit industry has transitioned Mexico City has been experiencing. In order to combat these from a system dominated by an unruly and unmanageable adverse effects, in 2005, Mexico City created a Bus Rapid set of independent, small-scale operators concerned only for Transit (BRT) system called Metrobus. personal gain. Instead, a professional, modernized, faster, Metrobus is the world’s sixth busiest BRT system and is a safer, environmentally-conscious system replaced jitney continually-expanding system which now carries more than 300 service improving the experiences of millions that rely on public million passengers a year across 125 kilometers and six lines of transportation in their day-to-day lives. exclusive bus lanes.8 Compared to the jitney bus services that BRT replaced, travel times in BRT corridors have fallen by 40 percent and there are 30 percent fewer accidents. In addition, 15 percent of drivers in corridors served by BRT reportedly have switched to public transit.4
CASE STUDIES 555 TOD K P
Mexico City generated a quick-to-implement, modest, and yet The siting of Mexico City’s first BRT system was also strategic highly visible programmatic success on key corridors in the in its creation. Although ridership was projected to be lower, city. In 2005, Metrobus opened and replaced 350 standard BRT implementation began Insurgentes Avenue, on the basis buses with 97 BRT vehicles, owned by both private and public that it was located in a very prominent area and that political companies.6 The project consists of two components, the negotiations with the independent bus operators were likely first being the construction of a mass transit corridor along be simpler. This allowed for a less-costly and quick example of Insurgentes Avenue, integrated with traffic management visible BRT success in the city, paving the way for subsequent for private vehicle travel. The system would include various corridors to be expanded to match the successes of Insurgents. elements for more efficient and comfortable travel including: INFRASTRUCTURE FUNDING exclusive bus lanes, upgraded pedestrian facilities leading to stations and low-polluting buses to replace the former polluting In addition to the submission of opposition, the strategy towards and low-capacity vehicles. The second component of the BRT financing would prove both beneficial and forward-thinking project would be the monitoring of the system and the creation for Mexico City. Projected to cost over USD49.4 million, a of cycling linkages and new corridors to create a more integrated combination of public, private and carbon financing methods system. 6 were used.8 Specifically, with regard to carbon financing, Mexico City government intended to use the purchase of greenhouse The approach towards implementing the BRT system was gas emission reduction to finance the project, as well as Clean particularly complicated for Mexican officials, as existing, Development Mechanism (CDM) revenues. With the objective of independent bus and jitney providers were highly resistant to reducing carbon emissions through the introduction of the BRT, the movement, as it would essentially put them out of business. this financing method proved to be viable and resulted in more The independent operations being undertaken prior to the funding than anticipated for the Metrobus. Over 35,000 tons of BRT can be characterized as unruly and unmanageable, with carbon dioxide are reported to have been reduced annually due operation sacrificing service standards for revenue.5 The shift to the new BRT system.6 towards greater public control over transit allows for a focus on achieving transportation best practices that are beneficial socially, economically and environmentally. Reaching this point of public-sector control required strategic compensation, negotiation and persuasion at times. Initially, the government granted private operators compensation, which financially onerous, was replaced with guaranteed income in the new BRT system. Moreover, when financial methods were unsuccessful in inducing collaboration with jitney operators, city officials used rivalry groups to outflank operators that were not cooperating and threaten to move forward with new partner’s instead.5 This strategic approach to combating BRT opposition proved successful.
556 CASE STUDIES TOD K P
Essential to the success of Mexico City’s BRT system This government intervention was paired with the creation of a was the mayor-led drive for control over the existing new public entity, Metrobus, and partnering with private entities transportation system in Mexico City. Gaining control over RTP and CISA, which would operate and maintain operations of the formerly unmanaged private sector service providers, the BRT. This allowed for safer and more professional operation through compensation, negotiation and when unsuccessful, of the public transit system that provided fair and objective fare credible threats, allowed for public transit to be expanded to systems to residents. As well, the city expanded the financial actually include the public sector. The project overall can be benefits of public-private partnership arrangements beyond characterized as government-led, with the strategic integration original bus and jitney owners to generate more widespread of private entities to assist in financing and operating the system. industry support for the changes.5 Providing the public bus operator with the opportunity to act as a participant in the The planning, management and construction financing were creation of the first BRT line, city officials gained the support of largely provided by the Mexico City government. Internalizing public sector workers, accessed their experiential wisdom, and infrastructure costs allowed for large-scale capital financing to reduced the number of new buses requiring financing. be taken care of, while vehicle provision and fare administration were contracted to reputable private entities, RTP and CISA. Public and private entities involved also strived to be transparent with and cognizant of the citizens that would be utilizing the The newly elected Mayor, Lopez Obrador, strategically timed system. To understand whether a mandate for change existed changes to Mexico City’s bus service to solidify public support, within Mexico City’s residents, public consultation booths by pushing the agenda for both BRT and highway expansion, across the city were used to gain an impression of locals’ exemplifying an agenda of balanced transportation.5 This thoughts and opinions on a potential BRT system. By using a assisted in quieting the car-supportive voters that would comprehensive approach, inclusive of the various stakeholders, normally have opposed the project. Policy objectives of safety, Mexico City was able to introduce a system that was widely enhanced air quality, environmental sustainability and urban supported and successful as a result. redevelopment of distressed areas of the city led the drive and appeal for the project.
CASE STUDIES 557 PublicPublic and andprivate private entities entities involved involved also also strived strived to be to transparent be transparent with withand andcognizant cognizant of the of citizensthe citizens that twouldhat would be utilizing be utilizing the system.the system. To understand To understand whether whether a mandate a mandate for change for change existed existed within within Mexico Mexico City’sCity’s residents, residents, public public consultation consultation booths booths across across the citythe werecity were used used to gain to gain an impression an impression of locals’ of locals’ thoughtsthoughts and andopinions opinions on a on potential a potential BRT BRT system. system. By using By using a comprehensive a comprehensive approach, approach, inclusive inclusive of of the variousthe various stakeholders, stakeholders, Mexico Mexico City Citywas wasable able to introduce to introduce a system a system that thatwas waswidely widely supported supported and and successfulsuccessful as a as result. a result. DESIGNDESIGN STRATEGIES STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGETO ENCOURAGE TRANSIT TRANSIT USE USE
MexicoMexico City Cityimplemented implemented tried tried and andtrue truepolicy pol templatesicy templates from from other other cities cities, as ,well as wellas, leveragingas, leveraging externalexternal resources resources to help to help catapult catapult new new ideas ideas for transport for transport onto onto the publicthe public agenda. agenda. Environment Environment MinisterMinister Claudia Claudia Sheinbaum Sheinbaum developed developed the BRTthe BRT proposal proposal with withprogrammatic programmatic and andfunding funding support support from from a globala global network network of sustainable of sustainable transport transport researchers, researchers, funders, funders, development development agencies, agencies, and and philanthropies.philanthropies. In designing In designing their their BRT BRT system, system, Mexico Mexico City Citywas wasdriven driven by the by mayoralthe mayoral political political agenda agenda of supportingof supporting a balanced a balanced transportation transportation system. system.5 With5 With this thissaid, said, future futuredevelopmentsdevelopments intend intend to address to address cyclingcycling networks networks and andthe extensionthe extension of the of BRTthe BRT corridor corridor to better to better integrate integrate these these modes. modes. With With over over 855,000855,000 passengers passengers daily, daily, Metrobus Metrobus has hasbeen been successful successful in ensuring in ensuring a shift a shift from from a car a- dominatedcar-dominated modalmodal preference. preference.4 Ridership4 Ridership has hinsteadas instead switched switched to transit, to transit, as well as wellas cycling as cycling which which has hasbeen been seamlesslyseamlessly integrated integrated into intothe BRTthe BRT system system with withthe 2010the 2010 creation creation of EcoBici. of EcoBici. EcoBici EcoBici is a isbike a bike sharing sharing programprogram created created to increase to increase the popularitythe popularity of bike of bike commuting commuting in Mexico in Mexico City, City, with withover over 6,000 6,000 bikes bikes and and250 250stations stations dispersed dispersed amongst amongst the citythe ascity of as 2015. of 2015.3 The3 Thewidespread widespread system system is efficient is efficient and and simplesimple to use to useand andwas wasstrategically strategically launched launched near near transit transit stations stations to encourage to encourage multi multi-modal-modal travel. travel. WithWith the intentionthe intention to expand to expand the systemthe system even even further fur therin 2018 in 2018 and andto improve to improve bike bike infrastructure infrastructure to to supportsupport EcoBici, EcoBici, cycling cycling is likely is likely to be to a be large a large influence influence in discouraging in discouraging car travelcar travel in Mexico in Mexico City. City.
To encourageTo encourage this thisincreased increasedTOD transit transitK use,P use, which which has hasresulted resulted in a inreduction a reduction of car of usecar useby 15%, by 15%, focusing focusing 4 4 on theon environmentalthe environmental aspect aspectDESIGN of transportation STRATEGIESof transportation TO ENCOURAGE was wasan important an important driver. driver.FormerlyFormerly plagued plagued by smog by smog and andpollution, pollution, the BRTthe BRT system TRANSITsystem aimed USE aimed to mitigate to mitigate these these adverse adverse effects effects and andreduced reduced the amountthe amount of of Mexico City implemented tried and true policy templates To encourage this increased transit use, which has resulted in harmfulharmful air pollutants air pollutants riders ridersfrom were other cities,were exposed as well as,exposed leveraging to external be toresources 2 be-3 to times.2-3a reductiontimes. Ac of carcident useAc bycident 15%, ratesfocusing onrates thewere environmental were also also significantly significantly help catapult new ideas for transport onto the public agenda. aspect of transportation was an important driver.4 Formerly reducedreduced by up by to up 30%. to 30%. Providing EnvironmentProviding Minister a safer Claudia a saferSheinbaum and developed andhealthier thehealthier BRT systemplagued system by smog to and pollution,its to citizens theits BRT citizens system aimedwas to wasone oneimportant important factor factor proposal with4 the support4 and advice of a global network of mitigate these adverse effects and reduced the amount of to improvingto improving their their use useof transit. ofsustainable transit. transport researchers, funders and development harmful air pollutants riders were exposed to be 2-3 times. agencies. In designing their BRT system, Mexico City was Accident rates were also significantly reduced by up to 30%. driven by the mayoral political agenda of supporting a balanced Providing a safer and healthier system to its citizens was one Additionally,Additionally, upgrades upgrades to the transportationto stationsthe system.stations5 With and this said, andfleet future developmentsfleet of buses of busesimportant being factorbeing usedto improving used theirallowed use ofallowed transit. 4 for greater for greater capacity capacity and and comfortcomfort for riders. for riders. Overcrowding Overcrowdingintend to address and cycling and congestionnetworks congestion and the extension discourage of the discourageAdditionally, upgradesridership, ridership,to the stations thereby and fleet thereby of buses combatting being combatting these these BRT corridor to better integrate these modes. With over 855,000 used allowed for greater capacity and comfort for riders. passengers daily, Metrobus has been successful in ensuring Overcrowding and congestion discourage ridership, thereby issuesissues is vital is vitalto encouraging to encouraging transit transit use. use. The Theuse4 useof vehicles of vehicles with witha 160 a 160passenger passenger capacity capacity versus versus a shift from a car-dominated modal preference. Ridership combating these issues is vital to encouraging transit use. The the smallerthe smaller standard standard buses buseshas in instead the inswitched pastthe to transit, past system as well system as cycling was which has wasbeneficial usebeneficial of vehicles towith atackling 160 to passenger tackling capacity the versus issuethe the smaller issue of of been seamlessly integrated into the BRT system with the 2010 standard buses in the past system was beneficial to tackling the 6 6 6 crowding.crowding.Moreover,Moreover, the improvedthecreation improved of EcoBici. efficiencyEcoBici isefficiency a bike sharing that program that arosecreated arose issuefrom of crowding. from theMoreover, BRTthe the BRT improvedsystem efficiencysystem was that arose was a vital a vitaldeterminant determinant to increase the popularity of bike commuting in Mexico City, from the BRT system was a vital determinant in encouraging a in encouragingin encouraging a shift a shift for private forwith over private 6,000 car bikes and usecar 250 stations useto dispersedpublic to publicamongst transit. the transit.shift forCommute private Commute car use to public time transit. time Commutehave timehave been have been reported reported to have to have 3 city as of 2015. The widespread system is efficient and simple been reported to have seen reduction of up to half an hour and seenseenreductionreduction of up of to up half toto halfusean and hour wasan strategically hour and launched andbuses near buses transit are stations strategicallyareto strategicallybuses are strategically timed timed totimed arrive to at higharrive to frequencies arrive at of high at high frequencies frequencies of of encourage multi-modal travel. With the intention to expand the 6 6 6 up to 56 per hour during peak times of the day. In scenarios up toup 56 to per 56 hourper hour during during peaksystem peak eventimes further times in 2018of andthe ofto improve day.the bike day. infrastructureIn scenariosIn scenarioswhere public transitwhere becomes where thepublic more efficientpublic transit option, transit it is becomes becomes the morethe more to support EcoBici, cycling is likely to be a large influence in unsurprising that the modal shift moves in its favor. efficientefficient option, option, it is itunsurprising is unsurprisingdiscouraging carthat travel in thatthe Mexico City.modalthe modal shif tshif movest moves in its in favor. its favor.
Tepalcates Central Station (Before) Tepalcates Central Station (After) Figure 27: MetroBus Station Design | Source: New York City Global Partners Innovation Exchange 2012 ©Metrobus.
FigureFigure1. MetroBus1. MetroBus Station Station Design Design 9 9
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INCLUSIVE & AFFORDABLE TOD IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSIT SYSTEMS ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS
Inclusivity and affordability are also essential parts of improving APPROXIMATE TIMELINE 9 the appeal of public transit. In the case of Mexico City’s • June 2005- Metrobus Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) began Metrobus, all paper tickets and cash payments have been operations- Line 1 Phase 1 removed from the system and payment occurs solely with • March 2008- Opening of Line 1 Phase 2 the use of rechargeable fare cards.2 This method of payment, although efficient, has its shortcomings, in that only some of the • December 2008- Opening of MetroBus Line 2 stations have card recharge stations. It also costs citizens 10 • 2010- EcoBici, bike sharing program, was created pesos to initially purchase the card, which has impacts on the • May 2010- Start of construction of Line 3 system’s affordability. Each ride costs 6 pesos, which includes • February 2011- Opening of Line 3 as many transfers as need be and use of all five BRT lines.2 The ability to travel at such lengths and with unlimited transfers has • April 2012- Opening of Line 4 the effect of improving the affordability of the transit line for • November 2013- Opening of Line 5 riders that travel from periphery neighborhoods to the inner city. • 2015- EcoBici had 6,000 bikes and 250 stations in Mexico While the system may not be as largely subsidized comparably City with examples in Asia, for instance, the price is by no means a • January 2016- Opening of Line 6 complete barrier to public transit use. • February 2018- Opening of Line 7 In the spirit of transit-oriented development, including affordable • 2018- Expand EcoBici system further and improve bike housing in the developments that result along the BRT corridor infrastructure. is being emphasized to cater to the diverse population using the system. One example is the IntegrARA Iztacalco development ACTIONABLE STEPS which is less than a quarter mile from a BRT line and is reusing 1. Identify needs/ Take Inventory a greyfield industrial site to create 720 affordable housing 2. Create Strategy Plan (Phases) units.7 The development includes courtyards, recreational 3. Identify Key Stakeholders spaces, cycling facilities and mixed-use, high density buildings to create a neighborhood closely resembling best practices of 4. Find Funding transit-oriented development. By catering to a broad range of 5. Mitigate Competition income levels and providing a mix of private and public spaces 6. Optimize/ Utilize Land Value with close access to both the BRT and metro corridors, the 7. Create Design Strategies to Encourage Transit Use development makes living near transit an affordable option.
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KEY LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST ENDNOTES
PRACTICES 1. Atlas of Urban Expansion. 2018. “Mexico City.” http://www. atlasofurbanexpansion.org/cities/view/Mexico_City SUMMARY 2. Ciudad de Mexico. 2018. “Metrobus.” Metrobus. http:// Mexico City’s implementation of a BRT system is well-known www.metrobus.cdmx.gob.mx/ as best practice in the TOD development realm. With clear 3. Petalta, Martha Delgado. 2017. “Lessons from Ecobici for improvements to efficiency, environmental impact, rider the Implementation of Public Bicycle Systems in Mexico.” satisfaction and capacity, the system has been a success. Global Cities Covenant on Climate Secretariat. Friedrich- Mexico City was successful in their use of public-private Ebert-Stiftung. partnerships and environmental reduction as methods of financing the large capital cost infrastructure project. Mexico 4. Aguilera, Guillero Calderon. 2012. “Best Practice: Metrobus City involved not only private corporations, but the bus Bus Rapid Transit System.” New York City Global operators and drivers as well, which allowed for a diverse Partners. http://www.nyc.gov/html/ia/gprb/downloads/pdf/ investment group to buy-in to the project. Moreover, by focusing Mexico%20City_Metrobus.pdf on the environmental aspects of transit provision, the city was 5. Transforming Urban Transport: The Role of Political able to capitalize on carbon emission reduction costs to finance Leadership (TUT-POL). 2016. “Mexico City’s Bus Rapid the project, whilst also improving their ecological footprint. Transit: Incrementally Laying the Groundwork for Large- scale Transformation.” Harvard University, Graduate ROADBLOCKS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE School of Design. http://research.gsd.harvard.edu/tut/ A major roadblock while implementing the BRT system was the files/2016/10/MexicoCityBrief1003.pdf independent bus and jitney providers were highly resistant to the 6. United Nations. 2018. “Mexico City Bus Rapid Transit.” movement, as it would essentially put them out of business. The Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform. independent operations being undertaken prior to the BRT can https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index. be characterized as unruly and unmanageable, with operation php?page=view&type=99&nr=49&menu=1449 sacrificing service standards for revenue. The way that they improved this situation was first by compensation, negotiation 7. urbanNext. 2014. “IntegrARA: Urban Affordable Housing in and persuasion. When financial measures were unsuccessful Mexico City.” a | 911. https://urbannext.net/integrara/ city officials used rivalry groups to outflank operators that were 8. The World Bank. 2018. “Mexico City Insurgentes Bus not cooperating and threatened to move forward with new Rapid Transit System Carbon Finance Project.” Projects partners instead. and Operations. http://projects.worldbank.org/P082656/ mexico-city-insurgentes-bus-rapid-transit-system-carbon- KEY LESSONS finance-project?lang=en The following key takeaways should be derived from the Mexico City example:
• Project consisted of two components- Construction of a mass transit corridor and then monitoring the system and creating cycle linkages and new corridors. • Metrobus greatly enhanced the public sector’s direct involvement in the planning and territorial management of key transportation services. • Over 35,000 tons of carbon dioxide are reduced annually due to the new BRT system. • Increased transit use resulted in a 15% reduction in car use. • Accident rates have been reduced by to 30%. • Less than a quarter mile from a BRT line 720 affordable housing units were created.
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AMERICAS | CASE STUDY
Source: Culture Trip 2017 ©Turismo Chile. Reproduced with permission from Turismo Chile; further permission required for reuse.
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Geographic Context South America (Chile)
Size of City (Population) 6.3 million (Tier 2)
Santiago, Chile, the capital city of Chile, is one of the most Persistent and severe complaints prompted intervention from densely populated cities in the Americas. With a population the government of Chile to overhaul the city’s public transport of over 7 million people, it is the most populous city in Chile, system with a metro and bus-based integrated system, focused with a density of almost 9,000 people per square kilometer.1 on including a high-tech centralized control system. An entirely The population is dispersed across a large urban area, which new transport industry structure was conceptualized and continues to increase in its extents and population annually. financed through an international bid for tenders. Transportation in Chile has be known to be lengthy and The resulting system of a seamlessly integrated BRT and metro inefficient, with safety and passenger treatment receiving very lends to the ideals of transit-oriented development (TOD) that low priority. Between the absence of fare integration with other are being emphasized in planning and development practices transport services or with the subway, higher demand than currently. A system of efficiency, passenger comfort and safety provision, the poor treatment of passengers and a high accident for both riders and the environment has resulted from necessary rate, the transit system does not provide an environment that interventions. encourages its use.3 Commuter resentment against the system was rising and according to a survey conducted in 2003, the bus system was voted the city’s worst public service.3
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OVERALL TOD STRATEGY & CITY DESIGN STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE STRUCTURE TRANSIT USE
Transantiago, the public transport system in Santiago, Chile Santiago has utilized a variety of design strategies to ensure is comprised of a bus rapid transit (BRT), feeder bus lines and the increased and continued use of their transit services upon a metro system. It completed its fourth year of operation in their expansion. A main driver in ridership is the seamless February 2011. Prior to Transantiago’s implementation, the city’s integration of the BRT and Metro systems. With a unified fare public transport system proved to be problematic. The system system which uses contactless fare cards, transferring between was fully privatized and run by 3,000 independent operators, modes is efficient and affordable.3 In the case of Santiago’s using a fleet of converted trucks, unfit for public transport.3 two inter-modal transit stations, riders do not even have to Since 2001, the buses enabled 43 percent of the motorized trips leave the confines of the station to transfer between modes. in the city.3 This increased accessibility and convenience for riders is a
Santiago’s overall strategy to improving the shortcomings of vital influence in their use of the full transit system, all modes these systems was an integrated multi-modal system inclusive included. of a BRT and an expanded Metro network. BRT development Essential to furthering Metro and BRT integration was the involved the creation of 18.8 km of segregated corridors, 4.6 introduction of connected cycling infrastructure within transit km of new road connections, 62.7 km of road and pavement Overall,systems. the implementation Formerly, of Transantiago Santiago was had based very on fewtwo objectives: cycling complementationnetworks and integration. Complementation related to the enhancement of both the BRT and Metro systems to improvements, and construction of about 70 bus stops.3 The better complementseparated each or otheron their and create roadways, a multi-modal which system. was Integrat mitigatedion references in 2007 the development of a single-fare system of both bus and Metro. Through these underlying objectives, a bus fleet was made up of 1,200 new low-floor articulated system withthat serves a plan over. to introduce 690 kilometers of bike lanes throughout trunk buses, 1,500 conventional trunk buses and 2,300 feeder both rural and urban areas.2 Still in its implementation phases buses.3 The expansion of the metro network expansion includedDESIGN city-wide, STRATEGIES examples TO ENCOURAGE of inclusion TRANSIT in USEdistricts of the city have construction of 66 km of tracks and 68 stations at a total cost Santiagocome has utilized to exist. a variety For of example,design strategies the districtto ensure ofthe Providencia increased and continued engaged use of their transit services upon their expansion. A main driver in ridership is the seamless integration of the BRT of USD $2.4 billion. About 45 km of tracks were built between and Metroin asystems. public With bike a unified system fare assystem of 2009, which use which contactless has grown fare cards, from transferring an between 3 2000 and 2006, enhancing the ability of the system to deliver modes isinitial efficient 1,000 and affordable. bikes to Inover the case4,000. of Santiago’s Costing two only inter USD2.00-modal transit monthly stations, riders do not even have to leave the confines of the station to transfer between modes. This increased 830,000 trips per day. Another 21 km were built after 2006 whichaccessibility for unlimitedand convenience trips for of riders up tois aan vital hour, influence the in system their use catersof the full to transit a broad system, all modes included. enabled 254,000 additional daily trips.3 The integration of cycling range of citizens from 14 to 80 years of age.2 Compared to other Essential to furthering Metro and BRT integration was the introduction of connected cycling facilities and bike sharing within public transit is also planned forinfrastructure South within American transit systems. cities, Formerly, Santiago Santiago is reported had very few to cyclinghave networksthe best separated or enhancement, to allow for active transportation options with theon their cyclingroadways, integration which was mitigated as shown in 2007 in with the a plantable to introducebelow. With690 kilometers heightened of bike lanes throughout both rural and urban areas.2Still in its implementation phases city-wide, examples of modal split. inclusionand in districts simplified of the city access have come to toand exist. from For example,transit thestations district ofvia Providencia bicycle, engaged in a public bike system as of 2009, which has grown from an initial 1,000 bikes to over 4,000. Costing Integration of transit services involved the installation of a unifiedonly USD$2.00citizens’ monthly willingness for unlimited to trips use of transit up to an ratherhour, the than system private caters tovehicles a broad range of 2 citizens hasfrom improved.14 to 80 years of age. Compared to other South American cities, Santiago is reported to financial system, contactless fare cards, and the constructionhave of the best cycling integration (Figure 1). With heightened and simplified accessibility to and from transit stations via bicycle, citizens’ willingness to use transit rather than private vehicles has improved. two inter-modal stations. The system allowed for the integration of information systems for operational control and data collection, investment estimated at USD $30 million.3
Overall, the implementation of Transantiago was based on two objectives: complementation and integration. Complementation related to the enhancement of both the BRT and Metro systems to better complement each other and create a multi-modal system. Integration references the development of a single- fare system of both bus and Metro. Through these underlying objectives, a system that serves over.
FigureTable 1:4: Santiago’sSantiago’s cycling cycling integration integration statistics statistics when compared when compared to similar Latinto similar American cities.2 Latin American cities.2 | Source: Paolo Jiron ©UN Habitat. Reproduced with permission from UN Habitat; further permission required for reuse.
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Moreover, a continued focus on ensuring Transantiago is Essential to the implementation of Transantiago were the various expanding to meet demand ensures efficiency and capacity, stakeholders that played a role in its road to fruition. Developed which are both drivers for heightened ridership. Santiago, Chile under the mandate of the Urban Transportation Plan for Santiago is reported to have the highest rail extension growth of all Latin (PTUS), a Presidential Advisory Commission was enacted to American countries, with over 60km of rail expansion anticipated create an institutional framework for implementing the project. as shown in Figure.2 In addition, simple design measures such The commission consisted of the Ministers of Public Works and as; colored bus lanes to avoid private vehicle incursion and Housing, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Transport Under- delays in travel, lighting inclusion within bus stops for safety secretary, Environmental Commission Director and the Metro purposes and environmental policies that reduced emissions up leaders.2 Each with different priorities and focuses with regards Moreover, a continued focus on ensuring Transantiago is expanding to meet demand ensures efficiencyto 20%. and3 These capacity, strategies, which are both although drivers for seemingly heightened ridership.minuscule, Santiago, have Chile isto reported transportation, to different perspectives were brought to the have the highest rail extension growth of all Latin American countries, with over 60km of rail expansion anticipatedlarge impacts (Figure 2).on2 Inthe addition, efficiency simple designand comfortmeasures suchof public as; colored transport bus lanes toplanning avoid process and an integrated framework of a variety of privatesystems vehicle in incursion Santiago and and delays can in travel, be attributed lighting inclusion to greater within bus rider stops for safetyurban purposes priorities was developed. and environmental policies that reduced emissions up to 20%.3These strategies, although seemingly satisfaction. miniscule, have large impacts on the efficiency and comfort of public transport systems inThe Santiago overall infrastructure funding was raised multiple ways. and can be attributed to greater rider satisfaction. Forty-five percent of it was raised through public-private partnerships. Whereas, the remaining infrastructure was founded by the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism.4
The PTUS was eventually restructured and replaced with Transantiago, still led by the presidential advisors. The lack of lower-level stakeholder integration, in this case, can be described as one of the biggest downfalls to the project. With only high- level organization leaders engaged, local authorities, citizens and operating staff were not advised. Instead, the Presidential Advisory Commission had sole control, which led to a lack of accountability, coordination and efficiency.2 Decentralizing Figure 28: The rail expansion (in km) expected for various Latin American the responsibilities with regards to public transit and including Figure 2: The rail expansion (in km) expected for various Latin American countries, Santiago leading the expansion trends.2 2 countries, Santiago leading the expansion trends. | Source: Paolo Jiron ©UN lower-level actors represents a much more effective institutional KEYHabitat. STAKEHOLDERS Reproduced &with GOVERNMENT permission from RELATIONSHIPS UN Habitat; further permission framework. Best practices from other contexts should be Essentialrequired to forthe reuse. implementation of Transantiago were the various stakeholders that played a role in its road to fruition. Developed under the mandate of the Urban Transportation Plan for Santiagoconsidered (PTUS), in this case for future success with public transit. a Presidential Advisory Commission was enacted to create an institutional framework for implementing the project. The commission consisted of the Ministers of Public Works and Housing, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Transport Under-secretary, Environmental Commission Director and the Metro leaders.2 Each with different priorities and focuses with regards to transportation, different perspectives were brought to the planning process and an integrated framework of a variety of urban priorities was developed. The overall infrastructure funding was raised multiple ways. Forty-five percent of it was raised through public private partnerships. Whereas, the remaining infrastructure was founded by the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism.4 The PTUS was eventually restructured and replaced with Transantiago, still led by the presidential advisors. The lack of lower-level stakeholder integration in this case can be described as one of the biggest downfalls to the project. With only high-level organization leaders engaged, local authorities, citizens and operating staff were not advised. Instead, the Presidential Advisory Commission had sole control, which led to a lack of accountability, coordination and efficiency.2 Decentralizing the responsibilities with regards to public transit and including lower-level actors represents a much more effective institutional framework. Best practices from other contexts should be considered in this case for future success with public transit.
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INCLUSIVITY & AFFORDABILITY IN TOD SYSTEMS
Offering more adequate public transportation is a step in the The issue with this form of housing development is its lack right direction in terms of offering equitable and accessible of connectivity and self-sufficiency, often creating instances transport for all. Based on factors such as cost and safety of of urban islands on the city periphery. Although this allows INCLUSIVITY &transit AFFORDABILITY options, Santiago IN TOD is SYSTEMS working towards improved inclusivity for larger areas for social housing and more affordable land, in Transantiago. With regards to fare affordability, Transantiago transportation in the future must better link these areas to allow Offering more adequate public transportation is a step in the right direction in terms of offering for true TOD. As well, the creation of separated low-income equitable and accessiblecosts USD$0.74 transport per for all.ride Based paid viaon factorscontactless such as fare cost cards. and safety of transit options, Santiago is workingStatistically, towards improved lower income inclusivity groups in Transantiago. are more likely With to regards walk, but to fare affordability,districts is a concept that has been largely refuted in present Transantiago costscompared USD$0.74 with per higher-income ride paid via contactless groups, use fare the cards. bus Stat moreistically, often lower incometimes, as these locations amplify crime and safety concerns groups are more likely to walk, but compared with higher-income groups, use the bus more often and 2 and are likely to be disproportionality exposed to health hazards are not likely to anddrive are private not vehicleslikely to (Figuredrive private 3).2 vehicles as shown in figure. when compared to middle and high-income groups. Strategic mixing of different income groups and better transportation integration with these periphery locations should be considered for development in the future.
IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS
APPROXIMATE TIMELINE • 2000- Metro network expansion started • 2001- Buses enabled 43% of the motorized trips in the city • 2003- Bus System was voted worst public survey
• 2006- Added 21km to existing 45km of metro network Figure 29: Modal share by income level in Santiago, Chile.2 | Source: Paolo 2 Jiron ©UN Habitat. Figure Reproduced3: Modal share with permission by income from level UN in Habitat; Santiago, further Chile. • 2007- Plan was mitigated to add 690lm of bike lanes permission required for reuse. To be derived from the above figure is the lower use of metro when compared to the BRT, as wellthrough as rural and urban areas. the tendency for lower-income households to walk instead. These statistics can lend to a question• 2009- of Providencia engaged in a public bike system affordability in theTo system. be derived Although from thethe fare above seems figure insignificant is the lower when use compared of metro to North American comparable cities,when in the compared context of to Santiago, the BRT, the as underlying well as the avoidance tendency of for public lower- transit should• be2011- Transantiago completed fourth year of operation studied to considerincome possibilities households for public to walk subsidy. instead. These statistics can lend to ACTIONABLE STEPS Additionally, witha regardsquestion to ofTOD, affordability affordable in housing the system. has become Although a larger the farepriority seems for the city since the 1. Identify needs/ Take Inventory 1990s, as shantytownsinsignificant and slum when housing compared were a to prevalent North Americanoption for lowercomparable-income households. To mitigate the effects of this unhealthy and inadequate housing type, conditioned planning has emerged in Santiago. Thiscities, form ofin landthe contextuse planning of Santiago, allows urban the underlyingdevelopment avoidance to expand of beyond city2. limitsCreate on Strategy Plan (Phases) a case-to-case basis,public allowing transit shouldresidential be developmentstudied to consider to spill out possibilities into the peripheries for of the3. city. I2dentifyThe Key Stakeholders issue with this formpublic of housing subsidy. development is its lack of connectivity and self-sufficiency, often creating instances of urban islands on the city periphery. Although this allows for larger areas4. forC socialonduct Inter-Agency Collaboration housing and more affordable land, transportation in the future must better link these areas to allow for Additionally, with regards to TOD, affordable housing has 5. Find Funding true TOD. As well, the creation of separated low-income districts is a concept that has been largely become a larger priority for the city since the 1990s, as refuted in present times, as these locations amplify crime and safety concerns and are likely6. to beO ptimize/ Utilize Land Value disproportionalityshantytowns exposed to health and slum hazards housing when werecompared a prevalent to middle option and high for -income groups. 7. Create Design Strategies to Encourage Transit Use Strategic mixinglower-income of different income households. groups and To bettermitigate transportation the effects integration of this with these periphery locations should be considered for development in the future. unhealthy and inadequate housing type, conditioned planning has emerged in Santiago. This form of land use planning allows urban development to expand beyond city limits on a case-to- case basis, allowing residential development to spill out into the peripheries of the city.2
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PRACTICES 1. Atlas of Urban Expansion. 2016. “Santiago.” http://www. atlasofurbanexpansion.org/cities/view/Santiago SUMMARY 2. Jiron, Paola. 2013. “Sustainable Urban Mobility in Latin Santiago is the resulting system of a seamlessly integrated America and the Caribbean.” United Nations Habitat Global BRT and metro lends to the ideals of transit-oriented Report on Human Settlements. https://unhabitat.org/wp- development(TOD) that are being emphasized in planning content/uploads/2013/06/GRHS.2013.Regional.Latin_. and development practices currently. A system of efficiency, America.and_.Caribbean.pdf passenger comfort and safety for both riders and the 3. The World Bank. 2013. “Urban Transport Reform: The environment has resulted from necessary interventions. Santiago Experience.” Projects & Operations. http://www. A positive lesson to be taken from the case study is the concept worldbank.org/en/results/2013/04/11/Urban-Transport-in- of modal integration. Route re-organization was a complex Santiago technical problem (requiring a supply-demand balance for a 4. Hidalgo, Dario, and Pierre Graftieaux. 2007. “Case Study social optimum), but allowed for Metro and BRT interaction. Transantiago, Santiago Chile.” A Critical Look at Major Bus Strives towards also including cycling networks within this Improvements in Latin America and Asia. The World Bank. system will further the integrated nature of Transantiago. Ensuring a range of modal options not only allows for variety, but affordability and convenience in transit systems, and thus moving this agenda forward in other contexts will be essential.
ROADBLOCKS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE Although Santiago created a widely used and integrated BRT and Metro system with Transantiago, the project had various roadblocks that should be learned for in applying BRT and Metro systems to other contexts. The first of these roadblocks was the lack of inter-agency collaboration in the planning of the system. In theory, this advisory commission provided an organized method of involving various government agencies, however, the tactic failed to include lower-level agencies and public input. A way to improve from this aspect of the project is the need for institutional coordination, which the project was successful in achieving, but also the inclusion of those that will use, operate and interact with the transit system on a daily basis. Another roadblock of the project is its potential concerns with regards to affordability, both with regards to fare and housing around the corridor. A way to improve this would be to develop transit with social issues and inclusivity in mind. This should be a priority in all context.
KEY LESSONS 1. The following key takeaways should be derived from the Santiago example: 2. Santiago’s overall strategy for improving the shortcomings of these systems was an integrated multi-modal system inclusive of a BRT and an expanded Metro network. 3. Transantiago was based on two objectives: complementation and integration 4. Affordable housing includes strategic mixing of different income groups and better transportation integration. CASE STUDIES 567 TOD K P
AFRICA | CASE STUDY CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA
Source: The Telegraph 2018 ©Hugh Morris. Source: Hugh Morris / The Telegraph Reproduced with permission from Hugh Morris; further permission required for reuse. URL: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/africa/south-africa/cape-town/
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CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA
Geographic Context Africa (South Africa)
Scale City, Neighbourhood, and Corridor
Mode of Higher Order Transit BRT
Size of City (Population) 3.7 million (Tier 2)
Cape Town, South Africa is the second largest city in South At the national level, 12 cities were chosen to receive extra Africa, after Johannesburg, with a population of over 3.7 million support to upgrade and integrate all modes of public transport people. 1 The population is dispersed across close to 2500 to better host the event. Nine of the 12 cities were host cities square km of land, providing for a population density of 1,480 to World Cup events, including Cape Town and Johannesburg per square km, which is also lower than that of Johannesburg. 2 among other cities. The BRT in Cape Town is still functioning By 2030 the population is projected to only increase slightly to and can be considered to be Africa’s second system after about 4.3 Million.5 Unique to the South African context, when Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya. comparing it to other low-mid income cities, is its quite high proportion of citizens living under the poverty line. Over 36% of Cape Town’s citizens are below the poverty line, with 4 % having no access to electricity and almost 10% without access to sanitation. 2 With such a high proportion of its citizens in need of social assistance, the 2010 World Cup in South Africa provided a valuable opportunity to the city to improve its social services, specifically adequate public transportation for low-income households.
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OVERALL TOD STRATEGY & CITY KEY STAKEHOLDERS & GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIPS
The MyCiTi service forms part of an economic development The Institute of Transportation and Development (ITDP) began strategy reliant on integrated transportation in the City of Cape working in the City of Cape Town in 2002, initially focused on Town (CoCT) in South Africa. In 2010, MyCiTi opened two pilot building support for the concept of BRT. They would become routes for the 2010 World Cup. The following year, the City of one of the largest and most vital stakeholders in driving the Cape Town began full services on MyCiTi’s 16km corridor, rated improvement of public transportation in Cape Town. Through bronze-standard. 4 The system continues to expand and servces workshops and the exchange of international best practices – the city center and airport. particularly bringing in experts involved in the implementation
MyCiTi began operations in May 2010, shortly before the FIFA of Bogota’s gold-standard TransMilenio – support for the BRT 4 In 2007, ITDP joined the team creating the business plan World Cup, providing a shuttle service from the Civic Centre to grew. and financial model for the MyCiTi BRT, and helped guide the Cape Town International Airport. It also included a temporary project to success.4 route around the City Bowl for the World Cup specifically. The first proper Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) phase (Phase 1A) opened in As part of the process, ITDP assisted with the formalization May 2011.4 Characterized by features beyond those of traditional of Cape Town’s existing informal public transport industry, bus services, such as exclusive bus lanes, frequent timetables empowering small business owners to enter the formal and an automated fare system, MyCiti is Cape Town’s version market and transform into competitive companies. 4 Like in of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT). It is an unprecedented public Johannesburg, the BRT system is now operated by companies transport venture for the city, implemented in the hope of comprised of former taxi operators. 4 4 providing greater mobility to the majority of the population. That said, MyCiTi service was largely a public funded initiative. By 2015, MyCiTi provided a BRT service and feeder services One can argue that the success of the BRT necessitates in most areas of the city, including low-income areas greater integration of private sector participation at the outset, disadvantaged by their distances from the amenities and rather than the private sector waiting to see the success of the employment opportunities concentrated in the center. 4 system.4 The time horizon for such a scheme – which aims to
In addition to the BRT, concurrent ITDP work has included have connected the entire city by 2030 – must take into account bringing the Access Africa program to Cape Town. This program the long and difficult processes of navigating land changes, intends to allow health care workers to visit more patients daily poor spatial legacies, uncertainty surrounding the minibus taxi by providing bicycles to low-income health care workers who industry, and major shifts in societal attitudes towards public traditionally would work long hours and only access patients by transport. foot. 4
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DESIGN STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE With such vast poverty experienced in Cape Town, achieving a truly democratic system of transport is an essential priority TRANSIT USE going forward. With simple necessities such as sanitation and The MyCiTi Integrated Rapid Transport system was very unique electricity unachievable for many South African households, compared to other BRT systems in the sense that it incorporated public subsidy and increased affordability of transit should be all the other motorized and non-motorized transport methods explored to encourage heightened use. Without this affordability, that had already existed in the area into one cohesive new modal preferences will remain dominated by cars (for higher- system instead of replacing them. By doing so MyCiTi was able income households) and walking or cycling (for lower income to design a system that encompassed a passenger’s entire households). journey, including arriving to the bus system from over 50m away, to easily being able to board the vehicles, and to be able IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSIT to report any problems that may have occurred along the way. ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS The system paid specific attention to accessibility to all. The stations provide level, seamless boarding onto vehicles through APPROXIMATE TIMELINE the use of dedicated boarding points, wheelchair accessible • 2002- The Institute of Transportation and Development toilets, and wide entrance gates. The new fleets include low (ITDP) began work in Cape Town floor kneeling vehicles with level entry and wheelchair seating. • 2007- IDTP created business plan and financial model for They also have created “Kassel Kerbs” which allows drivers MyCiTi BRT to position their vehicle close to the bus stops without tire • 2010- Opened two pilot routes to operate during 2010 World damage.5 Cup Along with accessibility, MyCiTi has also planned the wayfinding • May 2010- MyCiTi began operations of the area to help encourage usage. In each station is equipped with audio LED screens and service information in a wide variety • May 2011- Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Phase 1A opened of formats. Outside the station is door to station infrastructure to • 2015- MyCiTi provided a BRT service between 8 cities with lead the way from anywhere in town. They did this by providing additional feeder services tactile signage, tactile paving, and dedicated customer support • 2030- Goal year for entire city to be connect with MyCiTi staff to help lead the way.5 ACTIONABLE STEPS Due to the incredible design of the stations, the influence is 1. Identify needs/ Take Inventory spreading the rest of the city. The growth in commuter numbers, private developers and local businesses is bringing value to the 2. Establish Transportation Department area and encouraging public growth, public investment, and new 3. Create Strategy Plan (Phases) development to occur. 4. Identify Key Stakeholders 5. Find Funding INCLUSIVE & AFFORDABLE TOD 6. Integrate Existing Operators with New Operators SYSTEMS 7. Optimize/ Utilize Land Value Many sources point to the BRT system’s potential as 8. Create Design Strategies to Encourage Transit Use representative of a healthy democracy. Such a characteristic, similar to environmental benefits, the mixing of different backgrounds, or more equitable access to amenities, all of which are important barriers to Cape Town’s prosperity, hasn’t been evaluated through a cost-benefit analysis or other quantifiable measures. To paraphrase a comparison by Enrique Peñalosa, who championed the BRT system when he was the mayor of Bogotá in Colombia, a city now renowned for its thriving public transport system: “that thirty people on a bus can zoom past a Maserati with one person in, because thirty people should get thirty times the space as one person, no matter how much money they make. That’s true democracy.” 3
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PRACTICES 1. Atlas of Urban Expansion. 2016. “Cape Town.” http://www. atlasofurbanexpansion.org/cities/view/CapeTown SUMMARY 2. Statistics South Africa. 2017. “Poverty on the Rise in South The 2010 World Cup in South Africa provided a valuable Africa.” Statistics South Africa. http://www.statssa.gov. opportunity to the city to improve its social services, specifically za/?p=10334 adequate public transportation for low-income households. 3. Smit, Rouen. 2014. Future Cape Town. “Cape Town’s Building a BRT system through MyCiTi was not enough on its MyCiTi system: 5 important changes.” Our Future Cities. own. It was essential that it was affordable for all. Without this http://futurecapetown.com/2014/10/cape-towns-myciti- affordability, modal preferences would remain dominated by system-5-important-changes/#.WtmzFy5uaM8 cars for the higher income households and walking and cycling for the lower income households. 4. Tennant, Megan. 2015. “Cape Town’s MyCiTi BRT - Four Years into its ‘Democracy’.” UrbanAfrica. https://www. ROADBLOCKS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE urbanafrica.net/urban-voices/cape-towns-myciti-brt-four- Underlying the issue of low ridership levels was the greater years-into-its-democracy/ challenge of how effectively BRT can operate within Cape 5. Davies, Guy. 2014. “South Africa: Inclusive design of Cape Town’s urban form. The roadblock of implementing BRT in a city Town’s Bus System.” Zero Project. Accessed July 25, 2018. characterized by long travelling distances for residents, meaning https://zeroproject.org/policy/cape-town/ less revenue than in other denser cities, as well as peak periods when buses are virtually empty on their return trips.
Ways to improve to a successful BRT system is the concerted effort to develop urban areas around transit-oriented principles. Measures such as zoning land for dense, high-rise development around BRT corridors and constraining development further away from them would increase the ridership needed for BRT in Cape Town to be as impactful as possible.
KEY LESSONS The following key takeaways should be derived from the Cape Town example:
• Over 36% of Cape Town’s citizens are below the poverty line • The BRT system is now operated companies comprised of former minibus taxi operators. • MyCiTi service was largely a public funded initiative • Access Africa program was also incorporated, providing bikes to low-income health care workers
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AFRICA | CASE STUDY
JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA
Source: Unequal Scenes / Projects / AlexandraSource: Unequal & Sandton Scenes ©Unequal Scenes. Reproduced with permission from Unequal URL:Scenes;http://unequalscenes.com/alexandra further permission required for reuse. - sandton
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Size of City (Population) 10 million (Tier 1)
The political capital of the Republic of South Africa, Rea Vaya was the first full bus rapid transit (BRT) system to Johannesburg is situated in Gauteng province, the most densely be implemented on the African continent and provides many urbanized area of the Republic. It is home to an estimated 10 learning experiences that can be replicated in other cities. million people and has a population density of 2,900 people per Its key objectives are: square kilometer.5 By 2030 Johannesburg is projected to grow to • Economic growth about 11.5 Million.5 Despite a growing population and economy, there is extreme income disparity and around 63 percent of • Poverty alleviation households do not own a car. 2 • Restructuring the apartheid city In 2006, following municipal elections, the new Mayor created • Sustainable development a transportation department with the aim of better organizing • Good governance urban mobility. This entity became responsible for transport planning and regulation within the city boundary. 3
Upon awarding of the 2010 (19th) FIFA World Cup event, Johannesburg took a keen interest in improving the transport system in order to live up to the projected image of being a ‘World Class City’. In particular, Johannesburg would need to accommodate the fans and tourists that would visit during the events and Rea Vaya was planned and implemented as a result. 1
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OVERALL TOD STRATEGY & CITY Today, there are four levels of institutions responsible in some way for transport in South Africa. There are national, regional STRUCTURE (provincial), city or metropolitan area and local or district bodies.1 The lack of investment in public transport, as well as the The national Ministry of Transport is responsible for policy and long distances (beyond a reasonable walk or bike trip) which legislation for transport. It is also responsible for: separated home and the workplace in Johannesburg led directly • Implementing national policy and legislation; to the growth of the informal ‘taxi minibus’ industry. Initially, this • Coordinating the functions of the Department of Transport development was viewed as a positive ‘entrepreneurial’ trend as • Preparing and initiating legislation it required little to no state control. • Performing any other executive function provided for in the The ability of the private sector to make money with low levels of Constitution or in national legislation. investment quickly led to an oversupply and intense competition The Gauteng Provincial Government’s role is to ensure the between service providers. By the 1990s, as in many cities implementation of national policy across the province by across the developing world, the situation had degenerated providing oversight.3 A creation of a new body called the into a system that served the operators, while simultaneously Gauteng Transport Management Authority became responsible marginalizing the user with poor travel times, high fares and for improving transport at the regional-level and in setting unsafe vehicles driven by drivers with poor skills.3 quality standards and norms. The Gauteng Intermodal Strategic Johannesburg’s bus rapid transit system Rea Vaya has saved Public Transport Network (GISPTN) forms the basis for reform South Africa as much as $890 million so far in reduced travel and requires linkage between the road and rail networks. It time, improved road safety and reduced carbon emissions, also prioritized public transport services and investments in according to a recent report by the New Climate Economy, a developing infrastructure.3 project affiliated with the World Resources Institute.4 In 2003, the City of Johannesburg formulated an Integrated LAND TENURE & LAND VALUE CAPTURE Transport Plan (ITP) signed by the political head of province, as The Rea Vaya provided enhancements to the surrounding areas well as the Minister of Transport. It consisted of the priority for creating an increase in land values for neighboring property public transport, improvements to curbside lanes, infrastructure owners. Some of these enhancements include: for commuters, better signage and improved passenger information.3 These improvements really gave minibuses a better • Increases in regional productivity traffic environment to function. • Enhanced employment accessibility; • Environmental Benefits
One of the most challenging aspects of implementing any transport reform is the resistance to change by those benefiting most from the present system. In much of the developing world this usually means the informal minibus owners and drivers.1
In Johannesburg, much of the resistance to changes in transport organization came from the powerful taxi unions. These strong groups made a solid defense of their right to operate unhindered and un-regulated. This was identified early on as a major challenge to successful public transportation implementation.
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Typically in transport, there is a split in responsibility between INCLUSIVE & AFFORDABLE TOD national and city governments that can be challenging to resolve. There was also the additional challenge of engaging SYSTEMS existing operators and establishing a forum under which they It was also agreed that the development of Rea Vaya would can productively participate in the eventual delivery of mass be employment neutral, providing an equal number of jobs transit. The technical skills required for planning are complex to citizens as those that were lost. It was also decided that and often do not exist at the local-level. Thus, it was not until city it should have a strong identity and brand image – and the officials and the Mayor became aware of the system in Bogotá, concept Rea Vaya ‘we are going’ was adopted.3 Columbia that the idea of BRT for Johannesburg was born. Since its inception, 700 permanent jobs have been created The new city administration decided to more aggressively in Phase 1A and some 3300 temporary jobs during the explore BRT systems in other cities, specifically Bogotá, construction period.4 Efforts have been made to design a system Columbia and Guayaquil, Ecuador. Through a step-by- that is accessible to those with mobility impairments, such as step approach, Johannesburg established a planning and level boarding at the BRT stations. This system has been a 3 development department for the delivery of the BRT. The BRT considerable benefit to all levels of society, but especially to system had to be planned within a fairly constrained urban women as minibuses were often unsafe, especially at night.4 The environment, both financially and in land provision. It would stations are manned, the surroundings are monitored and initial be planned as the backbone of a future transport system overcrowding of the service has now been overcome, solving interconnected with rail to provide high levels of accessibility many of the grievances with former minibus service. and capacity.3 Executive Mayor Parks Tau stated “Left to the forces of the DESIGN STRATEGIES TO ENCOURAGE market alone, the poor would be cast to the edges of the city, huddled together in crowded shacks, trapped there by the cost TRANSIT USE of mobility,” Mayor Tau said in his address. “This is exactly what we seek to disrupt and transform when we speak of confronting Attention was given to making the system and stations functional apartheid spatial patterns.”7 Rea Vaya created the ability to have and attractive.3 This included pre-paid boarding; level boarding mixed-use, mixed-class development, and focuses on location for full accessibility; multiple stopping bays; and secure, and affordability of housing. weather-protected stations. Stations have been designed with the local urban environment in mind and aesthetics were prioritized, commissioning local artists to add character and culture to bus stops.3
BUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (ITS)
A robust but affordable bus management system was required in the context of Johannesburg. The Automatic Public Transport Management System (APTMS) was developed by a private consortium to deliver an ambitious range of information and services, including dynamic passenger information.4
Passenger information provision was a new concept to both those providing public transport and those using it.4 Traditionally, minibuses were merely numbered or known by the drivers’ names and routes varied and stop locations were unpredictable. The concept of having a set timetable and frequency was, therefore, a learning curve for drivers and passengers.4
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APPROXIMATE TIMELINE 6 SUMMARY • 2003- The City of Johannesburg formulated an Integrated The successful implementation of Rea Vaya is a real milestone Transport Plan (ITP) in Africa, a place which has suffered, particularly low-income • November 2006- A transportation department was created populations, lacking formal public transport for the past 25 within the city of Johannesburg’s government years. An affordable but high-quality bus system has been put in place, while also overcoming significant political challenges • October 2007- Rea Vaya BRT construction begins that have hampered initiators before them. In addition, it has • April 2009- Beginning of Phase 1A saved South Africa $890 Million so far by reducing travel time • August 2009- First bus began operating improving road safety, and cutting down on carbon emissions.4 • June 2010- FIFA World Cup 2010 awarded 12 cities ROADBLOCKS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE infrastructure funding. One of the most challenging aspects of implementing any • February 2011- Taxi industry shareholders hand over their transport reform is the resistance to change by those benefiting operating licensed and equity in return for share in Rea most from the present system. In much of the developing Vaya. world this usually means the informal minibus owners and • October 2013- Phase 1 completed drivers, which fought to remain unregulated in the case of ACTIONABLE STEPS Johannesburg.1 1. Identify needs/ Take Inventory To improve this relationship, Johannesburg created a plan that 2. Create Strategy Plan (Phases) integrated all forms of transportation with political support. The plan consisted of modest priority for public transport, both 3. Establish Transportation Department minibus taxis and buses, improvements to curbside lanes, 4. Identify Key Stakeholders modest infrastructure for commuters, better signage and 5. Find Funding improved passenger information. 3These improvements really 6. Mitigate Competition gave minibuses a better traffic environment to function rather than creating a proper public transport network across the city. 7. Create Brand 8. Market Plan KEY LESSONS 9. Optimize/ Utilize Land Value The following key takeaways should be derived from the 10. Create Design Strategies to Encourage Transit Use Johannesburg example: • Rea Vaya was designed to address historical inequalities, increase civic pride and to provide safe, affordable transport • Inclusion of a strong and powerful informal sector into formal and professional transport planning • Marketing plan was highly inspired by the Transmilenio in Bogota • Project was employment neutral- creating at least as many jobs as it removed.
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1. Eickmans, Luuk, and Emelda Nasei. 2011. “Sustainable Mobility for African Cities - Promoting non-motorised transport options and compact cities as complements to public transport.” United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Nairobi, Kenya. 2. Weinstock, Annie. 2009. “Rea Vaya: We are going!” Sustainable Transport, No. 21 (Winter 2009), 16-18. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. 3. Kouakou, Eric, and Djan Fanny. 2008. “Overview of public tranpsort in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Trans-Africa Consortium. https://www.uitp.org/sites/default/files/cck-focus- papers-files/Transafrica_UITP_UATP_PublicTransport_in_ SubSaharan_Africa_2008.pdf 4. Allen, Heather. 2013. “Africa’s First Full Rapid Bus System: the Rea Vaya Bus System in Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.” Global Report on Human Settlements 2013. https://unhabitat.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/ GRHS.2013.Case_.Study_.Johannesburg.South_.Africa.pdf 5. World Population Review. 2017. “Johannesburg Population.” http://worldpopulationreview.com 6. REA VAYA. 2018. “Rea Vaya Timeline.” Accesssed July 24, 2018. https://www.reavaya.org.za/welcome/timeline 7. REA VAYA. 2015. “Corridors of Freedom to boost Rea Vaya passenger numbers.” Accessed July 24, 2018. https:// www.reavaya.org.za/news-archive/october-2015/1229- corridors-of-freedom-to-boost-rea-vaya-passenger- numbers
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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
ACTIVE USES BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (BID) Land uses, such as retail, coffee shops, storefronts, cafes, A business improvement district (BID) is a defined area within restaurants and hawkers zones, which keep the area active with which businesses are required to pay an additional tax (or pedestrian activity at street level and maintain visual interest, are levy) in order to fund projects within the district’s boundaries. termed as active uses. The BID is often funded primarily through the levy but can also draw on other public and private funding streams. These AFFORDABLE HOUSING districts typically fund services, which are perceived by some businesses as being inadequately performed by the government Affordable housing provides housing mainly for those whose with its existing tax revenues, such as cleaning streets, income is below the median household income. Both the private providing security, making capital improvements, construction sector and government in India are exploring options for creating of pedestrian and streetscape enhancements and marketing the housing for low-income groups. The Government of India, both area. The services provided by BIDs are supplemental to those at central and state level has initiated various schemes to assist already provided by the municipality. The revenue is derived in the delivery of affordable housing. It includes public sector from a tax assessment on commercial property owners and in working as a facilitator and engaging the private sector to build some cases, residential property owners. housing, with rental units that are subsidized by the government through rental subsidy programs. BREAK-EVEN RATIO (BER) BER is a ratio some lenders calculate to gauge the proportion ANNUAL DEPRECIATION ALLOWANCE between the money going out to the money coming, so they Annual depreciation allowance is the amount of tax deduction can estimate how vulnerable a property is to default on its debt allowed by the tax code that investment property owners may if rental income declines. BER reveals the percent of income take each year until the entire depreciable asset is written off. consumed by the estimated expenses. To calculate, you must first determine the depreciable basis by (Operating Expense + Debt Service) ÷ Gross Operating Income computing the portion of the asset allotted to improvements = Break-Even Ratio (land is not depreciable) and then amortizing that amount over BER results: the asset’s useful life, as specified in the tax code: Currently 27.5 Less than 100% - expenses consuming less than available years for residential property and 39 years for non-residential. income Property Value x Percent Allotted to Improvements Greater than 100% - expenses consuming more than available = Depreciable Basis income Then, Depreciable Basis ÷ Useful Life BROWNFIELD REDEVELOPMENT = Annual Depreciation Allowance Development on a brownfield site is commonly referred to as Brownfield redevelopment. Brownfield sites are abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for ASSET reuse. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility is often In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled The land may be contaminated by low concentrations of to produce value and that is held by a company to produce hazardous waste or pollution and has the potential to be reused positive economic value is an asset. once it is cleaned up. Land that is more severely contaminated and has high concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, such as a superfund site, does not fall under the brownfield classification. 582 GLOSSARY OF TERMS TOD K P
BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) investor makes from the investment, after satisfying all required BRT systems use buses or specialized vehicles on roadways or tax obligations. dedicated lanes to transport passengers without interference Cash Flow Before Tax - Tax Liability from other traffic. Such systems usually include dedicated bus = Cash Flow After Tax lanes, signal priority at intersections, off-bus fare collection to speed up boarding, level boarding (low-floor buses or high-level platforms) to speed up boarding and enhance accessibility and CASH FLOW BEFORE TAX (CFBT) enclosed stations. CFBT is the number of dollars a property generates in a given year after all expenses, but in turn still subject to the real estate investor’s income tax liability. CAP RATE Net Operating Income - Debt Service - Capital Expenditures This popular return expresses the ratio between a rental property’s value and its net operating income. The cap rate = Cash Flow Before Tax formula commonly serves two useful real estate investing purposes: To calculate a property’s cap rate, or by transposing CASH ON CASH RETURN (COC) the formula, to calculate a property’s reasonable estimate of CoC is the ratio between a property’s cash flow in a given year value. and the amount of initial capital investment required to make the Net Operating Income ÷ Market Value acquisition (e.g., mortgage down payment and closing costs). = Cap Rate Most investors usually look at cash-on-cash, as it relates to cash Or, flow before taxes during the first year of ownership. Net Operating Income ÷ Cap rate Cash Flow Before Taxes ÷ Initial Capital Investment = Market Value = Cash on Cash Return
CAPACITY CATALYST PROJECTS The maximum number of people that can be carried past a given Catalyst projects are public or private projects that are planned location during a given time period under specified operating and designed to cause a corresponding and complementary conditions, without unacceptable delay, hazard, or restriction, development reaction to surrounding properties. They are and with reasonable certainty projects of sufficient magnitude to stimulate redevelopment of underdeveloped properties or major rehabilitation of underutilized buildings. The identification and implementation of CAPACITY BUILDING catalyst projects provide an opportunity for public and private Capacity building (or capacity development) is the process by investments to receive a reasonable return. The measure of which individuals and organizations obtain, improve and retain return on investment can include jobs creation, increase in land the skills, knowledge, tools, equipment and other resources value, improved transportation and access and new housing needed to do their jobs competently or to a greater capacity units. (larger scale, larger audience, larger impact, etc).
CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (CBD) CAPITAL INVESTMENT The heart of an urban area, usually located at the meeting point Capital investment refers to funds invested in a firm or enterprise of the city’s transport systems, containing a high percentage of for the purpose of furthering its business objectives. Capital shops and offices. High accessibility leads to high land values, investment may also refer to a firm’s acquisition of capital assets and therefore intensive land use. Consequently, development or fixed assets, such as manufacturing plants and machinery is often upwards. Within the CBD, specialist areas, such as a that is expected to be productive over many years. jewelery quarter, benefit from external economies. Vertical land- use zoning is also common, so that retail outlets may be on the CASH FLOW AFTER TAX (CFAT) ground floor, with commercial users above them and residential users higher up. CFAT is the amount of spendable cash that the real estate GLOSSARY OF TERMS 583 TOD K P
CENTRALITY DEGREE CENTRALITY In graph theory and network analysis, indicators of centrality Number of times a node has with other nodes in a network. In identify the most important nodes. Centrality can be used to transit networks, interchange stations between many lines or identify the most influential people in a social network, key modes (hubs) have a high degree centrality. infrastructure nodes in the Internet or urban networks, and superspreaders of disease. Betweenness, closeness, and DEVELOPMENT CONTROL REGULATIONS (DCRS) degree centrality are the three most important indicators for transit networks. DCRs are the primary regulatory tool used to guide development that ultimately shapes a city’s urban form and functions. It includes guiding the development and use of land, built CLOSENESS CENTRALITY environment FAR’s, density, heights, setbacks and the public A measure of accessibility to a node within a network that realm. Critical to the success of an efficient and effective transit measures the inverse of the sum of the distances of a node from system is the combination of basic employment opportunities all other nodes. and a mix of housing typologies supported with major retail, civic, cultural, entertainment and community facilities. The DCRs, which are currently proposed as blanket for the entire COMPLETE STREET city, need to be revisited and should be modified into more Road design philosophy where road space is allocated to safely context-specific Development Code Regulation. balance the needs of all road users, including pedestrians, cyclists, transit and motorists. Transportation choice is increased when safe and appealing options for getting from DEVELOPMENT PLAN place to place are provided- options to walk and bike provide It is an aspect of town and country planning comprised of a opportunities for increased community health and reductions in set of documents that set out the local authority’s policies and air and noise pollution. proposals for the development and use of land in their area. The development plan guides and shapes day-to-day decisions as to whether or not planning permission should be granted, under CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL the system known as development control or development DESIGN (CPTED) management. In order to ensure that these decisions are Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is rational and consistent, they must be considered against a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior the development plan adopted by the authority, after public through environmental design. CPTED strategies rely upon the consultation and having proper regard to other material factors. ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts. As of 2004, most implementations of CPTED occur solely within the built environment. EMPLOYMENT DENSITY Number of jobs in an area.
DEBT COVERAGE RATIO (DCR) ENCLOSURE DCR is a ratio that expresses the number of times annual net Degree to which buildings, walls, trees, and other vertical operating income exceeds debt service (e.g. total loan payment, elements define streets and other public spaces. including both principal and interest). Net Operating Income ÷ Debt Service = Debt Coverage Ratio FLOOR AREA RATIO (FAR)/FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI) DCR results: The FAR or FSI is the ratio of the total floor area of buildings at Less than 1.0 - not enough NOI to cover the debt a certain location, to the size of the land at that location, or the Exactly 1.0 - just enough NOI to cover the debt limit imposed on such a ratio. Greater than 1.0 - more than enough NOI to cover the debt As a formula: Floor Area Ratio= (Total covered area on all floors of all buildings on a certain plot)/(Area of the plot).
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Thus, an FSI of 2.0 would indicate that the total floor area of a The weight of a vehicle is influenced by passengers, cargo, even building is two times the gross area of the plot on which it is fuel level, so a number of terms are used to express the weight constructed, as would be found in a multiple-storey building. of a vehicle in a designated state. Gross combined weight rating (GCWR) refers to the total mass of a vehicle, including all trailers. GVWR and GCWR both describe a vehicle that is in operation FEEDER BUS ROUTES and are used to specify weight limitations and restrictions. A feeder bus route is a bus service that picks up and delivers passengers to a higher order transit station, such as a rapid rail transit station, express-bus stop or terminal. GREENFIELD DEVELOPMENT Greenfield development is the creation of planned communities on previously undeveloped land. This land may be rural, FORM-BASED CODE agricultural or unused areas on the outskirts of urban areas. Form-based codes foster predictable built results and a Unlike urban sprawls, where there is little or no proper high-quality public realm by using physical form (rather than suburban planning, greenfield development is about efficient separation of uses) as the organizing principle for the code. urban planning that aims to provide practical, affordable and These codes are adopted into city or county law as regulations, sustainable living spaces for growing urban populations. The not mere guidelines. Form-based codes are an alternative to planning takes future growth and development into account, conventional zoning. as well as avoiding the various infrastructure issues that plague Form-based codes address the relationship between building existing urban areas. facades and the public realm, the form and mass of buildings in relation to one another and the scale and types of streets and blocks. The regulations and standards in form-based GROSS OPERATING INCOME (GOI) codes, presented in both diagrams and words, are keyed to a GOI is gross scheduled income after vacancy and credit loss, regulating plan that designates the appropriate form and scale plus the income derived from other sources such as coin- (and therefore, character) of development, rather than only operated laundry facilities. Consider GOI as the amount of rental distinctions in land-use types. This is in contrast to conventional income the real estate investor actually collects to service the zoning’s focus on the micro-management and segregation of rental property. land uses and the control of development intensity through Gross Scheduled Income - Vacancy and Credit Loss + Other abstract and uncoordinated parameters (e.g., FAR, dwellings Income per acre, setbacks, parking ratios, traffic LOS) to the neglect = Gross Operating Income of an integrated built form. Not to be confused with design guidelines or general statements of policy, form-based codes GROSS RENT MULTIPLIER (GRM) are regulatory, not advisory. GRM is a simple method used by analysts to determine a rental income property’s market value, based upon its gross FUTURE VALUE (FV) scheduled income. You would first calculate the GRM using the FV shows what a cash flow or series of cash flows will be market value at which other properties are sold and then apply worth at a specified time in the future. FV is calculated by that GRM to determine the market value for your own property. “compounding” the original principal sum forward in time at a Market Value ÷ Gross Scheduled Income given “compound rate”. = Gross Rent Multiplier Then, GROSS VEHICLE MASS (GVM) Gross Scheduled Income x Gross Rent Multiplier Gross vehicle mass is the maximum operating weight/mass = Market Value of a vehicle as specified by the manufacturer , including the vehicle’s chassis, body, engine, engine fluids, fuel, accessories, driver, passengers and cargo, but excluding that of any trailers. GROSS SCHEDULED INCOME (GSI) . The term is used for motor vehicles and trains. GSI is the annual rental income a property would generate if 100% of all space was rented and all rent was collected. If
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vacant units do exist at the time of your real estate analysis, then INTENSIFICATION include them at their reasonable market rent. Urban intensification is the construction and reconstruction Rental Income (actual) + Vacant Units (at market rent) of compact communities in the existing built-up area of the = Gross Scheduled Income city. Intensification includes new development, which raises the density on sites and within communities. These compact communities are supportive of transit, cycling and are HIGHER ORDER TRANSIT pedestrian-friendly and promote local jobs and services. Higher order transit refers to a transit service that operates on a dedicated right-of-way or in a priority situation, and therefore moves more efficiently than the regular flow of traffic and INTERMODAL TRANSIT HUB can carry large numbers of people quickly and comfortably. Intermodal Transit Hubs are stations or centres where a range Examples of higher order transit include buses that have of different transportation modes (i.e. cycling, walking, metro, dedicated lanes, metro and commuter rail, which operate on private vehicle, bus, autos and taxis) come together and their own separate tracks. allow for easy transfers from one mode to another. They can also facilitate transfers at different scales: local, regional and intercity. HISTORICAL DAILY PEAK HOUR FACTOR The ratio of Peak Hour Peak Direction Passenger Demand for a typical route (i.e. representative of the system as a whole) to INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR) its total daily boardings in both directions. His factor helps to This popular model creates a single discount rate, whereby convert daily passenger flows into peak hour passenger flows. all future cash flows can be discounted until they equal the It should be ideally be determined by looking at historical data. investor’s initial cash investment. In other words, when a series Please note that this factor is usually higher for public transport of all future cash flows is discounted at IRR, that present value as compared to total traffic. amount will equal the actual cash investment amount. INFILL DEVELOPMENT Infill development is the term used for new development within LAND AMALGAMATION existing communities on previously underutilized sites, typically Amalgamation can relate to the combining of one or more at a higher density. Good infill developments fit in seamlessly allotments to create one single parcel of land. It is required within the existing urban fabric and the contributing elements for the purpose of assembling land for urban expansion, infill include: setback- the distance from the front facade of the house development, or redevelopment. In this process, the original to the street and should be the same distance as other houses landowners or occupants voluntarily contribute a certain on the street, height- which should be compatible with the height percentage of their land to the government or other project of buildings surrounding the lot and mass- the bulk of the house. initiators, and in return receive compensation in the form of money, or serviced land, or any other form. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) LAND VALUE CAPTURE (LVC) It refers to technologies that provide access to information Land value capture is a policy approach that enables through telecommunications. It is similar to Information communities to recover and reinvest land value increases that Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication result from public investment and other government actions. technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, cell phones and other communication mediums. Common land value capture tools include: transferable development rights, betterment contributions, public land leasing, inclusionary housing and zoning, linkage or impact INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITS) fees, business improvement districts and certain applications ITS refers to the application of information and communication of the property tax. These tools can help finance transit and technologies to transportation infrastructure and vehicles. infrastructure improvements, affordable housing, parks and open spaces, utility upgrades and other critical services. With
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this additional funding, local and regional governments can LOCAL TRANSIT BOARDINGS more sustainably advance municipal fiscal health, enable The annual number of passengers boarding local transit infrastructure investment and address the challenges of vehicles, counting separately each boarding made in the course sustainable urbanization. of single journey or trip between origin and destination. Also known as unlinked passenger trips (UPT). Boardings on regional LEGIBILITY services should not be included in city totals when using this tool. Ease with which people can create a mental map so that the spatial structure of a place can be understood and navigated as a whole. MASS RAPID TRANSIT It is a type of high-capacity public transport, generally found in LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT (LRT) urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, mass rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, It is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on any sort and which is often grade separated in tunnels or on an exclusive right-of-way. It operates primarily along exclusive elevated railways. rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train that is lower capacity and lower Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on speed than a long, heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. designated lines between stations, typically using multiple electric units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rubber tires, magnetic levitation or monorail . The stations rapid transit. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, and partially operate on streets. Light rail systems are found requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between throughout the world, on all inhabited continents. They have train and platform. They are typically integrated with other public been especially popular in recent years, due to their lower transport and often operated by the same public transport capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade systems. intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport LOAN TO VALUE (LTV) large numbers of people quickly over short distances, with little LTV measures what percentage of a property’s appraised value to no use of land. or selling price (whichever is less) is attributable to financing. A higher LTV benefits real estate investors with greater leverage, MARKET POTENTIAL VALUE whereas lenders regard a higher LTV as a greater financial risk. Unrealized market value of a station area, sometimes measured Loan Amount ÷ Lesser of Appraised Value or Selling Price through a composite index considering major drivers of demand, = Loan to Value including current and future human densities, current and future number of jobs accessible within 30 minutes by transit, and major drivers of supply (including the amount of developable LOCAL TRANSIT land, potential changes in zoning, and market vibrancy). Public transport operating on fixed routes with frequent stops (100-400 m apart), generally in mixed traffic on surface roadways, relying heavily on walk access and egress. MEAN LOCAL TRANSIT TRIP LENGTH The average distance traveled by one public transit boarding LOCAL TRANSIT SERVICE AREA passenger, calculated by dividing total local transit person-km by total local transit boardings The reasonably contiguous area served by the local transit network, not including regional services. Indicative extent would be the area within 1 km of regularly served local stops. This area does not include portions of the metropolis connected to the local service area solely by regional services.
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MIDBLOCK CROSSING MULTI-USE DEVELOPMENT Midblock crosswalks facilitate crossings to places that people Multi-use development is a type of urban development want to go, but that are not well served by the existing traffic that blends residential, commercial, cultural, institutional or network. These pedestrian crossings, which commonly occur at entertainment uses, where those functions are physically and schools, parks, museums, waterfronts and other destinations, functionally integrated and provide pedestrian connections . have historically been overlooked or difficult to access, creating Mixed-use development can take the form of a single building, a unsafe or unpredictable situations for both pedestrians and city block or entire neighborhoods. The term may also be used vehicles. more specifically to refer to a mixed-use real estate development project—a building, complex of buildings or district of a town or city that is developed for mixed-use by a private developer, MIXED-USE (quasi-) governmental agency, or a combination thereof. Mixed uses are defined by a diverse mix of land uses, including housing, employment, regional attractions and public spaces, allowing people to walk to work or to shop rather than driving NET OPERATING INCOME (NOI) for all daily needs. It also includes vertical types of mixed-use NOI is a property’s income after being reduced by vacancy, development, like residential land use over the commercial uses, credit loss and all operating expenses. NOI is one of the most so that the distance between the activities is decreased and important calculations to any real estate investment because it accessibility between different activities is increased. represents the income stream that subsequently determines the property’s market value– that is, the price a real estate investor is willing to pay for that income stream. MODE SHARE Gross Operating Income - Operating Expenses Trips taken by a particular mobility choice, such as car, transit, = Net Operating Income cycling or walking, as a proportion of the total number of trips.
NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM (MMTS) NPV shows the dollar amount difference between the present Multi-Modal Transportation System (MMTS) explores the value of all future cash flows using a particular discount rate– coordinated use of two or more modes of transport for efficient, your required rate of return– and the initial cash invested to safe, pleasant and comfortable movement of passengers purchase those cash flows. in urban areas. It provides the convenient and economical Present Value of all Future Cash Flows - Initial Cash Investment connection of various modes to make complete journeys from origin to destination. Generally, MMTS has been characterized = Net Present Value by increased capacity, efficient access and better location of NPV results: both integration and nodes. Public transport is an important Negative - the required return is not met constituent of the multi–modal transportation system and hence, Zero - the required return is perfectly met the local and regional public transportation system must be an Positive - the required return is met with room to spare integral part of the same.
MULTI-LEVEL CAR PARKING NETWORK EXTENT The number of kilometers of route in a public transport network, Structured parking refers to an above- or below-grade structure without double-counting kilometers where routes share the designed to accommodate vehicle parking. This type of parking same path. is more expensive than surface parking, but is a much more efficient use of land (a 3-storey parking structure requires a third as much land as a surface lot) and has long-term value for NODE VALUE integrated mixed-use development. Measure of importance of a public transit station based on passenger traffic volume, intermodality, and centrality within the network; measured through a composite index.
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NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION (NMT) PASSENGER-KILOMETERS TRAVELED Non-motorised Transportation (also known as active The total distance traveled by passengers on transit vehicles transportation and human-powered transportation) includes (for a single route or a system), which may be determined by walking and cycling and variants such as small-wheeled multiplying the number of unlinked passenger trips by the transport. It can be a very attractive mode of transport for average length of such trips. relatively short distances, which make up the largest share of trips in cities. The key to reversing the trend toward more PASSENGER TRAFFIC DENSITY private vehicle use is making walking and cycling attractive, together with improving public transport. This can be done The total number annual transit passengers passing the average through a range of activities, including construction of sidewalks point along a system or route in both directions combined, and bike lanes, bike sharing programmes, urban planning and formed by dividing system PKT by network extent (for a system) pedestrian-oriented development. NMT is a highly cost-effective or route PKT by route length (for a single route). transportation strategy and brings about large health, economic and social co-benefits, particularly for the urban poor. PARK AND RIDE Park and rides are car parking lots that offer transit users a OPERATING EXPENSES place to park their car, then transfer to a public transit service to complete their journey. They are typically used in suburban Operating expenses include those costs associated with locations where distances from destinations to transit service keeping a property operational and in service. These include are further. Park and ride facilities should be visible from, and property taxes, insurance, utilities and routine maintenance. located along, heavily used commuter routes. They should be They do not include payments made for mortgages, capital landscaped, weather resistant, well-lit and should contain a expenditures or income taxes. range of amenities.
OPERATING EXPENSE RATIO (OER) PEDESTRIAN PLAZA OER expresses the ratio (as a percentage) between a real estate A public space that can act as an important organizing element investment’s total operating expenses dollar amount to its gross within a station area, helping to facilitate transfers between operating income dollar amount. modes, acting as receiving points for pedestrians and containing Operating Expenses ÷ Gross Operating Income a range of services and amenities for transit users. = Operating Expense Ratio
PEDESTRIAN-FRIENDLY DESIGN. OVERLAY ZONE Design intended to enhance the pedestrian experience, Overlay zone means a set of land use and development typically through improved amenities (for example, attractive requirements designed to be applied over, or in addition to, landscaping, lighting, and seating areas) and by improving the the requirements of the underlying zone for a specific purpose, efficiency of walking (for example, small city blocks, grid street without removing or modifying the underlying zone. patterns, and high road connectivity that provide direct, less circuitous pathways).
PERT CHART (PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE) A PERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule, PER CAPITA organize and coordinate tasks within a project. A PERT chart For each person; in relation to people taken individually. presents a graphic illustration of a project, as a network diagram The term is used in a wide variety of social sciences and consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles), statistical research contexts, including government statistics, representing events or milestones in the project linked by economic indicators and built environment studies. labelled vectors (directional lines), representing tasks in the project. The direction of the arrows on the lines indicates the sequence of tasks. GLOSSARY OF TERMS 589 TOD K P
PERMEABILITY POPULATION DENSITY Extent to which urban forms permit the movement of people or Population density is a measurement of population per unit area vehicles in different directions. or unit volume; usually quoted per square kilometer or square mile (which may include or exclude, for example, areas of water or glaciers). PEAK HOUR PEAK DIRECTION PASSENGER DEMAND Commonly this may be calculated for a county, city, country, The number of transit passengers carried in the peak hour in the territory or the entire world. peak direction. This occurs almost universally on weekdays and is measured for a single route at its maximum load point. PRESENT VALUE (PV) PV shows what a cash flow or series of cash flows available PUBLIC INFORMATION CENTER (PIC) in the future is worth in today’s dollars. PV is calculated by “discounting” future cash flows back in time, using a given Public Information Centers aim to establish a more effective, “discount rate”. centralized distribution mechanism to safeguard the integrity and accurate distribution of government information. Moreover, it serves as a vital framework for collecting public opinions and PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS (PPP) feedback through building a communication path between the Public-private partnership (PPP) describes a government service public and the government. It shall be the information source or private business venture, which is funded and operated where the government can pertain constant betterment in through a partnership of government and one or more private government administration. sector companies. These schemes are sometimes referred to as The PIC tends to public inquiries, complaints, suggestions PPP or P3. and provides a centralized communication channel with the PPP involves a contract between a public-sector authority and government. It offers a one-stop service in the provision of a private party, in which the private party provides a public government information. service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) cost of using the service is borne exclusively by the users of A formal partnership between a public sector entity and a private the service and not by the taxpayer. In other types (notably corporation often used to construct and operate infrastructure the private finance initiative), capital investment is made by the facilities or develop certain urban areas. private sector on the strength of a contract with the government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government PLACEMAKING contributions to a PPP may also be in kind (notably the transfer Placemaking is a term that began to be used in the 1970s by of existing assets). In projects that are aimed at creating public architects and planners to describe the process of creating goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may squares, plazas, parks, streets and waterfronts that will attract provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as people because they are pleasurable or interesting. to make it more attractive to private investors. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by providing PLACE VALUE guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed period. Determinants of the attractiveness of a place, including PPP involves many models, including Design-Build-Finance amenities; schools; health care facilities; type of urban (DBF) and Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM). development; local accessibility to daily needs by walking and cycling; quality of the urban fabric around the station, in particular its pedestrian accessibility; small size of urban PUBLIC REALM blocks and fine mesh of connected streets, which create vibrant The public realm consists of public spaces such as streets, neighborhoods; and mixed pattern of land use. It is measured parks and sidewalks. The public realm is also a place where the through a composite index community can come together through collaborative activities, such as street festivals and other programmable activity. 590 GLOSSARY OF TERMS TOD K P
RAPID TRANSIT SENSE OF PLACE Public transport operating on fixed routes at a significantly Though sense of place has been defined differently and used in higher average speed than local service, usually in exclusive different ways, it is often used in relation to characteristics that rights-of-way and/or completely separated from surface traffic. make a place special or unique, as well as to those that foster a Access depends on both walking and local public transport sense of authentic human attachment and belonging. service. Stations are typically 800m-2km apart.
SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE (SEZ) REAL ESTATE ASSESSMENT A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business The primary goal of the Real Estate Assessment Department is and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SEZs to ensure the fair and equitable assessment of all real property are located within a country’s national borders and their aims in the County of Gloucester, based on fair market value, with the include: increased trade, increased investment, job creation and end result being the fair and even distribution of the tax burden effective administration. To encourage businesses to establish among all property owners. in the zone, financial policies are introduced. These policies typically regard investing, taxation, trading, quotas, customs and labour regulations. Additionally, companies may be offered tax REGIONAL TRANSIT holidays, whereupon establishing in a zone they are granted a Public transport operating on fixed routes within and outside period of lower taxation. the local service area, offering higher average speeds than even rapid transit, with average station spacing usually longer than 2km. A large share of access may be by motorized transport. SHARED PARKING Shared parking is a land use/development strategy that optimizes parking capacity by allowing complementary land REFUGE ISLAND uses to share spaces, rather than producing separate spaces A refuge island, also known as a pedestrian refuge, pedestrian for separate uses. In effect, shared parking makes spaces island and colloquially as a “pork chop” island, is a small section publically accessible, rather than reserved for a particular tenant of pavement or sidewalk, completely surrounded by asphalt or property owner. It may be privately constructed and operated, or other road materials, where pedestrians can stop before depending on a contractual agreement, but should remain within finishing crossing a road. It is typically used when a street is the government’s jurisdiction for long-term transport planning very wide, as the pedestrian crossing can be too long for some purposes. individuals to cross in one traffic light cycle. They can often been seen on roads with higher speed limits also. SIDE LANES Side lanes are a type of bike lane in-between a main travel RIGHT-OF-WAY (ROW) lane and a dedicated turn lane. They can help prevent conflicts A right-of-way is land that is used for transportation purposes, between cyclists and motorists who wish to make a turn (this such as for a trail, driveway, rail line, street or highway. A right- assumes there is a bike lane along the street on the preceding of-way is often reserved for the purposes of maintenance or block or blocks). expansion of existing services.
SIGNAGE ROAD DIETS Signage is wayfinding and instructional signs erected at the side A road diet, also called a lane reduction or road rechannelization, of or above roads, to provide information to road users. is a technique in transportation planning whereby the number of travel lanes, and/or effective width of the road, is reduced in order to achieve systemic improvements. SIMULATION Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key
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characteristics, behaviors and functions of the selected physical STORMWATER or abstract system or process. The model represents the system Stormwater is water that originates during precipitation events itself, whereas the simulation represents the operation of the and snow/ice melt. Stormwater can soak into the soil (infiltrate), system over time. be held on the surface and evaporate or runoff and end up in Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies (surface water). technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education and video games. Often, computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Simulation STREET GRID NETWORK can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative The grid plan, street grid plan or gridiron plan is a type of city conditions and courses of action. plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. These patterns display a higher degree of connectivity than other road hierarchical patterns, which feature dead-end streets SOLID WASTE and fewer through connections. Solid waste means any garbage, refuse or sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility. It also includes discarded materials, like STREETSCAPE solid, liquid, semi-solid or contained gaseous material, resulting It is a term used to describe the natural and built fabric of the from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations street and defined as the design quality of the street and its and from community activities. It does not include solid or visual effect. The concept recognizes that a street is a public dissolved materials in domestic sewage or solid or dissolved place where people are able to engage in various activities. A materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges. streetscape needs to have boundaries to ensure safe travel for all roadway users. Signs, curbs, fences and landscaping can effectively create an inclusive, yet safe environment that SPRAWL provides a sense of physical comfort for diverse users and A pattern of development characterized by uniform low density, activities. The aesthetic appeal elements of beautification lack of a distinctive core, poor accessibility, dependence initiatives, attractive lighting, street furniture, clean streets and on automobiles, and uncontrolled and noncontiguous land outdoor dining contribute to sense of place. Amenities should be expansion. designed to get people out of their cars to socialize, interact with their environment and discover other mobility options. SMART GROWTH Smart growth refers to a collection of land use and development SWOT ANALYSIS principles that aim to enhance our quality of life, preserve the SWOT analysis (or SWOT matrix) is a strategic planning natural environment and save money over time. Smart growth technique used to help a person or organization identify the principles ensure that growth is fiscally, environmentally and Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats related to socially responsible and recognizes the connections between business competition or project planning . It is intended to development and quality of life. Smart growth enhances specify the objectives of the business venture or project and and completes communities by placing a priority on infill, identify the internal and external factors that are favorable and redevelopment and densification strategies. unfavorable to achieving those objectives
STATUTORY PLAN TAX INCREMENT FINANCING (TIF) A statutory plan is a legal document that must go through TIF is a method to use future gains in taxes to finance current three readings and a public hearing before it is adopted. Once improvements (which theoretically will create the conditions adopted, there is a legal obligation on the part of both the for those future gains). When a development or public project municipality and the residents to adhere to the plan. is carried out, there is often an increase in the value of surrounding real estate, and perhaps new investment. This increased site value and investment sometimes generates increased tax revenues. The increased tax revenues are the “tax
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increment.” Tax Increment Financing dedicates tax increments TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS (HEIGHT within a certain defined district to finance debt issued to pay AND DENSITY EXCHANGE) for the project. TIF is designed to channel funding toward Also called density bonusing, this tool offers developments a improvements in distressed or underdeveloped areas where level of density that surpasses the allowable Floor Area Ratio development might not otherwise occur. TIF creates funding (FAR). In exchange for increased height/density that surpasses for “public” projects that may otherwise be unaffordable to the zoning by-law, developers are required to provide a service localities, by borrowing against future property tax revenues. or benefit to the community as negotiated by the municipality, such as amenities or housing needed by the community. Density bonusing policies must be written into a municipality’s Official TAXABLE INCOME Plan in order for it to be used as a development tool. Taxable income is the amount of revenue produced by a rental on which the owner must pay federal income tax. Once calculated, that amount is multiplied by the investor’s marginal TRAFFIC CALMING tax rate (i.e., state and federal combined) to arrive at the owner’s Traffic calming is intended to slow or reduce motor-vehicle tax liability. traffic in order to improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists Net Operating Income - Mortgage Interest - Depreciation, and improve the environment for residents. These may include Real Property - Depreciation, Capital Additions - Amortization, narrower traffic lanes, speed bumps, raised pedestrian Points and Closing Costs + Interest Earned (e.g., property bank or mortgage escrow accounts) crossings and pedestrian refuge islands in medians, amongst others. = Taxable Income Then, Taxable Income x Marginal Tax Rate TRANSFORMER STATION A station of an electricity generation, transmission and = Tax Liability distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low, or the reverse, using transformers TRANSFERABLE DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS (TDR)
Transferable development rights are the transfer of rights to TRANSIT-ADJACENT DEVELOPMENT (TAD) develop land, to government, local authorities or corporations. Development that is in close proximity to transit stops or When an owner of land transfers his rights to develop their land facilities. However, this type of development is not designed to to a government, local authority, corporation or government use, promote transit ridership. A TAD lacks functional connectivity to the same land is used for infrastructure projects such as road transit, whether in terms of land-use composition, station access widening, metro rail projects, parks, gardens and schools or or site design. may be for making new roads or for any other projects of public utility. DRC (Development rights certificate) will then be issued to the owner of the land, the main purpose of the whole process TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD) being to aquire the required amount of land in a hassle-free Transit-oriented developments (TOD) are ‘urban villages’ manner. The DRC will allow the landowner an additional built- where all residents are within a 5-10 minute walk of efficient up area in return for the area for which their rights have been public transit and can ‘live, work, play, shop and learn’ in a relinquished and enables them to develop the given area or pedestrian-friendly environment- without the need of a car. transfer rights for consideration. TOD is a planning approach that calls for high-density, mixed- use business/residential neighborhood centers to be clustered TIME VALUE OF MONEY around transit stations and corridors. TOD is considered a Time value of money is the underlying assumption that money, “smart growth” strategy because it addresses the issue of where over time, will change value. It’s an important element in real growth should occur from a sustainability perspective and it estate investing because it could suggest that the timing of coordinates land use and transportation such that both land receipts from the investment might be more important than the and infrastructure are used efficiently. As its name implies, TOD amount received. is designed to be served by transit, rather than or in addition to the automobile. Networks of streets and multi-use paths are
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also created to provide a walkable and bikeable environment TRANSIT-SUPPORTIVE DEVELOPMENT (TSD) that is conducive to living, working and shopping in the same TSD consists of a mix of housing, shops, restaurants, offices, area. TOD is focused within an 800m radius of transit stops, with civic buildings and open space in close proximity to a transit the highest intensity and mix of land uses concentrated within station. Transit-supportive planning and development rethink one-quarter mile or adjacent to the station. Land use intensities land use and development patterns to achieve a balanced and densities decrease away from the core area, with transitions transportation system where walking, cycling and riding transit included in development plans to ensure compatibility with are used more than the private automobile. This is primarily existing neighborhoods. accomplished by designing communities so that walking, cycling Peter Calthorpe summarizes the main characteristics and goals and riding transit are more convenient and attractive options. of TOD as follows:
• Organize growth on a regional-level to be compact and TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT (TDM) transit-supportive. By influencing travel behavior through the implementation of • Place commercial, housing, jobs, parks and civic uses strategies such as carpooling, parking management, cycling within walking distance of transit stops. programs, flexible working hours, high occupancy vehicle lands
• Create pedestrian-friendly street networks, which directly and incentives for transit, walking and cycling, the resulting connect local destinations. transportation system is more efficient.
• Provide a mix of housing types, densities and costs. URBAN REDEVELOPMENT • Preserve sensitive habitat, riparian zones and high-quality open spaces. It is conceptually similar to land readjustment, with the exception that it happens in existing urban areas and often involves • Make public spaces the focus of building orientation and a rezoning by the government of a given area from a low- neighbourhood activity. density (single-family housing) to higher-density (mixed-use or • Encourage infill and redevelopment along transit corridors commercial) development. It is also accompanied by a provision within existing neighborhoods. of infrastructure improvements (mass transit, such as metro lines) that can support such up-zoning. TRANSIT PRIORITY SIGNALS
Traffic signal priority allows transit vehicles to travel through URBAN HEAT ISLAND signalized intersections with little or no delay. Since transit An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area vehicles hold many people, giving priority to transit can that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas, potentially increase the person throughput of an intersection. due to human activities. The temperature difference usually is There are different types of signal priority: passive, active and larger at night than during the day and is most apparent when real-time. A passive priority strategy uses timed coordinated winds are weak. UHI is most noticeable during the summer and signals in the area-wide traffic signal timing scheme. An active winter. The main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the priority strategy involves detecting the presence of a transit modification of land surfaces. Waste heat, generated by energy vehicle and gives the transit vehicle special treatment. The usage, is a secondary contributor. As a population center grows, system can give an early green signal or hold a green signal that it tends to expand its area and increase its average temperature. is already displaying. Real-time control strategies can consider The less-used term, heat island, refers to any area, populated or not only the presence of a transit vehicle, but the adherence to not, which is consistently hotter than the surrounding area. schedule and the volume of other traffic. One common strategy Monthly rainfall is greater downwind of cities, partially due to is to give priority only to late buses, but not to early buses. This the UHI. Increases in heat within urban centers increases the strategy optimizes schedule adherence (and therefore waiting length of growing seasons and decreases the occurrence of time) rather than running time. weak tornadoes. The UHI decreases air quality by increasing the production of pollutants such as ozone and decreases water quality, as warmer waters flow into area streams and put stress on their ecosystems.
594 GLOSSARY OF TERMS TOD K P
VALUE CAPTURE Disclaimer: The Transit-Orientated Development Implementation Resources & Tools knowledge product is designed to provide a high- An opportunity to generate revenues by capitalizing on the value level framework for the implementation of TOD and offer direction to created by infrastructure investments (often transit and other cities in addressing barriers at all stages. As the context in low and middle-income cities varies, the application of the knowledge product government-backed projects) by developing or selling property must be adapted to local needs and priorities, and customized on a or collect¬ing fees or taxes. Value capture can be facilitated case-by-case basis. through direct measures, such as the sale of properties or © 2021 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The the granting of a development franchise, or through indirect World Bank methods, such as extracting surplus from other property owners (through a betterment tax, for example) or reaping higher proceeds from regular property taxes.
VEHICLE CAPACITY The average number of people that a vehicle can be scheduled to carry at capacity (as defined herein)
WASTEWATER DISPOSAL It is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.
WAYFINDING The means in which people orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place. Can include the physical design of spaces and assistive features, such as signage.
WORLD BANK (WB) The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. The World Bank’s stated goal is the reduction of poverty, which its Articles of Agreement define as commitments to the promotion of foreign investment, international trade and to the facilitation of capital investment.
ZONING REGULATIONS Zoning regulations specify whether zones can be used for residential, commercial, industrial, institutional or open space purposes, that may also regulate lot size, placement, bulk (or density) and the height of structures.
Zoning consists of dividing a particular region of land into districts or zones and specifying the types of land uses that are allowed and prohibited for each zone. This is performed by the county and is typically specific to certain, unincorporated areas. Zoning, in its basic form, attempts to separate residential property use from other property uses. GLOSSARY OF TERMS 595 TOD K P TOD K P
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS
© 2021 The World Bank TOD K P INTRODUCTION This supplement to the TOD Knowledge Products provides or understanding of a subject matter. Rather, the user may examples of documents, reports, and terms of references choose to refer to them to understand the type of output that from cities throughout the world where TOD is under can be expected by using the various tools and resources implementation. The most relevant case examples are provided under the TOD Knowledge Products, knowing and provided for specific groups of knowledge products. The acknowledging that outputs will differ depending on the intent of providing these examples is not to limit the scope context of the assignment. CONTENTS
AS-A01 TOD Readiness Assessment / AS-A02 TOD Scale and Context Assessment 599
AS-A03 Thresholds for Real Estate Demand / AS-H01 How to Undertake Real Estate Market 600 Analysis / AS-R01 Real Estate Analysis Best Practices / AS-P01 Real Estate Analysis Terms of Reference Template
AS-A04 Thresholds for Rapid Transit Mode Selection / AS-H02 How to Undertake Rapid 601 Transit Alternatives Assessment / AS-P02 Transit Alternatives Analysis Terms of Reference Template
AS-H03 How to Undertake Infrastructure Carrying Capacity Assessment / AS-P03 602 Infrastructure Analysis Terms of Reference Template / FI-A01 Infrastructure Capital and Operating Cost Estimates
EN-C01 Stakeholder Game / EN-C02 Making a Case for TOD to the Public-Communication 603 Strategy / EN-P01 Communication Strategy Terms of Reference Template
PD-H01 How to Prepare a City-wide TOD Plan / PD-H02 How to Prepare a Corridor TOD 604 Plan / PD-H03 How to Prepare a Station Area Plan / PD-H04 How to Prepare a Site Level TOD Plan
PD-H05 How to Develop TOD Supportive Zoning Framework) / PD-R02 TOD Zoning Cod 605 Template
PD-H06 Land Amalgamation Framework 606
FI-A02 Real Estate Development Pro-forma 607
FI-H01 Land Value Capture Framework / FI-R01 Development Incentives / FI-R02 Land Value 608 Capture Mechanisms and Best Practices / FI-R03 Municipal Finance Tools
FI-H02 Private Sector Participation Framework 609
IM-A01 Monitoring and Evaluation Checklist / IM-A02 TOD KPIs 610
IM-H01 How to Undertake Capacity Building / IM-P01 Capacity Building Terms of Reference 611 Template
Disclaimer: The Transit-orientated Development Implementation Resources & Tools knowledge product is designed to provide a high-level framework for the implementation of TOD and offer direction to cities in addressing barriers at all stages. As the context in low and middle-income cities varies, the application of the knowledge product must be adapted to local needs and priorities, and customized on a case-by-case basis. © 2021 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
598 SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS TOD K P
AS-A01 TOD READINESS ASSESSMENT AS-A02 TOD SCALE AND CONTEXT ASSESSMENT ASSESS
The TOD Readiness Assessment and Scale and Context Assessment tool are developed to help cities in understanding the contextual readiness of the city, corridor, or site and identify the appropriate scale and context at which to plan for TOD.
Example Type Example Source URL Transit Oriented Report City of Denver. 2014. Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan. Link Development Strategic Consultant Report, MIG, EPS, OV Consulting, Denver, CO: Federal Plan - Denver, US Transit Administration. TOD City Specific Plan - Report MOUD (Ministry of Urban Development), India. 2016. TOD City Link Bhopal, India Specific Plan - Bhopal. Consultant Report, IBI Group, Bhopal: Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP). Transit Oriented Report CTOD (Center for Transit-Oriented Development), Nelson Nygaard. Link Development Strategic 2011. Transit-Oriented Development Strategic Plan. Consultant Plan - Portland US Report, Portland: Portland Metro.
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 599 TOD K P
AS-A03: THRESHOLDS FOR REAL ESTATE DEMAND
ASSESS AS-H01: HOW TO UNDERTAKE REAL ESTATE MARKET ANALYSIS (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE) AS-R01: REAL ESTATE ANALYSIS BEST PRACTICES (REF DOC.) AS-P01: REAL ESTATE ANALYSIS TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR TEMPLATE)
PRODUCT SUMMARY with the appropriate demand can be determined. It can also
The real estate tools aid in establishing the real estate be better understood what development is most in demand, knowledge required to undertake a successful TOD based on demographic, geographic and economic trends. development. Through the use of the tools, the market area
Example Type Example Source URL Transit-Oriented Report GVMC (Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Coorporation), USTDA Link Redevelopment of the (US Trade and Development Agency). 2017. “Transit-Oriented Dwarka Bus Station Redevelopment of the Dwaraka Bus Station- Feasibility Study Final Report.” Consultant Report, AECOM, IBM, KPMG, Visakhapatnam: AECOM. Revenue maximizing study Report MRVC (Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation Ltd). 2014. “Revenue Link in particular for non- maximising study in particular for non-fare box revenues with fare box revenues with affordability studies.” Consultant Report, PriceWaterhouseCooper, affordability studies Mumbai. Real Estate Information Weblink Urban Redevelopment Authority. n.d. Realis Tool. Accessed 08 18, Link System 2018.
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AS-A04: THRESHOLDS FOR RAPID TRANSIT MODE SELECTION
ASSESS AS-H02: HOW TO UNDERTAKE RAPID TRANSIT ALTERNATIVES ASSESSMENT (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE) AS-P02: TRANSIT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR TEMPLATE)
PRODUCT SUMMARY The tools will aid in identifying, evaluating and selecting the
The rapid transit assessment tools are intended to help cities appropriate rapid transit alternative including route alignment, who are planning the first rapid transit corridors or those mode and technology relative to existing city conditions and that are planning an extension of existing transit networks. financial viability.
Example Type Example Source URL Bus Rapid Transit System Report DULT (Directorate of Urban Land Transport) (2013). Bus Rapid Transit Link Hubli-Dharwad System Detailed Feasibility Report. Consultant Report (CEPT), Hubli- Dharwad Spokane Central City Report Sound Transit (2012). Spokane Central City Transit Alternatives Link Transit Alternatives Analysis Process Summary Report. Consultant Report (CH2M Hill), Analysis Spokane Rapid Transit Initiative - Report City of London, ON; LT (London Transit). 2016. “SHIFT -London’s Link London, ON Rapid Transit Initiative.” Consultant Report, IBI Group, WSP, London ON, Canada Corridor Assessment and Report EDF (European Development Fund) (2016). Report on the Corridor Link Ranking for Selecting one Assessment and Ranking for Selecting at Least One Pilot Smart Pilot Smart Corridor Corridor. Consultant Report (NTU/LB). Addis Ababa: The European Union.
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 601 TOD K P
AS-H03: HOW TO UNDERTAKE INFRASTRUCTURE CARRYING CAPACITY ASSESSMENT (STEP-BY- ASSESS STEP GUIDE) AS-P03: INFRASTRUCTURE ANALYSIS TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR TEMPLATE) FI-A01: INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL & OPERATING FINANCE COST ESTIMATES/RANGES (SPREADSHEET)
These tools help in evaluating the infrastructure carrying capacity of a site for transit-supportive densities, based on the development context. Further, they help in estimating the cost requirements for infrastructure capital and operating costs.
Example Type Example Source URL Hubli-Dharwad City Plan - Data Report HDBRTS Ltd. (2017). City Plan for Hubli-Dharwad Data Link Gathering and Compilation Report Gathering and Compilation Report. Consultant Report (IBI Consultancy India Pvt Ltd), Hubli-Dharwad. TOD Regulations for Delhi - Statutory DDA (Delhi Development Authority). (2016). Proposed Transit Annexure-1 - (vii) Infrastructure Document Oriented Development (TOD) Regulations - Page 19. New Provision Delhi, Delhi, India. Capital Improvement Program, Report California National City 1887 Incorporated. (2017). Fiscal Link California Year 2017 - 2021 5-Year Capital Improvement Program (CIP). Budget Report, National City. Capital Operating and Maintenance Report Nashville Area Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2007. costs estimates, Nashville “Nashville Southeast Corridor High-Performance Transit Alternatives Study - Chapter 9.” Final Report, Nashville TN.
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EN-C01: STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT - GAME (REF. DOC.)
ENABLE EN-C02: MAKING A CASE FOR TOD TO THE PUBLIC - COMMUNICATION STRATEGY (REF.DOC.) EN-P01: COMMUNICATION STRATEGY TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR TEMPLATE)
The Communications tools help to build ownership among all the TOD stakeholders. The myriad tools that can be employed include online and print strategies, physical games and other media that can communicate the benefits of the TOD plans.
Example Type Example Source URL Community Engagement, Report Sound Transit. (2017). Summary of Community Engagement. Seattle: Link Roosevelt Station TOD City of Seattle, Roosevelt Neighborhood Association Strategic Communications Report Arup USA, Inc. 2009. “Marketing TOD Strategic Communications/ Link Plan, Manassas Park Marketing Plan.” Manassas Park. Promotion and Outreach RFP PCMC (Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation). n.d. “Selection Link Program, Pimpri of Consultants for Promotion and Outreach Program (POP) for BRT Chinchwad & Non-Motorized Transport (NMT) Systems in Pimpri-Chinchwad.” Pimpri Chinchwad, India. Promotion and Outreach Report PCMC (Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation). 2016. Promotions Link program for BRT & NMT in and Outreach Program for BRT & NMT in PCMC Area. Consultant PCMC area Report (IBI Group, Centre for Environment Education), Pimpri Chinchwad: SUTP (Sustainable Urban Transport Project).
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 603 TOD K P
PD-H01: HOW TO PREPARE A CITY-WIDE TOD PLAN (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE)
PLAN+ PD-H02: HOW TO PREPARE A CORRIDOR TOD DESIGN PLAN (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE) PD-H03: HOW TO PREPARE A STATION AREA PD-R01: TOD PLANNING PRINCIPLES & PLAN (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE) DESIGN GUIDELINES (REF. DOC.) PD-H04: HOW TO PREPARE A SITE LEVEL TOD PD-P01: TOD PLANS TERMS OF PLAN (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE) REFERENCE (TOR TEMPLATE)
PRODUCT SUMMARY contextual conditions. The outputs below are an illustration of
The How-to Guides for Plan+Design along with the Planning how these tools will help you define the final products. Principles demonstrate the processes to be followed in undertaking TOD planning at different scales under different
Example Type Example Source URL Dar es Salaam BRT Phase Presentation Broadway Malyan. 2018. “Dar es Salaam BRT Phase 1 Corridor Link 1 Corridor Development Development Strategy.” Client PO-RALG Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Strategy The World Bank; Nordic Development Fund Kakardooma TOD Presentation UTTIPEC (Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning Proposal, Delhi & Engineering) Centre). n.d. East Delhi Hub – Kadkardooma TOD Proposal. New Delhi: Delhi Development Authority Naya Raipur TOD Study Presentation NRDA (Naya Raipur Development Authority). 2013. ‘Naya Raipur’ A New City Takes Root (Transit Oriented Development). Naya Raipur. City of Cape Town TOD Report Transport for Cape Town. 2015. “City of Cape Town TOD Strategic Link Strategic Framework Framework.” Strategic Plan, City of Cape Town.
604 SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS TOD K P
PD-H05: HOW TO DEVELOP TOD SUPPORTIVE ZONING FRAMEWORK (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE)
PLAN+ PD-R02: TOD ZONING CODE TEMPLATE (REF. DESIGN DOC.)
The TOD Zoning Framework tools provide guidance on how TOD concepts and ideas can be converted into a statutory zoning regulation within the city.
Example Type Example Source URL TOD Regulations for Delhi RFP Delhi Development Authority. 2017. “Master Plan for Delhi-2021”. New Link Delhi Sample TOD Overlay Report Valley Connections. 2001. Model Transit-Oriented District Overlay Link Zoning Ordinance - Zoning Ordinance. http://www.reconnectingamerica.org/assets/ Reconnecting America Uploads/bestpractice230.pdf, California: Community Design + Architecture, Inc. Comprehensive Weblink UD&UHD (Urban Development and Urban Housing Department). 2017. Link Development Control “Comprehensive General Development Control Regulation - 2017.” Regulations, Ahmedabad Gandhinagar. Spatial Development Report City of Johannesburg. 2016. "Spatial Development Framework Link Framework, Johannesburg 2040 City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality." Prepared in collaboration with Urban Planning and Design Lab, Iyer Urban Design Studio and Urban the Morphology & Complex Systems Institute, Johannesburg.
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 605 TOD K P
PD-H06: LAND AMALGAMATION FRAMEWORK (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE)
The Land Amalgamation Framework tools guides cities on how to develop and define the area to be amalgamated and different ways to undertake the amalgamation process.
Example Type Example Source URL Dar es Salaam BRT Phase Presentation Broadway Malyan. 2018. “Dar es Salaam BRT Phase 1 Corridor Link 1 Corridor Development Development Strategy.” Client PO-RALG Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Strategy The World Bank; Nordic Development Fund TOD Manual, Delhi Manual UTTIPEC (Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning & Link Engineering) Centre), WRI India. 2014. Transit Oriented development Manual- Delhi TOD Policy & Regulations Interpretation. Delhi: World Resource Institute. TOD City Specific Plan, Report MOUD (Ministry of Urban Development), India. 2016. TOD City Link Mumbai Specific Plan - Mumbai. Consultant Report, IBI Group, Mumbai: Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP).
606 SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS TOD K P
FI-A02: REAL-ESTATE DEVELOPMENT PRO-FORMA (SPREADSHEET) FINANCE
The Real Estate Development Pro-Forma tool provides primary understanding about the assessment of return on investment (ROI), based on certain basic project development parameters.
Example Type Example Source URL Market and Pro-Forma Report City of Sacramento. 2007. “Market and Pro-Forma Analysis.” Link Analysis Sacramento : Bay Area Economics . Transit-Oriented Presentation DUSP (Department of Urban and Spatial Analytics), MIT. 2016. Link Development in Mexico “Transit-Oriented Development in Mexico City.” Mexico City. City
Gap Analysis for Transit- Report MAPC (Metropolitan Area Planning Council). 2012. “Gap Analysis for Link Oriented Development Transit-Oriented.” Consultant Report (GLC Development Resources Financing LLC), Boston.
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 607 TOD K P
FI-H01: LAND VALUE CAPTURE FRAMEWORK (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE) FINANCE FI-R01: DEVELOPMENT INCENTIVES (REF. DOC.) FI-R02: LAND VALUE CAPTURE MECHANISMS AND BEST PRACTICES (REF. DOC.) FI-R03: MUNICIPAL FINANCE TOOLS (REF. DOC.)
The development incentives, municipal finance, LVC and PPP tools will guide cities or developers in structuring projects so as to maximize value and revenue and share the risks during the life cycle of the project.
Example Type Example Source URL Land value capture as a Report Polska, Sprawne Panstwo Program- Ernst & Young. 2011. “Land Link funding source, Warsaw value capture as a funding source for urban investment- The Warsaw Metro metro system.” Warsaw. Transit Value Capture Report CMAP (Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning). 2010. “Transit Link Analysis, Chicago Region Value Capture Analysis for the Chicago Region.” Consultant Report (S. B. Friedman & Company). Feasibility Study, Dwarka Report Corporation, Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal. 2017. “Transit- Link Oriented Redevelopment Of the Dwaraka Bus.” Consultant Report (AECOM, IBM, KPMG), Visakhapatnam. Tax Increment Financing Presentation Chapa, Jay. 2013. “Tax Increment Financing: TEX Rail/Transit- Link Oriented Development.” Fort Worth. Innovative Municipal Report Venkatachalam, Pritha. 2005. “Innovative Approaches to Municipal Link Financing, Tamil Nadu Infrastructure Financing: A Case Study on Tamil Nadu, India.” Tamil Nadu, India: Development Destin Studies Institute.
608 SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS TOD K P
FI-H02: PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION FRAMEWORK (REF. DOC.) FINANCE
This resource provides a compilation of municipal financing tools that are applied globally and a guide for the cities on how to deploy these tools.
Example Type Example Source URL Indian Stations Report Indian Railways; FICCI. 2017. "Indian Railways Station Link Redevelopment PPP Redevelopment- Transforming Railways and Creating Win-Win Framework Opportunities." Consultant Report (The Boston Consulting Group). TOD Development – RFP Sound Transit. 2014. “Request for Proposals TOD Development – Link Capitol Hill Properties Capitol Hill Properties Redevelopment.” Redevelopment
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 609 TOD K P
IM-A01: MONITORING AND EVALUATION (CHECKLIST) IMPLEMENT IM-A02: TOD KPI (Spreadsheet)
The Monitoring and Evaluation tools provide cities with guidance on how to monitor and evaluate the performance of ongoing and completed projects with respect to TOD goals.
Example Type Example Source URL Evaluating Transit-Oriented Report Renne, John L. n.d. “6 Evaluating Transit-Oriented Development Link Development Using a Using a Sustainability Framework: Lessons from Perth’s Network Sustainability Framework City.” Perth Project Evaluation Report, Report Commission, Delaware Valley Regional Planning. 2003 . “Project Link Philadelphia Evaluation Report Implementing Transit-Oriented Development in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area.” Philadelphia TOD Indicators Report NIUA (National Institute of Urban Affairs). n.d. Assessing TOD- A List of Indicators. India: NIUA and Foreign and Commonwealth Office (UK). TOD Scores Weblink The Institute for Transportation and Development (ITDP). 2014. TOD Link Scores.
610 SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS TOD K P
IM-H01: HOW TO UNDERTAKE CAPACITY BUILDING (STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE) IMPLEMENT IM-P01: CAPACITY BUILDING TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR TEMPLATE)
These tools will help cities assess their own capacities and formulate a response to be able to build capacities as needed for planning and implementing TOD.
Example Type Example Source URL Capcity Building Reforms, Presentation KMC (Kolkata Municipal Corporation). 2009. “KMC: Capacity Link Kolkata Building Program – A Reforms Initiative.” Kolkata. Assessment of Capacity Presentation NIUA (National Institute Of Urban Affairs). 2015. A Study to Link Building Needs Qualitatively Assess the Capacity Building Needs of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). Research Division, NITI Aayog,. Capacity Building in PPPs Report Plummer, Janelle. 2002. FOCUSING PARTNERSHIPS- A Sourcebook Link for Municipal Capacity Building in Public–Private Partnerships. UNDP, Earthscan Publications Ltd, London,Sterling, VA.
SAMPLE DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS 611 TOD K P TOD K P
GOOD PRACTICE NOTE
Integration of Road Safety Considerations in Transit-Oriented Development projects
This note was prepared with funding from UK AID, through the Global Road Safety Facility (GRSF), for the World Bank as part of the assignment: “Integration of Road Safety Considerations in Transit-Oriented Development Projects”.
It has been prepared by World Resources Institute India (WRI India) team led by Prerna V. Mehta and included Abhishek Behera, Binoy Mascarehnas and Jaya Dhindaw, and supported by Madhav Pai, Chetan Sodaye, Dhawal Ashar, Himanshi Kapoor and Rajeev Malagi; under the leadership of Gerald Ollivier and Alina Burlacu, with peer review by Blanca Domine, Said Dahdah, Wanli Fang, and Juan Miguel Velasquez Torres. Dipan Bose offered helpful comments during the finalization of the document.
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AE Automated Enforcement BRT Bus Rapid Transit FOB Foot over bridge GDP Gross Domestic Product IPT Intermediate Public Transport NMT Non-motorized Transport PIARC World Road Association RSIA Road Safety Impact Assessment ROW Right of Way RSA Road Safety Audit RSI Road Safety Inspection SAM Safe Access Mass-transit TOD Transit Oriented-Development VKT Vehicle Kilometers Traveled WRI World Resources Institute
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LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Distribution of deaths by road user type by WHO Region 621 Table 2. Three components of a sidewalk 648 Table 3. Comparison between location of crosswalks in different types of intersections. 650 Table 4. Comparisons highlighting issues of inadequate pedestrian waiting areas and mitigation measures 651 Table 5. Comparing different types of dedicated cycle lanes. 653 Table 6. Summary table for different types of intersections 656 Table 7. Alternatives for ROW redistribution 665 Table 8. Vertical speed control alternatives 666 Table 9. Horizontal speed control alternatives 668 Table 10. Alternatives for a modified intersection 670
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Safe system diagram 623 Figure 2. Five principles of Safe Access 632 Figure 3. The different realms for planning of station area 642 Figure 4. Hierarchy of priority for mobility planning 642 Figure 5. Oriented the feeder network in a greenfield station area 643 Figure 6. Determining the feeder priority area in the station area. 645 Figure 7. Pedestrian only street in Sao Paulo, Brazil 646 Figure 8. Three components of a sidewalk 647 Figure 9. Immovable obstructions on the sidewalk restricting pedestrian movement 648 Figure 10. Deviations made around obstructions for continuous walking path. 648 Figure 11. Typical multi-utility zone with different types of uses 649 Figure 12. Natural walking path and desire lines for a right-angled intersection.. 650 Figure 13. Crosswalks aligned along desired movement patterns in a skewed intersection. 650 Figure 14. Crosswalks aligned along shortest crossing distance in a skewed intersection. 650 Figure 15. Reduced intersection corner curvature for pedestrian safety 651 Figure 16. Existing conditions with wider corner radius 651 Figure 17. Tighter corner radius provides more waiting area for pedestrians. 651 Figure 18. Curb extensions created by removing travel lanes further reduce crossing times for pedestrians. 651 Figure 19. Uni-directional marked cycle lane. 654 Figure 20. Bi-directional marked cycle lane. 654 Figure 21. A shared bus and bike lane 654 Figure 22. Separate bus and cycle lanes, with cycle lane going behind the bus stop 654 Figure 23. A bus station bypass in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 654 Figure 24. Cycle lane between travel lane and parking lane 654 Figure 25. Cycle lane between sidewalk and parking lane without any buffer 655 Figure 26. Buffer between cycle lane and parking lane using on-street markings using paint. 655 Figure 27. Protected bike lanes with physical separations using raised median as buffers 655 Figure 28. Advanced termination of bike lane as it nears an intersection. 656 Figure 29. Turning lane inserted between cycle lane and sidewalk. 656 Figure 30. Advanced stop lines with cycle boxes for cyclists to align in direction of turn 658
616 NOTE TOD K P
Figure 31. Two-phase cycle turn boxes 658 Figure 32. Cycle lanes hooked with pedestrian crossing 658 Figure 33. Single phase for cycle movement in all directions. 658 Figure 34. Two-phase cycle turn at intersection with Bus priority lanes 660 Figure 35. Bus stop location at mid-block has a limited reach and longer interchange distance 661 Figure 36. Bus stop located near an intersection increases connectivity and reduces the interchange distance. 661 Figure 37. Transfer distances of two stops positioned at mid-blocks 661 Figure 38. Transfer distances of stops near the intersection 661 Figure 39. Impact on traffic due to stop positioned before intersection 662 Figure 40. Impact on traffic due to stop positioned after intersection 662 Figure 41. Impact on traffic due to stop positioned close to intersection 662 Figure 42. Impact on traffic due to stop positioned short distance from the intersection 662 Figure 43. Incorrect location of mid-block bus stops along curved roads 663 Figure 44. Ideal mid-block location of bus stops with common crosswalk 663 Figure 45. Existing typical distribution of ROW with wide travel lanes 664 Figure 46. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and bus lane 665 Figure 47. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and center turn lane 665 Figure 48. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and on street parking 665 Figure 49. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and wider sidewalks 665 Figure 50. Speed hump 666 Figure 51. Speed table 666 Figure 52. Speed bump 666 Figure 53. Speed humps before pedestrian crossing. 667 Figure 54. Pedestrian crossing on top of speed table 667 Figure 55. Speed table doubling up as a mid-block crossing with safety bollards in New Delhi, India 667 Figure 56. Chicanes 668 Figure 57. Staggered on-street parking 668 Figure 58. Chokers 668 Figure 59. Median bulb-out 668 Figure 60. Mid-block crossings in BRT lane as a combination of horizontal and vertical traffic calming measures 669 Figure 61. Extending curb corners at intersections to create gateways 669 Figure 62. Raised intersection, at the level of sidewalk 670 Figure 63. Mini roundabout 670 Figure 64. Restricting movement at intersections using barriers 670 Figure 65. Cycle parking facility and pedestrian only area at the entrance of Transmilenio in Bogota, Colombia 671 Figure 66. Transit station access using segregated sidewalks, Mexico 671 Figure 67. Designed access to DN Nagar Metro Station Mumbai near an intersection 672 Figure 68. Pedestrian access to a raised BRT station in the center of the ROW 673 Figure 69. Facilities for cyclists to access the BRT station along with pedestrians 673 Figure 70. Thane Suburban station in India with lower level for auto-rickshaws and upper levels for bus bays 674 Figure 71. Typical transfer platform at station along Bogota, Colombia’s TransMilenio BRT corridor 674 Figure 72. Transfer facility between two intersecting BRT Lines 675 Figure 73. Para-transit access and transfers to transit station 676
NOTE 617 TOD K P
618 NOTE TOD K P
List of Tables 616
List of Figures 616
Introduction 621 Road crash and impact 621 Safe system approach 622 Case for transit-oriented development (TOD) 624
Assess 626 Road safety capacity reviews: Policy, regulatory and institutional framework 626 Road inventory, road crash data collection and analysis 627 Road safety assessment and engineering tools 629
Plan+Design 633 Planning of TOD networks 633 Design of elements within TOD network 635
Implement 637 Institutional set-up and capacity building 637 Execution of design 638 Monitoring and evaluation 639
Appendix A 641
Appendix B 647
NOTE 619 TOD K P
620 NOTE TOD K P
1. Based on 2018 findings of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of deaths due to road crashes is 1.35 million deaths per year. While this number is quite high and increasing every year, the rate of road crash deaths per 100,000 of population has remained constant, at around 18 deaths, over the years. This rate of deaths is however not distributed proportionately amongst the different regions and countries. The high-income countries have recorded lowest average rate at 8.3 per 100,000. In contrast to this number, low-income countries have the highest annual road traffic fatality rates averaging at 27.5 deaths per 100,000– more than three times the average for high-income countries.
ROAD CRASH AND IMPACT
2. Most of the deaths and injuries from road crashes are of the working age population, which negatively impacts both the economy and the demography of the region. Road traffic injuries are currently the 8th leading cause for death for all age groups, and further compounding the demographic impact is the fact that road crashes are the leading cause of death for children and young adults, between the ages of 5 and 29 years.
3. Road traffic crashes have a high economic impact, costing 3 percent of a country’s GDP on average. They also cause a significant impact on the individuals as well as their families. Injuries arising due to road crashes can lead to trauma for the individual and loss in productivity. Along with costs of treatment, economic challenges may further be increased due to temporary or permanent loss of income as well. Along with the victim, road crashes take an emotional toll on the immediate family members and caregivers during treatment process or any deaths and add to the economic burden as they may need to take time off work or school to care for the injured.
4. The distribution of road users varies within different regions and income groups of countries. This impacts the variations in death rates amongst the users. The low- and middle-income countries have a significantly high proportion of pedestrians, cyclists and two- or three-wheeler motorized vehicles. Overall, the global road traffic deaths for pedestrians and cyclists is at 26% and another 28% for two- and three-wheeler motorcyclists, totaling nearly 54% of vulnerable road users. This proportion varies in comparison between the economic group of countries, with a high percentage of road crash victims being car occupants.
Americas Europe Africa Eastern South-east Western World Mediterranean Asia Pacific
Drivers/ passengers 34% 48% 40% 39% 16% 22% 29% of 4 wheeler vehicles Motorized 2-3 23% 11% 9% 15% 43% 36% 28% wheeled vehicles Cyclists 3% 5% 4% 2% 2% 6% 3% Pedestrians 22% 27% 40% 34% 14% 22% 23% Others/ unspecified 18% 9% 7% 10% 25% 14% 17%
Table 1. Distribution of deaths by road user type by WHO Region (Source: WHO 2018)
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5. Globally, a significant percentage of road crash victims being car occupants is also an indicator of insufficient infrastructure for controlling traffic speeds and volumes. Furthermore, when people use private cars more for their daily activities, it results in a higher level of total vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). Choice of using personal vehicle over using non-motorized transport or public mass transport may be attributed to the car-centric planning and design of road infrastructure. Many countries lack adequate protected infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists. This discourages users to walk or bicycle to their destinations.
6. Mode-choice plays a critical role in road safety. Public mass transit systems not only provide faster and safer transportation mode choices, they also help reduce dependency on privately owned vehicles on the road. Public mass transit services typically follow designated routes as well, thereby minimizing interferences between different types of road users. While many countries still have to develop mass transit infrastructure such as metro rails, public bus system is quite prevalent, with bus rapid transit (BRT) and bus only lane infrastructures being developed. Absence of proper first and last mile connectivity to the transit stations poses security threats for road users and discourages them from using public transport.
7. Additionally, a city’s urban form conditions, such as built density, land-use mix and street layout, are also critical aspects for road safety, and can impact a variety of influencing factors, ranging from traffic speed to modal choice. Larger block sizes and suburban layouts mean longer walking and biking distances for users and hence a preference for private vehicles. Barcelona, Spain and Atlanta, USA both have comparative population sizes (2.8 million and 2.5 million respectively). However, they vastly differ in built-up area, with just 162 sq.km for Barcelona, compared to 4280 sq.km for Atlanta. This has a significant impact on mode choice, where only 20% of trips in Barcelona are car dependent, compared to 77% in Atlanta. The road safety impact is clearly evidenced by the traffic fatality rate of just 1.9 deaths per 100,000 population in Barcelona compared to 9.7 deaths in Atlanta.
SAFE SYSTEM APPROACH
8. The Safe System approach derives from the Swedish Vision Zero and Dutch Sustainable Safety strategies that have a long-term goal for a road traffic system to be eventually free from fatalities and serious injuries. It represents a shift away from traditional approach of preventing collisions to a more forgiving approach of preventing fatalities and mitigating serious injuries in road crashes. The traditional approach emphasizes the responsibility of road users to avoid crashes rather than the responsibility of system designers to provide a safe mobility system.
9. The Safe System approach takes into account that humans are vulnerable and fallible, and errors are to be expected. It aims at ensuring these mistakes do not lead to a crash, and if a crash does occur, it is sufficiently controlled to not cause a death or a life-changing injury. Thereby with a “zero-harm goal”, it places a strong emphasis on road builder/operator and vehicle manufacturer accountability for road safety performance.
10. The Safe System approach emphasizes shared responsibility. Government agencies at different levels and a range of multi- sectoral agencies and stakeholders – including policy makers, road engineers, planners, vehicle manufacturers, enforcement officers, emergency medical agencies, road safety educators etc. – are accountable for the system’s safety and all road users – drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians are responsible for complying with the system rules.
11. This approach further caters to the larger socio-economic and environmental challenges faced in urban areas. While making the road an equitable space for all users, ensuring accessibility and usability for all, it helps address issues associated with road traffic such as congestion, public health, and pollution.
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12. The Safe System approach is anchored around the following four principles:
• People make mistakes that can lead to road crashes.
• People are vulnerable − The human body has a limited physical ability to tolerate crash forces before harm occurs i.e. being seriously injured or killed.
• A shared responsibility − Those who plan, design, build, and manage roads and vehicles and provide post-crash care share the responsibility to prevent crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries. In a true Safe System, road users also have the responsibility such as vehicle safety feature maintenance, complying with the policies etc.
• Strengthen all parts of the system – There is a need to improve the safety of all parts of the system - roads and roadsides, speeds, vehicles, and road use - and if one part fails, road users are still protected.
13. Along with these principles, it must also be noted that road crash deaths and serious traffic crashes and injuries are preventable and should not be accepted as part of the mobility system. Lack of safety should not be a trade-off for faster mobility. Rather, the mobility system should be both safe and efficient.
14. Safe system comprises of four components below (Figure 1):
• Safer Roads: Safety features are to be included into the design of roads in order to reduce the risk of crashes and the severity of injuries if a crash occurs. Typical measures include segregation of different types of road users and traffic moving at different directions and speeds, traffic calming measures, targeted improvements of crash hot-spot etc.
• Safer Speeds: Speed limits help in avoiding crashes and the severity of the same. The human body being vulnerable has a limit for experiencing and enduring physical trauma. Based on road types and the contexts, appropriate speed limits need to be established and enforced.
• Safer Vehicles: Vehicles are to be designed and maintained to minimize the occurrence and consequences of crashes focusing on the survivability post a collision. While the vehicle design technology (braking systems, sensors, passive safety components etc) is critical, the onus is also on the users to buy safer Figure 1. Safe system diagram Adapted from Safer Roads, Safer Queensland: Queensland’s Road Safety vehicles and maintain them to the highest standards. Strategy 2015–21 (www.roadsafety.gov.au/nrss/safe-system)
• Safer Road Users: As part of the shared responsibility, it is necessary for road users to comply with the road rules and for system designers to actively work towards reduction of traffic volumes, educating users of the risks, adhering to proper usage of roads, ensuring proper post crash health facility etc.
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CASE FOR TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD)
15. In order to achieve sustainable growth, globally cities are looking at integrating land use and transportation planning. An outcome of this endeavor is the application of transit-oriented development, better known by its acronym TOD. It is a “multidisciplinary planning and design strategy to ensure compact, mixed-use, mixed-income, pedestrian and two-wheeler friendly cities, and suitably dense urban development organized around transit stations”. By virtue of its character, a TOD scheme advocates for environmental sustainability by promoting public transit and non-motorized transport, and socially- inclusive economic development that is equitably distributed creating safe urban spaces for all users.
16. The World Bank’s TOD Community of Practice summarizes eight key principles for implementing TOD:
• Align human densities, economic densities, mass transit capacity, and transit network characteristics for greater accessibility.
• Create compact regions with short commutes.
• Ensure the resilience of areas connected by mass transit.
• Plan and zone for mixed-use and mixed-income neighborhoods at a corridor level.
• Create vibrant, people-centric public spaces around mass transit stations.
• Develop neighborhoods that promote walking and cycling.
• Develop good-quality, accessible, and integrated public transit.
• Manage demand for private vehicles.
17. TOD involves creating concentrated nodes of moderate-to-high density developments supporting a balanced mix of diverse land uses which are located within 5-10 minutes of walking distance, I,e, 800m-1km from mass rapid transit stations. This integration of transportation and land use planning, with other elements such as market demands, environmental systems, community input and technical efficiencies, allows for placement of employment, entertainment, leisure and residential uses near each other around the rapid transit stations. This allows for reduced trip lengths and number of trips and prioritizes public transit use and reduces dependency on private motor vehicles.
18. There is a strong interrelationship between TOD and road safety. A well-executed TOD scheme has the potential to make far- reaching impacts on the road safety scenario in the city. At the citywide level, TOD influences urban form and mode-choice; two very critical factors for road safety. The mixed-use land use developments with active frontage and accessible services centered within safe walking and cycling distances around transit stations, encourages users to choose for transit combined with non-motorized commute over use of cars. This pattern of considerable mode shift minimizes the number of cars on the street thereby reducing the chances of conflicts. At the neighborhood level, TOD promotes more pedestrian-friendly streets with lower traffic speeds, which significantly improves the safety of the most vulnerable road-user group.
19. This note forms a part of the engagement between the World Bank and World Resources Institute India (WRI India) to leverage existing work on “TOD Implementation and Resource Tools” being developed as part of the Global Platform for Sustainable Cities (GPSC), by identifying and addressing road safety gaps to develop improved guidelines to apply the safe system approach to existing TOD projects around the world.
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20. As part of the engagement between the World Bank and WRI India, a review of existing literature and references on TOD projects developed by the World Bank and other leading organizations and practitioners across the world was undertaken to analyze best practices of urban road safety. A road safety diagnostic on the existing TOD Toolkit Knowledge Products was also carried to identify gaps and how to address the same.
21. It was observed that the existing literature and the toolkits discussed the importance of TOD and how to execute a TOD project from an institutional setup, planning along transit routes, and financing of the same. They however did not explicitly discuss the need for enabling or ensuring road safety within a TOD area.
22. These gaps have then been subsequently addressed by World Resources Institute to support systematic inclusion of roads safety and universal accessibility in TOD projects through five stages of TOD implementation -Assess, Enable, Plan & Design, Finance and Implement.
23. This Good Practice Note summarizes the various road safety considerations and measures that may be undertaken.
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24. ‘Assess’ is the first stage of the TOD Resources and Implementation toolkit. This initial stage helps in determining how “ready” a city is for TOD, based on “analysis of a complementary set of economic, geographic, demographic, economic, urban form, and institutional factors.” TOD readiness assessment also involves road safety assessment. This further contributes to the case for implementing a TOD design.
25. The road safety assessment must be further aligned to a TOD network design, i.e. it should be able to highlight issues and direct towards appropriate design interventions catered for a TOD area. Through the knowledge products and the literature reviewed it is evident that road safety assessment for TOD readiness involves three distinct measures:
• Road safety capacity reviews: policy, regulatory and institutional framework assessment,
• Road inventory, road crash data collection and analysis,
• Road safety assessment and engineering tools.
ROAD SAFETY CAPACITY REVIEWS: POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
26. The first measure looks at assessing ‘efficiency and effectiveness’ of the various existing policies and regulatory frameworks and institutional setups available at the local, regional, and national levels. These are analyzed based on their capacities to execute planning, design and implementation of a TOD project, including road safety.
27. The World Bank’s Road Safety Capacity Review Guidelines present a two-stage, iterative process that culminates in the preparation and implementation of projects designed to launch the identified long-term country investment strategy. These two stages are based on the six recommendations provided for road traffic injury prevention:
1. Identify a lead agency in government to guide the national road safety effort.
2. Assess the problem, policies and institutional settings relating to road traffic injury and the capacity for road traffic injury prevention in each country.
3. Prepare a national road safety strategy and plan of action.
4. Allocate financial and human resources to address the problem.
5. Implement specific actions to prevent road traffic crashes, minimize injuries and their consequences and evaluate the impact of these actions.
6. Support the development of national capacity and international cooperation.
28. The first stage of the process concerns the conduct of a country capacity review (recommendation 2). The capacity review assesses the lead agency role (recommendation 1) and specifies a long-term investment strategy and identifies Safe System projects to be launched (recommendations 3 & 4). And the second stage of the process concerns the detailed preparation and implementation of the Safe System projects (recommendations 5 & 6).
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29. While these Guidelines offer a comprehensive approach for any kind of road safety capacity review, as part of the “Assess” step of determining TOD readiness, we would focus on the first two recommendations.
30. Based on the reviews of existing literature, it was observed that more than often, road safety and TOD policies were independent of each other. However, road safety is an intrinsic component of TOD implementation, it therefore needs to be part of TOD readiness assessment. Any existing road safety mandate of the government such as Vision Zero – aiming at zero road crash – must be included as part of the TOD policy. Additionally, policies to prioritize implementation of public transport systems and encouraging citizens to use the same may be included in the TOD implementation policy as a champion cause.
31. Institutional capacities are also assessed to determine the right mix of professionals within the implementation agency. In order to make informed decisions to reduce road crashes and make safe spaces for all road users, it is essential to include road safety experts who are adept with safe system practices. Additionally, the team of experts should also ideally include urban designers and planners who have experience in complete street design.
32. This capacity assessment will help identify shortcomings in readiness for TOD implementation that may further be addressed through the remaining steps.
ROAD INVENTORY, ROAD CRASH DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
33. Evidence based advocacy helps in decision making and prioritizing funding and project implementation. Data collection and proper data analysis helps in sending the right message to communities and gaining their support and also support of various stakeholders, and provides the basis for making relevant improvements.
34. In order to undertake TOD readiness assessment of a city, it is essential to assess the existing physical infrastructure. Assessment of the existing physical urban fabric of the city and around the station areas – existing urban density and character, road network land use etc – help determine future planning and design, and strategies for implementation. These also have a direct correlation with ensuring road safety for all, especially the vulnerable users.
35. Socio-economic and demographic data, high-definition aerials and satellite imagery, site surveys, local employment data, travel pattern information, contextual information such as immediate land use, level of urbanization, future development and growth patterns, transport network information such as mode share, transit ridership, vehicle counts etc clearly play an essential role in TOD readiness. However, very often road crash data are not included during the data collection process for determining TOD readiness of a city. Analysis of crash data can help identify relevant patterns and assist in developing policies and institutional framework to reduce crash related deaths and injuries by using TOD development as a planning tool.
36. In order to make comprehensive road crash analysis, the crash data need to be supported by inventory of the roads and road network within the station area. Below there are typical components that should ideally be part of a road inventory. While this is not an exhaustive list of components in a road inventory, it may be modified based on the local context and data collection mechanisms available with the city
37. Typical inventory includes:
• Type of road – arterial or connector • Width of Right of Way (ROW), length, number of lanes and width, directionality • Presence of lanes for transit, shared vehicles, shared use etc • Presence of median • Presence of sidewalk and width • Intersections – signalized or not • Presence of cycle lane, type, width, buffer and type, shared • Use of transit along the ROW and nature of transit.
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• Transit amenities like bus stops, BRT stops, train stations • On street parking and alignment • Drainage • Mid-block crossings and any other type of pedestrian crossing such as foot over bridge (FOB) and underpasses • Safety measures such as hawk-eye, speed cameras, etc • Street amenities such as street lights trees, furniture, utility etc • On-street vending, and any other relevant information
38. At a city level, a high road fatality rate can be used to advocate for a TOD plan and the urgency for implementation. At the corridor level, the mapping of road safety data will identify the vulnerable road users and indicate the most critical zones that can be improved through the implementation of TOD. If road crash data are analyzed in conjunction with traffic data, such as VKT and mode-share, they can make a stronger case for assessing TOD readiness. At the station- area level, safe access to the transit station can be assessed through road crash data.
39. Below there is a list of variables that needs to be collected as part of road crash data. Depending on the contexts, resources, and budget, these may be adapted and modified at local, regional and national levels. Based on the information collected different types of analysis may be carried as discussed later.
40. These variables collected as part of crash data should be comprehensively analyzed in a holistic manner. If it is observed that certain data variables aren’t robust, then necessary remedial measures must be undertaken by the concerned agencies.
Recording of date and time variable allows for seasonal and hourly comparisons of the incidents. Frequent DATE & TIME occurrences of road crashes during a time of the day can be compared with the local traffic data to establish if any correlation exists between the occurrences and traffic volumes.
Crash data must include the number of persons involved in the incident and other basic information. Variables CHARACTERISTICS that need to be recorded about the persons involved in the crash include road user type (pedestrian, cyclist, OF PERSONS vehicle driver, passenger etc), age and gender, persons with special needs including disabled and pregnant INVOLVED women, physical condition of the users including level of alcohol in the body, details about use of any safety equipment such as protective gears, seat belts etc and type of injury sustained.
CHARACTERISTICS Data about the vehicles involved in the crash including type, age, country, safety equipment if any, date of last OF VEHICLE periodical technical check according to applicable legislation.
Crashes are also defined by their severity – which is based on the impact on the persons involved - fatal injury, CRASH SEVERITY serious injury, minor injury, property damage/non-injury.
Information on the type of crash including modes involved, for example vehicle-vehicle or vehicle-pedestrian or vehicle-bicycle, etc. during the crash needs to be recorded. Other information that is required includes CRASH TYPE maneuvering of vehicles during the crash: type of impact or collision, speed of vehicles etc. Understanding the events of the crash can help in determining the interventions necessary.
Maintaining records of crash location over a period will help identify blackspot and critical areas within the city. CRASH LOCATION A higher number of occurrences in an area would mean a higher priority and a greater scope of implementing (GEO-CODED) improvements.
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41. Based on the information available, following types of analysis techniques may be adopted:
• Basic Trend Analysis: This requires data to be recorded at the crash-level (date & time of crash, vehicles & modes involved, location of crash and number of serious injuries and fatalities) and each record in the dataset must correspond to one unique crash.
• Crash Factor Analysis: It is observed that the cause of road crash is often identified as an error on the part of the driver. Non-behavioral factors, such as road design or vehicle failure, are almost never considered. For a crash factor analysis, it is important to analyze the detailed crash report recorded by the police, and not just rely on the aggregated dataset.
• Blackspot Identification: Blackspots are locations with high crash risk, as determined by high crash occurrences. The analysis requires the geographic location of each crash, recorded as accurately as possible. Location information is particularly important in identifying priority areas for intervention and course correction.
42. Road crash data can be sourced from multiple agencies. However, each have their own challenges and limitations. A single crash-injury database does not always provide adequate information to give a holistic picture of road traffic injuries. Many countries have therefore started using both crash data collected by the police along with the health sector data.
• Police records are the primary source for crash data. Most road crash reports will typically contain date & time of crash, location, vehicles involved and number of injuries & fatalities. In addition, the crash description may contain information about how the crash occurred, Precinct-level data are then rolled-up and aggregated by the central police department, which is usually what is made available publicly. This information isn’t always the most accurate information – primarily due to human errors in the process of collecting and recording the data. Additionally, only major crashes that cause serious injuries or fatalities or involve more vehicles often get reported to the police. Minor crashes or near misses are often under- reported and thus do not always get included in this primary crash data source. It is therefore recommended to complement police data with other secondary data sources.
• Hospital Records are maintained by the government bodies like a City Municipal Health Department. These data are useful in cases where there isn’t adequate follow-up by the Police for example when a road crash victim is initially reported as injured but may have subsequently died after the police report was filed. Also, in some cases, a police report does not get filed due to various reasons.
• Vehicle Insurance Records supplement police records, especially in cases where a police report was not filed. Insurance records tend to provide a more comprehensive description of vehicle damage information, which is useful in understanding the causes of the crash.
ROAD SAFETY ASSESSMENT AND ENGINEERING TOOLS
43. Use of crash data for risk assessment mentioned above has traditionally been considered a reactive approach. In recent years, more proactive tools for risk identification have been developed. These aren’t merely a check on design compliance, but a holistic assessment of the road by considering the various elements present.
44. These risk identification tools are adopted at different stages of implementation of a road design and may be undertaken for both new roads or road feature or modification to an existing road. These tools also help in the identification of solutions to the risks identified and prioritizing suggested interventions.
45. The road safety check types are: • Road Safety Impact Assessments or RSIA is a strategic comparative analysis of impact between different possible schemes of a new road design or any modifications to an existing network, to ensure that the scheme selected is the one that has the best outcome for road safety. This is carried out before detailed planning begins and helps in the decision- making process.
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• Road Safety Audit or RSA is a formal detailed systematic and technical safety check performed to check that the selected scheme is designed and constructed in such a way as to yield the greatest road safety benefits, and to detect any potential hazards throughout all stages from planning to early operation. The auditors carrying out the checks should be trained and must be independent from the designer and from the contractor. Usually a list of potential safety deficiencies and recommendations for improvement are included in the audit report.
• Road Safety Inspection or RSI is a periodical on-site verification of road characteristics and defects, undertaken as part of a dedicated inspection of an existing road or through maintenance procedures to enable the detection of potential crash risks. These are largely a preventive safety procedure carried out by independently trained experts.
• Road assessment programs – typically undertaken on existing roads, these quantify the expected safety outcomes for a network, route or location. Road Safety Checks Design Stage
Concept Road Safety Impact Assessment Draft
Detail Design Road Safety Audit Construction
Open to Traffic Road Safety Inspections Maintenance
Road Assessment Programs Roads already in use
46. While these tools are applicable for all types of contexts and road types, for the purpose of TOD readiness, these need to be applied within a framework created specifically for a TOD station area environment, reflecting their key characteristics:
• Functionality of roads in TOD station area: what is the function of the road around the station, as part of the overall road network: arterial road? Connector that caters to local traffic? Road including a mix of transit with the typical vehicular and pedestrian movements? Within a TOD area, roads are designed to include the mass transit within the ROW or are catered towards the mass transit station to accommodate the inflow and outflow of the users – feeder routes.
• Homogeneity of road design in TOD station area: what is the character of the road within a TOD context: orientation of streets towards the transit station; unidirectional or bi-directional; different types of speed limits that are enforced; level of segregation across the different road users using protective measures or adequate buffers with different speeds or having a common shared speed based on the most vulnerable user.
• Predictability of road network in TOD station area: what is the predictable use of the road space: are the road users familiar with the behavior demanded by different road types, and what they may expect from them and others? Do the roads have legible markings and signage for efficient use; what kind of priority is given to which road user and where, are these measures being enforced etc.
47. While these tools will help in determining the quality of the existing physical road infrastructure by identifying potential threats that may cause severe or fatal crashes in the future, they however need to be analyzed specific to the principles of TOD and the local socio-cultural contexts. Based on these assessments, any future planning and design interventions may be determined along with implementation strategies that may be temporary or tactical in nature leading to more permanent solutions.
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48. The second step in the TOD Implementation and resources tool is ‘Enable’. It lays down “proactive tasks that cities and states will need to take towards creating successful TOD planning processes”. This stage focuses on strategies to institutionalize the process and objectives of TOD; build local capacity, both institutional and in civil society; and pursue policy and financial reforms conducive for successful TOD implementation.
49. As highlighted in the toolkit, successful TOD implementation requires advocacy to align stakeholder interests, and garnering political support for identification and elimination of policy barriers. This would eventually help in creating a mandate for TOD and establish the goals and objectives that align with the local needs and caters to its immediate context.
50. Road safety can be used as one of the metrics for making a successful case for TOD to the leadership, highlighting its social and economic benefits. As highlighted earlier, road crashes have a negative social and economic impact – leaving aside the individual emotional impacts it may have for the victims and their families. Formulating mitigation strategies around road safety primarily includes modal shift to Non-Motorized Transport (NMT) modes and public transport which further has far reaching economic and environmental benefits. TOD influences road safety in several ways:
• It moves more people onto public transit, thereby reducing the frequency of private motorized trips, which reduces the frequency of crashes.
• It promotes an urban form that is high density with mixed land-use; which facilitates more trips to be within walking or biking distance; thereby further reducing dependence on automobiles which further reduces crash frequency.
• It is designed to be pedestrian and bike friendly, providing safer infrastructure for the most vulnerable road user groups.
51. These safety benefits of TOD and their inter-relationships are not always easily apparent to stakeholders. It is crucial to demonstrate this linkage to stakeholders, both within government and in the community. The communication strategies and outreach mechanisms within the institutions, political leaderships, stakeholders and public needs to be strengthened to highlight that road safety is a shared responsibility and requires a buy-in from all those involved in decision making.
52. Safe system approach requires a shift in responsibility from road users to system designers, builders and managers. Therefore the existing regulations and institutional setups require changes that include mandates and provisions to enable road safety. In order to achieve this, education and capacity building needs to be extended to these system designers - planners, engineers, architects, health professionals, law enforcement officers and others.
53. This can be achieved through joint collaborative sessions or multi-agency workshop sessions with implementation agencies local civic bodies, professionals and different stakeholders with a wide representation that is inclusive of all age, gender, user groups and physically challenged and disabled persons. Results from crash data and physical infrastructure assessments discussed earlier may also be used to educate the participants about the road safety challenges and help in enabling them to advocate for better systems and strategies to mitigate these issues. This will help institutionalize road safety within the respective areas or jurisdictions. Such collaborations will help align interests of the different parties and identify a common road safety goals and objectives, addressing individual interests, motives and possible trade-offs.
54. These communication strategies will help champion the cause for road safety within the institutions and decision making agencies and will help include road safety as an integral component while drafting area TOD specific policies and regulations at local or regional scales. It will also advocate for a shift to more efficient and sustainable transport mode choices and create supporting infrastructure
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Safe Access to Mass transit: Role-playing activity
The Safe Access to Mass-transit (SAM) workshop toolkit is developed in the form of an interactive activity to address the need for safe access around mass transit stations. It includes the SAM capacity building workshop, which is based on the WRI India publication Safe Access to Mass Transit Manual: Safe Access to Mass Transit Stations in Indian Cities.
DOWNLOAD SAFE ACCESS MANUAL HERE
Figure 2. Five principles of Safe Access Or Visit the link below to download the manual. www.wrirosscities.org/research/publication/safe-access-mass-transit-manual
Using a workshop format, participants divided into groups will explore the processes involved with developing last-mile connectivity, and co-create proposals with community and city representatives for such strategies. It aims at inculcating awareness about the importance of safe and equitable access (through its principles) for all street/ public space users and help derive solutions through a collaborative decision-making process.
The outcome of the exercise is to derive implementable solutions that are based on safe access principles, while negotiating the complexities involved in their adoption. These solutions are then prioritized based on an interactive bottom up role-play interactive activity. This activity solely focuses on last mile connectivity solutions to provide safe and livable station areas, applying the 5 principles of last mile connectivity, i.e. walking, cycling, public spaces, etc.
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55. The Plan & Design stage of TOD Implementation and Resources tools has a significant role to play in ensuring road safety in comparison to the other four stages. It “focuses on providing guidance on the planning and design process that remain flexible and relevant to adapt over time specific challenges, and contexts change. It also presents action strategies and tools to create a more compact land development pattern hinged upon pedestrians and cyclists.”
56. TOD planning and design typically takes place at three levels - the city, the corridor and the station area. However, it is at the station area level that issues around the provision of safe access infrastructure are the most relevant. The station is the anchor point for the station area; and all development should be oriented towards it with a high level of safety for first and last mile connectivity. An efficient TOD neighborhood is one that facilitates the safe and convenient access to transit for all modes.
57. TOD projects highlight the co-relation between land use planning, transport planning and design. These developments advocate for a modal shift from private motorized vehicles to more safer and sustainable modes of transport. This leads to increased number of users within a station area and with availability of different mode choices, increase in number of conflicts between different modes and their respective speeds. These changes make road safety a crucial component in the context of a TOD
58. An essential aspect of a TOD project is the identification of the conflict points and provision of safe and efficient connectivity between the transit station and the neighborhood around the station. It must be therefore be noted that this stage includes many specific features of street design for TOD, such as the creation of pedestrian networks with trunk routes oriented towards the transit station; the delineation of speed zones; and transfer and feeder service integration. Therefore in order to enhance the road safety considerations one has to consider two interconnected themes:
• Planning of networks in the TOD zone • Design of the infrastructure within these networks.
PLANNING OF TOD NETWORKS
59. Typically, TOD is understood as densification around a transit station by increasing the built-up density and diversifying the permissible land uses with the station area. With such dense urban environments, the number of users in the public realm also increases significantly, posing safety concerns for all users. This requires provision of efficient networks connecting these developments to the transit station. If these networks are not adequately provided, then it discourages the use of transit and NMT infrastructure to access these developments, resulting in a much lower transit use than planned for.
60. To achieve safe networks within a TOD area, the “Sustainable Safety” principles of functionality, homogeneity and predictability will need to be looked more comprehensively for planning and designing of roads, so that they align with the TOD principles and can be integrated with the local context. These principles tailored for TOD requirements have been briefly explained below:
• Functionality of roads in TOD area: While assessing road safety it is critical to understand the mixed function of the road network – whether it is an arterial road that includes a mix of transit or a connector that caters to traffic accessing the developments in the TOD or feeders that focus on accessing the transit stations as well as distributing traffic within the station area. The planning and design considerations are therefore made keeping in mind the mixed function in the street. The functions of the road in a TOD are also related to the mix of land use along it and may vary through the time of the day impacting the volume of users on it.
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• Homogeneity of road design in TOD area: Homogeneity of road design refers to the prevention of large differences in speed, mass and direction. The road network in a TOD area caters to all kinds of speeds and volume of vehicles within its ROW – slow moving pedestrians and persons with needs, cyclists, faster moving cars and other motor vehicles, feeder services such as intermediate public transport (IPT) and public buses, and high speed mass transit vehicles such as BRT or metro rails. It is crucial to ascertain the capacity of these network based on the function they serve and segregate the users and different modes by using protective measures or adequate buffers between the modes to ensure maximum safety. It is supported by orienting streets towards the station, determining directionality of these streets to enable ease of traffic flow within the station areas, and maintaining speeds based on the immediate context – nature of land use and function of the streets. These principles are detailed out on PD-H07 subsection Capacity, Orientation and Safety; as well as in safety design guidelines provided in PD-R02.
• Predictability of road network in TOD area: This refers to the usability of the road space – “are the road users familiar with the behavior demanded by different road types, and what they may expect from them and others”. The design of road infrastructure and amenities are such that the users can recognize the type of road and are aware of its function. Within a TOD, higher mix of users, reinforces the need for predictability to achieve safety. Prioritization of road users, distribution of lanes within a ROW, stops and utilities, markings on the roads, signage, visibility, movement lines at intersections (especially for pedestrians, cyclists and other vulnerable users) gets highlighted.
61. The most critical aspect for the creation of a strong inter-linkage between the transit station and the developments within station area is network planning. There are five key principles of network planning for TOD zones. This note briefly discusses each of the principles, which have been detailed out in the updated toolkit.
• COVERAGE: The network should have an extensive reach so as to connect every property within TOD zone.
• CONTINUITY: There should not be missing links (gaps) in the network.
• ORIENTATION: The network should be oriented towards the transit station, providing as direct connectivity as possible.
• CAPACITY: The capacity of the network should be adequate to meet the high volumes of transit commuters, particularly along the trunk routes leading to the station.
• SAFETY: Achieve a high standard of safety should be the guiding principal behind each and every decision on network planning; especially for the safety of vulnerable road users.
62. “Coverage” helps define the extent of street network and accessibility for different road users and hence provide for suitable solutions to ensure safe access. “Continuity” refers to the connectivity within the network and its density, ensures equitable access to the transit without congesting any area, and channelize traffic flow within the TOD zone. “Orientation” is facilitating the directed movement to and from transit stations and hence help in placing required infrastructure for safe movement. “Capacity” refers to the spatial quality of the network for all road users to ensure adequate space within the ROW based on the volumes of each type of user the network is catering to. Lastly “Safety” refers to creation of safer and segregated infrastructure within the network to avoid any type of crash. These as principles of network planning, help in creating framework for implementing physical safety measures.
63. For example, sidewalks are designed to function separate from vehicular travel lanes and cycle infrastructure. They are designed as per best practices and recommended design guidelines to accommodate the anticipated number of pedestrians using the segment of the network depending on how it connects to the transit station and any other node within the station area. However, these attributes will become redundant if the sidewalks are not part of a network that is not continuous and connect different nodes within the TOD area including the transit station.
Appendix A summarizes these five principles and includes guidelines and strategies on how to implement them.
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DESIGN OF ELEMENTS WITHIN TOD NETWORK
64. The design of TOD network infrastructure looks at specific components of access infrastructure from a micro, site level scale. The objective is to ensure that the infrastructure meets the highest standards for safety for all road users, especially for commuters accessing the transit station.
65. Out of the various street design elements, the following are essential from a road safety perspective in TOD areas as they cater to the movement patterns of the users within the station area:
• Walking infrastructure: Walking is the direct mode to access transit stations and also are the most likely means for first and last mile connectivity to other modes • Cycling infrastructure: Cycling has a higher reach than walking, and as a healthy and sustainable mode of transport, greatly increases the commutable distance to the transit station. • Feeder transit and para-transit infrastructure: feeder and para-transit services considerably enhance the service area for a station and function to support the main transit service. • Design of shared streets: Shared streets are designed to cater to the needs of the most vulnerable user and deploy various measures to reduce traffic volumes and decrease speeds. • Design of the station area: the area around the transit station is meeting points for trunk routes and transfer of commuters from feeder services to main transit route takes place.
Appendix B provides design guidelines and consideration regarding these five elements with respect to a TOD area.
66. The guidelines in Appendix B are not intended to encompass design standard and guidelines for streets in the general context. For such guidance, one may refer the national codes of the relevant country, or one of the many published street design guidelines that are intended for this purpose. The intention of the Appendix is to cover only design guidelines that are specific to the provision of safe access to the transit station, within the context of the TOD zone. These guidelines must be seen as additional (and not a replacement) to general street design codes or guidelines, as the case may be.
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67. The Finance stage of TOD Implementation and Resources Tool creates a framework for estimating capital costs for transit infrastructure and urban development, determining possible funding sources for execution of plans, establishing mechanisms for investments in real estate and user safety, enabling methods for forging public private partnerships, and identifying revenue generators. These financial tools are supported by various local and regional laws and other enabling regulatory tools, guidelines and different development incentives for developing successful TOD projects.
68. TOD implementation in high income countries is sometimes characterized by the intent to increase population densities and transit ridership supported by economic development. On the other hand, middle- and low-income countries are either characterized by high urban densities or else very low in areas that are at early stages of development.
69. TOD projects are developed with an intent to increase urban density (or support the existing high urban density in many medium- to low-income countries) and are supported by increased transit ridership and economic development that is derived from well-defined regulatory and policy frameworks and strong institutional capacities. This may increase traffic exposures resulting in increased road crash risks. Therefore, high quality transit investments supported with comparable investments in safe public infrastructure, timely revisions in development regulations, and active participation of the private sector are a must.
70. The resources available mostly cover financing mechanisms to support investments in developing transit and supporting infrastructure and real estate development, but they do not discuss tools for supporting road safety issues such as infrastructure provision or transport management. It should also be noted that financing of TOD projects doesn’t end with execution of the project on ground. Funding mechanisms and a sustainable business model needs to be developed that would also take care of financial aspects of maintenance of this newly developed infrastructure.
71. As discussed earlier, road crash related deaths and injuries have a significant economic impact. Additionally, different transit alternatives will also have a different impact on road safety. Therefore, it is prudent to include cost comparisons of alternatives and road safety net benefits when conducting cost-estimation studies for TOD.
72. Developing infrastructure for safety is an expensive task, and on many occasions, the local city governments may not have enough capacity and resources or finances to implement such interventions. As an alternative, development incentives are provided to the developers to implement pedestrian and cyclist safe infrastructure through their property in lieu of additional FAR or any other incentive. Large property owners would either subdivide their plots to create a NMT network through their property or else will grant easement access. These owners benefit by increasing footfall within their commercial establishments.
73. These property owners may also ‘adopt’ sidewalks adjacent to their property and help maintain them. This may require the city government to also layout guidelines for designing and maintaining sidewalks by property owners. Many city bye-laws have a provision for setbacks. Adjacent large developments may amalgamate their side setbacks along the common edge to create pedestrian and cyclist friendly space. Front setbacks may also be combined with the sidewalk to increase its width.
74. Furthermore, there may be local or national laws that may be specifically targeted towards generating funds for implementing NMT needs within their jurisdiction. These may be directed towards improving safety within the TOD projects.
75. Cordon area congestion road pricing is a system of charging users for entering and using roads in a demarcated or restricted area that is subject to congestion due to excess demand. This kind of a pricing strategy helps regulate demand and helps in managing congestion without increasing the supply. In some other countries, like Argentina, a percentage of money collected as insurance fees is directed to Agencia Nacional de Seguridad Vial (ANSV) – the nodal agency in charge of road safety. 636 NOTE TOD K P
76. The “Implementation” stage is the final stage of the TOD Implementation and Resources Toolkit. It concerns with “mobilizing a multitude of resources, partnerships and innovative implementation mechanisms that help leverage public sector investment in transit and infrastructure with private sector development”. The execution of a TOD project doesn’t follow a linear process and requires addressing institutional and regulatory shortcomings, guidelines for planning and execution – including prioritizing of projects, distribution of finances, as well as monitoring and evaluation followed by regular updates based on the feedbacks.
77. Like in any urban development project, TOD implementation takes shape after analysis of existing plans, institutional setup and infrastructure, completion of detailed planning and designing process, establishing a finance model with adequate investments etc. The issue of road safety doesn’t have much overlaps with this stage, however, based on the outcomes of these earlier stages, this stage may be strengthened with safety considerations at different steps of implementation:
INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP AND CAPACITY BUILDING
78. As part of the Assess stage, TOD readiness assessment captures the existing institutional capacity of the implementation agencies. Based on their existing team structure, necessary modifications may be made. In order to mitigate any road safety related shortcomings in the assessment, it is essential to include it as part of capacity building – given its importance as a co- benefit of TOD implementation.
79. As is the case of any large-scale public project, a multi-disciplinary team is required that is spread over different sectors. This would include local government officials, professionals with technical knowledge, and a range of specialists and advisors. New experts may need to be hired as staff or included as consultants. As mentioned earlier in the Assess section, qualified road safety experts with knowledge of safe systems are essential to be part of the project team to help it taking informed decisions to help reduce road crashes and improve safety. It would be more effective if the other members of the team, i.e. planners and urban designers, have prior experience and knowledge of transportation planning and complete street design. While this forms the core team, additional advisors and experts may also be engaged to make holistic decisions regarding the implementation and impact of TOD projects. Representatives from various government departments and private sector that are related to different aspects of TOD such as housing and real estate, environment, public works, economic development, and marketing and communication are desirable.
80. Representatives from the civil society such as neighborhood associations, business improvement districts, resident welfare associations, advocacy groups etc as part of the project team is also ideal as they have first-hand knowledge regarding challenges they face in their vicinity especially regarding road safety and security. This can be used to garner the required political support as well.
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EXECUTION OF DESIGN
81. After developing the necessary plans and design of safety elements within a TOD project, and securing financing for the projects, the actual execution of the project may be carried out in phases after setting up the priorities. This priority-based phasing of projects may be prepared as part of an Implementation Plan by the nodal agency and infrastructure providers after discussions with stakeholders and public.
82. Stakeholder engagement is a continuous process since the project inception. This participatory design process not just helps in identifying the challenges and opportunity areas of a project and integrate with any other plan or development happening in the project area, but also contributes to placemaking and helps in contextualizing the project. It allows the implementation agency with prioritizing of the projects and mitigate road safety issues in the afore said implementation plan.
83. As these projects are expensive to implement, and full-fledged and permanent implementation of design should be executed after a temporary or interim re-design process that may be done as a pilot project in a small selected area within the TOD station area to monitor the impact and then implement at a larger scale across other station areas. Additionally, it may also be carried out using temporary tactical installations or cheap constructions to test the impact on the site. If needed, minor design changes or additions can be made for the entire design before making it permanent.
Intersection redesign at HP Intersection in Mumbai (WRI India)
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MONITORING AND EVALUATION
84. Implementation of a TOD project doesn’t complete with its execution. As mentioned earlier in Finance, maintenance and management of the built infrastructure is equally important in a TOD project cycle. A Maintenance Plan may be developed that would focus on maintenance of the road safety infrastructure to increase its usable lifespan and safety measures of the development. This avoids frequent repair work and the attached additional costs.
85. As also mentioned above, impact of any intervention has to be measured to understand its effectiveness. While earlier it was looking at feasibility and testing of an intervention, here one is measuring the long term impact of a more permanent implementation. For this comparison a before and after implementation stage data needs may be collected.
86. This measured project impact and user feedback further needs to be communicated to decision makers and community members. This will help formulate new regulatory policies and guidelines and inform design approach for future projects and assist in advocating for the same to community members, political leaderships and other stakeholders.
NOTE 639 TOD K P TOD K P
1. Typically, TOD is understood as densification around a transit station by increasing the built-up density and diversifying the permissible land uses with the station area. Along with this, another equally important aspect of TOD planning includes the provision of efficient networks connecting these developments to the transit station. If these networks are not adequately provided, then it discourages the use of transit and NMT infrastructure to access these developments, resulting in a much lower transit use than planned for. The most critical aspect for the creation of a strong inter-linkage between the transit station and the developments within station area is network planning. There are five key principles of network planning for TOD zones:
COVERAGE CONTINUITY ORIENTATION CAPACITY SAFETY The network should There should not be The network should be The capacity of the Achieving a high standard have an extensive reach, missing links (gaps) in oriented towards the network should be of safety should be the such that every property the network. transit station, providing adequate to meet the guiding principle behind within the TOD zone as direct connectivity as high volumes of transit each and every decision is connected to the possible. commuters, particularly on network planning; network. along the trunk routes especially for the safety of leading to the station. vulnerable road users. TOD Knowledge Product PD-H07 provides more details and covers these five principles in more detail.
Principle 1: Coverage
2. The principle of Coverage means that every property within the defined influence area, must connect to a network leading to the station. It is neither practical nor desirable, for the coverage of every network to be as extensive as another. The importance of direct access of a network will depend upon the property’s location with relation to the station.
3. As shown in Figure 3 below, a station area in the denser parts of the city, where transit network coverage is high, will normally only have two realms for the planning of access, the walking realm and the area outside the walking realm. This walking realm is normally considered as what an average commuter can walk in 5-10 minutes, which is about 400 to 800m. This distance increases in a low-density suburban area to a walking reach of 10 - 15 minutes (800m - 1.2km).
4. The realm for cycling is much higher, typically 3 - 5 times the size of the walking realm; based on an average cycling speed of 18 to 25km/h, and an average willingness to cycle time of 10 - 15 minutes. Likewise, the feeder service or para-transit realms are likely to reach up to 3 - 5km from the transit station, which typically extend up to and beyond the TOD zone boundary.
5. A key component for the planning of these realms is the delineation of trunk routes leading to the station. It is not possible for every property to have direct connectivity to the station across all realms. The more practical solution is to connect properties to a few trunk routes leading to the station. This creates a strong an extensive network that offers multiple choices to the users. Additionally, it is not practical to provide distinct networks for each feeder mode, and therefore prioritizing of network planning is required based on mobility needs of each mode as shown in Figure 4. NOTE 641 TOD K P
Cycling/ Feeder transit/ Para-transit realm Trunk walking routes Trunk feeder routes Transit line Figure 3. The different realms for planning of station area
PRIORITY 1: Walking
PRIORITY 2: Cycling and Feeder transit services
PRIORITY 3: Para-transit and Shared vehicles
PRIORITY 4: Personal motor vehicles
Figure 4. Hierarchy of priority for mobility planning
Adaptation of hierarchy of priority for mobility planning, prominent in many global cities at the forefront of sustainability. This hierarchy of priorities is all the more relevant for station areas, given the focus of moving people away from personal vehicles and onto transit.
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Principle 2: Continuity
6. Maintaining the network continuity within the context of the station area, means that every property should be seamlessly connected to every other property, and to the transit station without any gaps or missing links in the network. If access networks to the station are not continuous, then it forces the commuter to use other elements of the road infrastructure that do not meet its safety requirements.
7. The critical importance of network continuity is often neglected in cities in developing countries, where infrastructure provision is scattered and disjointed, making it near impossible to complete a trip entirely along the network.
8. In built-up, dense urban areas, it is generally difficult to build new infrastructure to complete the network. Therefore, one must rely on other more practical strategies to achieve a satisfactory result. Measures to bridge network gaps include:
• Developing off-road connectors
• Using development incentives to augment the network
• Developing grade-separated infrastructure
• Designing for shared infrastructure
Principle 3: Orientation
9. In the third principle of Orientation the station is placed as the anchor point of the network and connects properties to the transit station as directly as possible. The key component to ensure a network is well-oriented towards the station is to identify and develop trunk routes. As these trunk routes are expected to carry the majority of commuter volume to the station, these routes are therefore to be planned to be as straight as possible in the direction of the station.
10. In a greenfield TOD zone, orienting the network is a lot easier, as there aren’t too many hindrances that would interfere in this process. In this scenario, the network is TOD station area likely to reflect with the station at the center and trunk Trunk routes routes emanating outward in every direction. Branch Branch connectors Transit line connectors can then be provided connecting to the main trunk routes, thus ensuring that every property is well Figure 5. Oriented the feeder network in a greenfield station area connected to the station.
11. However it is a challenge in an already built-up urban environment. Here, one has to work within the limitations of the existing built-environment as well as the available right-of-way.
12. There are, broadly, three aspects to determining the alignment of the trunk routes that offer the best possible orientation towards the station. It is to be noted that these aspects aren’t necessarily to be assessed chronologically, because it is likely that one will have to iteratively assess different options, before arriving at the best possible solution. The three aspects are:
• Determining the main nodes or activity generators
• Assessing strategies to minimize deviations
• Assessing favorable local conditions
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Principle 4: Capacity
13. Capacity deliberations are most pertinent in the planning of the trunk routes along the network. The following sub-sections discuss various measures to augment capacity along the network. The following measures to augment network capacity have been briefly discussed:
• Reallocate road space The most important tool to ensure adequate capacity is to reorganize the use of road space in the TOD zone. Road space is a critical and finite commodity, especially in built-up urban areas. The judicious allocation of this space plays an important role in determining the quality and safety of mobility in the TOD zone. In order to determine what’s appropriate, it is important to carry out pedestrian and cyclist volume by capacity studies similar to determining vehicular traffic. This helps in understanding the requirements for reallocating road space to accommodate wider sidewalks that can meet the desired Level of Service for pedestrians.
• Incorporate building setbacks A TOD policy can be introduced to allow for the transformation of the street level floor of a residential property for commercial uses along major trunk routes. The city can link the permissions to develop ground-floor retail activities where the setback is maintained as an extension of the public sidewalk. The ownership of this space can remain with the property owner, but its built conditions and usage will be guided by the city TOD policy.
• Eliminate on-street parking & streamline other road uses An effective way to free-up road space is to reduce the provision of on-street parking, especially along the trunk feeder routes leading to the station. This additional space can then be allocated to sidewalks, cycle lanes or feeder-bus lanes.
• Create one-way street networks If there is a good network of parallel streets, and relatively small block sizes, one can consider creating a network of one-way streets, alternatively running in opposite directions. One-way street networks have the advantage of being easier to manage at intersections, as they require fewer signal phases than a regular two-way intersection. A one-way C-shaped loop is also a great way to connect to the transit station. By making loop one-way for vehicular traffic, more road space can be allocated to other feeder network infrastructure, such as sidewalks, cycle lanes and station transfer points.
• Reduce interruptions in flow The capacity of a trunk route on a feeder network is not only determined by the road space allocated to it, but also by the frequency of interruptions to its flow. The more frequent the interruptions to free-flow conditions, the greater will be the reduction in capacity. A crucial aspect of trunk route planning along the network is the adoption of various strategies to minimize interruptions, mainly through the diversion of conflicting traffic movements. Some measures for reducing interruptions in flow:
–E liminate traffic intersections along major trunk routes leading to the station. This can be achieved by converting intersecting streets into cul-de-sacs or by modifying the intersection to only allow vehicles to enter and exit the minor street, but not cut across the trunk route.
–L imit the number of driveways on the main trunk routes. This reduces the number of breaks along the sidewalk, again improving free-flow conditions.
–A nother important measure especially pertinent to feeder transit service, is signal priority. Signal phasing can be designed to give more green time for traffic and pedestrians along the main trunk routes.
• Provide more entry & exits at the station The capacity of any network is determined by its most constrained point. In the context of feeder networks, this point is often the immediate station area, which has the highest volume of commuters utilizing the smallest amount of space. Station infrastructure can be designed with multiple entries and exits, directly taking people further along on the feeder network.
One can even consider different points of access for commuters on different modes, to reduce the load at one location. 644 NOTE TOD K P
Principle 5: Safety
14. Planning for the safe provision of access networks in a TOD zone, requires one to make certain hard decisions that may somewhat lessen the mobility of other traffic, in favor of the safety and mobility of the feeder network traffic. Traffic in a TOD zone (both vehicular and pedestrian) can broadly be divided into two buckets: traffic destined to or originating from the station; and traffic not concerned with the station in any way. In most instances, the priorities of these two groups will clash with each other. However, the principle of safety must have the highest priority.
15. The process of balancing these conflicting priorities can be made easier by defining the boundaries within a TOD zone, where the priorities of transit commuters are to be placed higher than those of other traffic. Typically, in the area closest to the station, traffic bound to the station must TOD station area be given the highest priority. Similarly, traffic directed to Feeder priority and from the station should be of high priority along all the area major trunk feeder routes leading to the station. Once the Trunk feeder routes feeder priority areas of the TOD zone are defined, the next Transit line step is to determine measures to ensure a high level of Figure 6. Determining the feeder priority area in the station area. safety for the feeder modes in question.
16. Measures to improve safety
• Provide dedicated infrastructure Dedicated infrastructure is a good measure on wide trunk routes, especially where there is a high volume of vehicular traffic, moving at a very high speed. It is considered as the safest measure, though not always the most practical. Excluding infrastructure for walking, it is not necessary, or even desirable, for the entire feeder network to be made up of dedicated infrastructure. This can take two forms; namely physically segregated infrastructure, and lane-marked infrastructure.
• Implement speed zoning & traffic-calming measures The severity of road crashes and injuries sustained, including fatality, is also related to the vehicle speeds. Vehicle speeds more than 50km/h have high fatality risks and have risk more than five times than that for vehicles driving below 30km/h. Furthermore, higher speeds reduce the driver’s capacity to stop the vehicle on time or having greater stopping distances and reduce the maneuvering ability to avoid a crash.
Speed zoning is the single most effective measure for the provision of safe mobility in the TOD zone. It is recommended to adopt a uniform speed limit for the walking realm across all TOD zones in the city. Within the walking realm, a speed limit of 15-30km/h is strongly recommended. In certain short sections, where the high pedestrian volumes, coupled with local traffic accessibility demands, a significantly lower speed limit (of 5km/h) may be desirable.
Recommended speeds for TOD zone planning
– 5km/h: Narrow streets where traffic & pedestrians share the road
– 15 - 30km/h: All streets within the station walking realm & neighborhood streets outside the walking realm
– 30km/h: Trunk feeder bus / cyclist routes to the station
– 50km/h: Maximum prescribed design speed for all other roads in the TOD zone
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It is also important to note that the desired speeds and speed zoning measures do not only entail enforcing speed limits through regulation, but also requires the implementation of appropriate traffic-calming infrastructure (discussed later) to ensure that the design speed is in sync with the speed regulation. Enforcing speed limits may also be supported by the use of Automated Enforcement (AE) technologies that detect and record violation of road rules without direct human involvement. Speed cameras enforcing speed limits are a common application of AE.
• Reduce vehicular traffic volume There are different measures that can be considered to reduce traffic volume in the TOD zone, particularly in the walking realm. The measures are discussed here.
– Restrictive measures: Traffic volume in the walking realm can be significantly reduced, by adopting strategies to discourage personal motor-vehicle usage. For instance, reducing parking availability, or increasing the cost of parking, in the walking ream encourages more commuters to avoid personal motor-vehicle usage.
– Regulatory measures: Another strategy is to adopt regulatory measures, such as restricting certain vehicle classes during peak commuter time periods. For instance, freight vehicles may not be allowed in the walking realm from 8:00 AM to 9:00 PM.
– Alternate bypass routes: Traffic volume in the walking realm can also be reduced through the creation of alternate routes that bypass this area. For instance, a new road may be developed to carry through traffic that does not originate, or is not destined to, a location within the walking realm.
– Eliminating through traffic: Another measure to limit traffic volume within the walking realm is to convert certain streets into dead-ends (cul-de-sacs) or loops back to the same road outside the walking realm. This discourages the use of these streets by any traffic that is not locally bound. Loops are preferable to cul-de-sacs because often the streets in the near vicinity of the station are not wide enough to accommodate a functional cul-de-sac.
– Full Pedestrianization of Streets: Pedestrian-only paved streets could be created for routes in the TOD station area that connect to the transit station with developments having high footfall, or generate heavy pedestrian traffic due to commercial and recreational activities along those routes. Barring access for emergency vehicles and delivery vehicles during early morning or late night hours, no motor-vehicle is allowed in these streets. Cyclists may also be required to dismount and walk their cycle (see Figure 7 below). Along with promoting economic activities and keeping the streets active, these pedestrian-only streets provide uninterrupted movement to and from the stations for pedestrians without any kinds of obstructions and safety concerns from other vehicles.
Figure 7. Pedestrian only street in Sao Paulo, Brazil (Source: © WRI)
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All diagrams present are to intended to be illustrative of the concepts and should be adjusted to the urban and traffic flow context.
1. The design of TOD network infrastructure looks at specific components of access infrastructure from a micro, site level scale. The objective is to ensure that the infrastructure meets the highest standards for safety for all road users, especially for commuters accessing the transit station. This covers five subsections :
– Walking infrastructure
– Cycling infrastructure
– Feeder transit and para-transit infrastructure
–D esign of shared streets
–D esign of the station area
2. Walking is the most important mode choice within any station area, not just for direct access to the transit station, but also, as the most likely means of first and last mile connectivity to other commute modes.
3. The most crucial component of the walking network is the sidewalk which is assigned for the specific use of the pedestrians. A cohesive and dense network of sidewalks, (of adequate capacity), ensures a high level of safety for walking in the station areas. A well-functioning sidewalk will have spaces assigned for other important elements and uses. A sidewalk comprises of three components, namely the frontage zone, walking zone and the multi- utility zone as shown in Figure 8. The following Table 2 includes important considerations and challenges for designing sidewalks. Additional design guidelines for these and other concerns have been provided Frontage zone Walking zone Multi-utility zone (0.2-1m) (1.5-3m) (Varies) in the PD-R02 Knowledge Product. Figure 8. Three components of a sidewalk
NOTE 647 TOD K P
Frontage Zone Walking Zone Multi-utility Zone
Purpose This is the area touching the boundary It is the area immediately adjacent to It is the area, normally located of the right-of-away, that is, abutting the frontage zone which is actually between the walking zone and the the property edge line or compound used by pedestrians to walk. traffic or parking lane. Its use will wall. It is meant to accommodate spill- This space should be kept free of vary depending on the context, to over uses from the adjacent property. encumbrances that impede walking. accommodate street vending, street Active frontage and multi-utility furniture, trees, utility boxes, light zones provide ‘eyes-on-the streets’ poles, signal posts, signage posts, and creates a sense of security for crossing waiting areas, etc. pedestrians. Typical The width of the frontage zone can be For feeder lines to the main walking There is no standard width for this Widths between 0.2 to 1m. routes, a walking path width of 1.5m zone, as it will depend on context and minimum may be acceptable. the available right-of-way. In the case of large developments, it is a good practice to ensure that Typically, 3m should be the minimum building setbacks are designed to width for the walking zone on a trunk serve as additional frontage zones route.
Table 2. Three components of a sidewalk
Distinguishing the walking path
4. It is important to note that the boundary lines of the three stated components of the sidewalk are notional. Their actual space requirements are likely to vary along the corridor, depending upon the context at that particular point along the right-of-way, as well as the adjacent land-use. However, it is a good idea to offer some visual cues to distinguish the walking zone, especially along the trunk walking routes to the transit station. This can be achieved by the use of softer design elements, such as a different pavement style or surface treatment (paved versus landscaped) or creating a marginal height difference. These cues aid in guiding road user behavior, informing people about the appropriate use of the space.
Deviations in the walking path
5. In some situations, deviations in the walking path are unavoidable - on account of the presence of a tree or a difficult-to-relocate utility box. In such cases, the walking path should be designed to curve around the encumbrance, preferably with a gradual transition.
Walking path continuity Figure 9. Immovable obstructions on the sidewalk restricting pedestrian movement 6. Another important design consideration for the walking zone is to ensure a uniform height along the entire length of the sidewalk. This is especially important on the trunk walking routes, because it allows for a faster and more convenient movement of commuters. This is achieved by maintaining the same height for the walking path across property entrances and exits. There are two aspects as to how this can be achieved; the planning aspect – restricting vehicular access on main pedestrian routes; and the design aspect - bringing Figure 10. Deviations made around obstructions for continuous walking path. vehicles up to the sidewalk height through the use of ramps. The space for ramps can be accommodated in the multi- utility zone space on the traffic lane side, and in the frontage zone or within the property on the property edge side. 648 NOTE TOD K P
Streetlights & ‘Active’ Sidewalks
7. Streetlights contribute towards improved visibility, thereby help in preventing road crashes and injuries. Additionally, they also improve the pedestrian realm by providing a sense of security along with visibility of the walking space. An ‘active sidewalk’ can be achieved through active frontage from commercial and recreational activities at the street level of the developments as well as encouraging vending and other activities in the multi-utility zone. This ensures there are ‘eyes-on-street’ and provides a sense of security to pedestrians.
8. Lack of activities on the sidewalk (especially in the frontage and multi-utility zones) and inadequate street lighting can create unsafe experience for pedestrians and force them to use the vehicle travel lanes which are typically more well lit. This raises conflicts between the different road users leading to potential crashes. It must be noted that the lighting needs for pedestrians and vehicular traffic are different and therefore must be designed and integrated within the overall lighting strategy of the street.
Street Street Bus Street lighting Curb cuts for Bicycle parking Vehicle parking vending trees stop (utilities) crosswalks
Figure 11. Typical multi-utility zone with different types of uses
9. Almost every walking trip will require the pedestrian to cross a road at some point along the trip. From the perspective of safety, they are as critical because it is at the crossing that the pedestrian is at the highest risk of collision with other traffic. Hence, the design of safe crossings is a crucial component of the walking network for a TOD zone. There are many important considerations for pedestrian crossings, which are discussed over the following sub-sections. Refer PD-R02
Crossing frequency and location
10. The most important aspects of pedestrian crossing provision are their frequency and location. From the perspective of access to the transit station, crossings must be provided such that the continuity of the walking network is maintained. The crossings are the bridges of the network, and hence, their location and design features should be congruent to its role in the network. If a particular stretch of the walking network cuts through the middle of a block, then a mid-block crossing must be provided to continue the network.
11. A TOD zone with a higher density of crossing opportunities is, typically, safer and better for walking. Crossing infrastructure must be provided at all intersections. Block sizes should be limited such that intersections crossings are not more than 150- 200m apart in the high-density areas close to the station. In already developed areas, it may not be possible to modify block sizes. In this scenario, one should consider the provision of mid-block crossings, where necessary.
NOTE 649 TOD K P
12. A pedestrian crossing must be at least as wide as the sidewalks that it connects. An even wider crossing width may be desirable, along the trunk walking routes to the transit station, as it allows for more people to cross at the same time, which reduces delay and allows for shorter pedestrian signal cycles. Moreover, a wider crossing is more likely to be distinctly visible to vehicular traffic. We recommend a minimum width of 3m, though a width closer to 5m may be desirable on high volume routes that connect to mass transit stations or BRT stops catering to the pedestrians going towards and coming out from the stations or BRT stops at the same time. Wider crossing would facilitate this opposite directional movement and avoid collisions between pedestrians in the station area with pedestrian traffic specifically due to transit station.
13. Deciding on the alignment of a pedestrian crossing raises two questions. Should the crossings be so aligned that it continues the natural walking path between the two adjoining sidewalks? Or should it be aligned perpendicular to the traffic lanes, such that crossing distance is minimized? Based on the type of intersection - right-angled or skewed - the crossing alignment would follow the natural walking path or else the shortest path to avoid increased exposure of crossing pedestrians to the incoming traffic. These alignments are same in right-angled intersections, whereas if the angle of the intersection is skewed, then there will be a deviation in the two paths. These have been compared in Table 3
Right-angled intersections Skewed intersections
Figure 12. Natural walking path and desire lines Figure 13. Crosswalks aligned along desired Figure 14. Crosswalks aligned along shortest for a right-angled intersection.. movement patterns in a skewed intersection. crossing distance in a skewed intersection. The natural walking path and the shortest For signalized intersections, For non-signalized intersections, crossing distance will align at a 4-arm, pedestrians will like to avoid deviations crosswalks are aligned to minimize the right angled intersection. to their natural walking path. It is crossing distance. This reduces the recommended aligning the crossing to the amount of time that the pedestrian is put straight line connecting the two sidewalks. into potential conflict with vehicular traffic. The pedestrian phase in the signal cycle Moreover, it positions the pedestrian and should allow for the safe completion of traffic perpendicular to each other, which this crossing distance. improves their visibility of each other.
Table 3. Comparison between location of crosswalks in different types of intersections.
650 NOTE TOD K P
Intersection corner curvature
14. The curvature of intersection corners has a significant impact on pedestrian safety. A generous curvature allows vehicles to make left turns (in the case where traffic drives on the left), or right turns (in the case where traffic drives on the right), at high speeds, which puts pedestrian at risks, particularly at un- signalized intersections. Moreover, a wide curvature increases the size of the intersection, which increased the area of undefined road space where conflicts may arise. Furthermore, pedestrian crossings get pushed further back and away from the natural crossings path. A wide intersection curvature eats into the sidewalk space, reducing the availability of space to accommodate pedestrians waiting to cross the road.
15. It is recommended to have intersection corner curvature radius approximately 4-6m, which allows for most vehicles to make a safe turn at a slow speed, from the corner-most lane to the corner-most lane. Larger vehicles may require entering into Figure 15. Reduced intersection corner curvature for pedestrian safety the adjacent lane either before or after the intersection. This is Reducing intersection corner curvature increases pedestrian safety as it enables drivers to turn at significantly slower speeds and also reduce an acceptable design compromise, if this is not a major transit pedestrian crossing time. bus-turning route, and there aren’t too many large vehicles expected to use this intersection. These differences have been highlighted in Figure 15
Pedestrian waiting area
16. The pedestrian waiting area is an important component of a crossing that often gets ignored in the design of intersections. This space is especially important for signalized intersections to accumulate the build-up of pedestrians waiting for their light to turn green. The space requirement of the pedestrian waiting area is likely to be very high on the trunk walking lines in a TOD zone. Table 4 below indicates different ways of accomplishing this.
Existing concerns Tighter curvatures Curb extensions
Figure 16. Existing conditions with wider corner Figure 17. Tighter corner radius provides more Figure 18. Curb extensions created by removing radius waiting area for pedestrians. travel lanes further reduce crossing times for pedestrians.
If adequate space is not provided, The pedestrian waiting area must be kept Another measure is to eliminate pedestrians may spill onto the traffic lane. distinct from the walking area, especially the parking lane, if present, at the The pedestrian waiting area must be kept along the trunk walking routes; otherwise intersection, and create a curb extension distinct from the walking area, especially waiting pedestrians will hold up walkers to accommodate the waiting area. along the trunk walking routes; otherwise who just want to pass through. The best waiting pedestrians will hold up walkers way to ensure a large waiting space, is to who just want to pass through. keep the intersection corner curvature as tight as possible.
Table 4. Comparisons highlighting issues of inadequate pedestrian waiting areas and mitigation measures NOTE 651 TOD K P
17. All major intersections in the TOD zone must be equipped with traffic signals, which incorporate pedestrian signal cycles. In general, any crossing that has more than two lanes, without the presence of a median, must have a pedestrian signal. The pedestrian green phase must be long enough to allow for most pedestrians to cross the road in one phase.
18. The pedestrian green times may have to be even longer on the main walking routes within the immediate station areas which may be synchronized with the timings of transit services to accommodate the higher volume of pedestrians going towards or coming out from the mass transit stations or BRT stops. These time synchronization are critical where interchanges between one mode to another takes place, and the connections aren’t direct and require crossing a road to access the stations.
19. On the major walking routes leading to the mass transit station, one can consider the implementation of signal priority and signal synchronization for pedestrians. This allows for pedestrians to face a “green wave” (uninterrupted green phases as soon as they reach the intersection); which aids in the safe and convenient access to the station.
20. Additional Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies can be incorporated which include use of AE cameras to detect over speeding of vehicles and turning the signal red to ensure speeds under safety limits are maintained within the station area. Saw-cut loop detectors can also be buried at intersections to detect traffic presence and accordingly phase the signal cycles so as to avoid traffic jams that may impede movement of shared modes and feeder services.
21. Normally, right-turning traffic (in right-side driving countries) and left-turning traffic (in left-side driving countries) are allowed to share the phase with pedestrians. However, on the main walking routes in TOD zones, the high volume of pedestrians may warrant that turning traffic be restricted, at least for some length of the pedestrian signal cycle.
Off-road pedestrian paths
22. Off-road pedestrian paths aid in augmenting the walking network in a TOD zone, and also in mitigating network gaps. Normally, at-grade paths will cut through properties, public plazas, gardens, etc. These paths are for the exclusive use of pedestrians and/ or cyclists. Motor-vehicle traffic is not permitted entry. Thus, the safety considerations for such paths are limited.
23. Off-road pedestrian paths may also be augmented with the utilization of grade-separated infrastructure. There are broadly two categories for such infrastructure. The first category is infrastructure only meant to cross a single road, such as a FoBs or an underpass. The second category is grade-separated infrastructure of a much longer length that provides direct connectivity to multiple locations including the transit station, and may comprise of a network of interconnected sections. Such infrastructure is normally elevated, and commonly referred to as sky-walks, though there are cases of sub-terrain pedestrian networks as well.
24. As a general principle, FoBs and underpasses are not recommended as crossing substitutes. This infrastructure is very expensive, and impractical to implement at each location where a crossing is needed. Pedestrians also do not prefer them, because of the physical exertion and time delay involved, in comparison to crossing at street level. This infrastructure is unfriendly to the needs of differently-abled users, such as wheelchair-bound pedestrians, senior citizens and people using wheeled units like trolleys and strollers. Moreover, the access points of such infrastructure tends to impede the free movement of the sidewalk, because of the presence of stairwells and elevator shafts.
25. On the other hand, grade-separated pedestrian networks may be useful to augment at-grade pedestrian infrastructure. They are particularly useful in connecting to the transit station, when the station is at the same grade as the network. This eliminates the need to change grades for pedestrian commuters, at one of their trip. Such infrastructure can also provide direct connectivity of major establishments to the transit station, which can be have a positive impact both for walking and for transit patronage.
26. While there are contexts where the provision of such infrastructure has benefits, their provision must only be considered as additional to at-grade infrastructure, intended to provide commuters with more options. It should not be used indiscriminately, or at the cost of providing functional sidewalks. Care should be taken to ensure that this infrastructure is accessible for all users, and its civil structures do not impede the free flow of pedestrians on the sidewalks. 652 NOTE TOD K P
27. Cycling is a healthy and sustainable mode of commute that can play an important role in enhancing connectivity to transit. It has a higher reach than walking, which greatly increases the commutable distance to the transit station.
28. The most crucial aspect for cycling safety is the design of street infrastructure. It is recommended to use dedicated cycling infrastructure, because average motor-vehicle speeds tend to be unsafe for cyclists. This is a good guiding principle for greenfield development. However, it is rarely practical to uniformly implement dedicated cycle lanes in most existing developments, due to either the paucity of road widths, or other land-use constraints. In these contexts, the cycling network for the TOD zones will comprise of the judicious use of dedicated cycle lanes where viable, in combination with traffic-calmed, shared streets. As a general principle, cycle lanes are recommended for the trunk routes leading to the station; while feeder lines to the trunk route may comprise of traffic-calmed streets.
29. It is recommended to use dedicated cycle lanes on trunk routes of the cycling network, leading to the station. Normally, the trunk cycling corridors will also contain the trunk transit and motor-vehicular routes, and hence will have a high volume of large vehicles and fast-moving traffic. Thus, the provision of dedicated cycle lanes can have a significant positive outcome on cyclist safety. Table 5 below compares the types of dedicated cycled infrastructure that can be incorporated.
Physically segregated cycle lanes Marked cycle lanes
Segregated from vehicular traffic, either, by curbs, medians, Normally delineated through the use of road-marking and railings or landscaping. roadside signage on the main carriageway.
Segregated infrastructure reduce the possibility of a motor- A uni-directional cycle lane, marked on the main carriageway, vehicle entering the cycle lane and colliding with a cyclist. must be at-least 1.5m wide, and it will depend on whether there is parking space or a bus lane on the adjacent space. It is recommended to avoid use of railings as segregation, This allows for some buffer from traffic moving in the adjacent because it effectively reduces the usable width of the cycle lane; but it does not provide enough width for a faster cyclist to lane, as cyclists don’t tend to ride closer to the railings. Median overtake a slower one. For long block lengths, it is recommend curbs or landscape strips should be used instead. the provision of pull-out zones to allow for cyclists to safely overtake.
Can be designed to be either uni-directional or bi-directional. Typically, are uni-directional, and cyclists are expected to ride in When designed to be bi-directional, the cycle lane acts much the same direction as traffic on their side of the road. like a sidewalk, and cycle crossings can be designed in sync It is recommended to avoid use of contraflow cycle lanes. with pedestrian crossings.
Table 5. Comparing different types of dedicated cycle lanes.
30. There are two kinds of cycle lanes:
• A uni-directional cycle lane, marked on the main carriageway, must be at-least 1.5m wide. This allows for some buffer from traffic moving in the adjacent lane; but it does not provide enough width for a faster cyclist to overtake a slower one. For long block lengths, it is recommend the provision of pull-out zones to allow for cyclists to safely overtake (Figure 19).
• A bi-directional cycle lane must be at least 2.5m to allow for cycling units to pass each other. Keep in mind that the cycle lane is not only for bicyclists, but for all wheeled, active modes of transport, which includes wider vehicles, such as tricycles or cycle-rickshaws (Figure 20).
NOTE 653 TOD K P
Figure 19. Uni-directional marked cycle lane. Figure 20. Bi-directional marked cycle lane.
Cycle lanes positioning across bus stops
31. The overlap of cycling routes and feeder bus routes can create potential safety conflicts. Buses need to stop next to the sidewalk to pick-up and drop-off commuters. This may mean that the bus has to cut across the cycle lane to access the bus stop. This is a potential safety risk, given the mass and speed of the bus in relation to the cyclist. This risk is further heightened by the fact that the bus driver has to change lanes behind the line of sight of the cyclist.
32. It is recommended that, where possible, trunk cycling routes and bus-feeder routes be kept separate. If there are parallel roads leading to the station, then this becomes easier to implement. Where sharing the route is unavoidable, we recommend that the cycle lane be continued behind the bus stop, such that the bus does not have to enter the cycle lane to reach the bus stop. Here, the bus stop area is separated from the sidewalk, and commuters will have to cross the cycle lane to access the bus stop.
Figure 21. A shared bus and bike Figure 22. Separate bus and cycle lane lanes, with cycle lane going behind the bus stop
Figure 23. A bus station bypass in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil that raises the bicycle lane to the sidewalk level while bypassing the bus waiting area. Source: WRI
654 NOTE TOD K P
Cycle lanes and on-street parking
33. It is not recommended to provide on-street parking on trunk access routes leading to the transit station, unless there is enough road width remaining after providing for all feeder network infrastructure. This is generally a very impractical condition for already built-up TOD zones in the developed areas of the city. Often, the creation of a cycle lane is possible only by taking away space from on-street parking.
34. On-street parking creates other potential safety conflicts for cyclists. Vehicles benefit from being parked as close to the sidewalk as possible. This requires them to cut across Figure 24. Cycle lane between travel lane and Figure 25. Cycle lane between sidewalk and the cycle lane (Figure 24), creating parking lane parking lane without any buffer similar safety concerns as described Vehicles cutting across cycle lanes to access on Doors of cars opening on the side of cycle lane in the previous sub-section on bus street parking adjacent to sidewalk create safety without adequate buffer may conflict with cyclists stops. Moreover, when the door of hazards for cyclists a parked car is suddenly opened on the side of the cycle lane, it creates a safety hazard for the cyclist (Figure 25).
35. It is recommended that paid on- street parking be provided on streets with cycle lanes, only where there is a possibility to separate the parked vehicles from the cycle lane by a buffer (Figure 26). This buffer should be at least half a meter wide, to contain the width of an opened car door, and also allow people to enter and exit their car safely, without standing on the cycle lane. It could also be designed as a raised median. (Figure 27).
Figure 26. Buffer between cycle lane and parking Figure 27. Protected bike lanes with physical lane using on-street markings using paint. separations using raised median as buffers
NOTE 655 TOD K P
Intersections and cyclist movement
36. The design of intersections is a crucial aspect for the overall safety of the cycling network. There have been a number of design alternatives that have been developed, which have different benefits and disadvantages with respect to the mobility and safety of cyclists. The traffic lights in such intersections should include a traffic signal for cyclists, which is synchronized with pedestrian lights. In larger intersections with multiple lanes, an advance phase cycle signal may also be provided. These alternatives have been summarized in Table 6 with details explained in TOD Knowledge Product PD-R02, followed by a graphical representation of an intersection with bus priority lanes and a two-stage cycle turn lane (Figure 34).
Type Diagram Description Advantage Disadvantage Suitability
Regular, No definitive cycling infrastructure is Easy to implement. Doesn’t require much It is not appropriate for high speed Suitable for neighborhood, traffic calmed traffic calmed Refer diagrams for modified intersections in a shared street: Figure 59 on provided; but intersection is designed street area. intersections, with high traffic volumes streets, that are normally non-signalized. intersection Page 55, and Figures 60, 61 on Page 56. with speed control standards of a shared and/or high number of large vehicles. street Advanced The cycle lane is terminated a few meters It allows motor-vehicles and cyclists to No dedicated infrastructure for cyclists, Should be used very sparingly, only after termination of before the mouth of the intersection. align themselves in the correct position where it’s need the most. There is a risk all other options are considered. the cycle lane at the intersection, depending upon the of collision be-tween vehicles & cyclists, direction they intend to go. while they’re changing lanes.
Figure 28. Advanced termination of bike lane as it nears an intersection.
Provision of A left turning lane* for general traffic is It allows cyclists to continue straight There is a risk of collision at the place Should be used very sparingly, only after a turning lane provided between the sidewalk and the through the intersection, without conflict where the cycle lane and the motor- all other options are considered. between the cycle lane. with left-turning motor-vehicles. vehicular lane cross each other. cycle lane & sidewalk
Figure 29. Turning lane inserted between cycle lane and sidewalk.
Table 6. Summary table for different types of intersections
656 NOTE TOD K P
* Description is written on the context of countries where traffic drives on the left side of the road.
NOTE 657 TOD K P
Cycle boxes Cyclists align themselves in a cycle It provides dedicated infrastructure right It creates some ambiguity on where Suitable for trunk cycling routes with a with 1-phase box, (provided between the pedestrian up to the intersection mouth. It allows the cyclist should wait if it reaches the high volume of cyclists. It is especially right turn crossing & the stop line) cyclists to complete a turn in one signal intersection during the green signal phase useful when the majority of cyclist phase. for vehicular traffic on the same arm of the movement makes a right* at the intersection intersection
Figure 30. Advanced stop lines with cycle boxes for cyclists to align in direction of turn
Cycle boxes During the green signal phase, cyclists It provides dedicated infrastructure right It needs 2 signal phases for cyclists to Suitable for trunk cycling routes with a with 2-phase intending to turn right enter the up to the intersection mouth. The design complete a right turn. high volume of cyclists. An appropriate right turns intersection and align themselves in the is more intuitive to both cyclists and universal design principle, as it is likely to cycle box of the perpendicular street. motorists. fit most contexts.
Figure 31. Two-phase cycle turn boxes
Hooked cycle The cycle lane is slightly deviated at the It slows down cyclists as they enter It creates some deviation from the Appropriate and safe option wherever lanes intersection to align it with adjacent street the intersection area. It provides better shortest path across the intersection for there is adequate inter-section area. It pedestrian crossing. visibility for cyclists and motorists of each cyclists. It requires a larger intersection can be used for both signalized and un- other. area to be implemented. signalized intersections.
Figure 32. Cycle lanes hooked with pedestrian crossing
Scramble signal A separate signal phase is provided for An intuitive design that allows for the free The addition of a signal phase may affect Appropriate when there is a high volume phase cyclists to move to and from all arms of movement of cyclists in any direction. intersection through-put which may result of cyclist, with no single dominant the intersection; all motor-vehicular traffic in longer delays for both motorists and direction of movement. Suitable for has a red light. cyclists. intersections with more than 4 arms
Figure 33. Single phase for cycle movement in all directions.
Can be combined with pedestrian movement in all directions
658 NOTE TOD K P
NOTE 659 TOD K P
Vehicle lane eliminated to Median refuge island Segregated bus provide cycle lane with on- priority corridors street parking and median buffer to protect cyclists from opening of car doors Cycle boxes for two-phase turns
Protected bike Staggered stop lines Median bulb-out as horizontal lanes with buffer for cyclists to ensure traffic calming measure at the they are visible to right intersection turning vehicles
Guide-rails along bus Curb-extension as traffic calming measure as priority corridor to well as to provide additional waiting area for avoid jaywalking pedestrians and space to accommodate utility such as cycle rack
Figure 34. Two-phase cycle turn at intersection with Bus priority lanes (Source: WRI)
660 NOTE TOD K P
Feeder Transit and Para-transit Infrastructure
37. Feeder transit (generally in the form of buses) and para-transit (in the form of vans, taxicabs or auto-rickshaws) provide a valuable service in enhancing the commutable distance for transit users. This is particularly important for TOD zones in lower density area, where distances from the station may be too long for walking and cycling to be the only feeder alternatives.
38. In most cases, feeder transit and para-transit services will share the same road infrastructure as general motor-vehicular infrastructure. As such, the general design principles for safe streets will apply here. However, there are a few additional guidelines that have to be kept in mind, particularly with respect to the design of locations where these vehicles stop to pick-up and drop off passengers. These guidelines are discussed in the following sub-sections.
Bus stops near intersections
Service area for bus stops near intersections
39. The intersection is an optimal location for a bus stop for two important reasons:
• A bus stop located at an intersection is likely to have a larger area within walking distance as compared to a mid-block stop, because of the intersection of streets moving in different directions (Figure 34 and Figure 36 below).
• It reduces the walking distance to transfer between two intersecting bus routes, if their respective bus stops are located at, (or near) the same intersection (Figure 37 and Figure 38)
Figure 35. Bus stop location at Figure 36. Bus stop located mid-block has a limited reach and near an intersection increases longer interchange distance connectivity and reduces the interchange distance.
Figure 37. Transfer distances of Figure 38. Transfer distances of two stops positioned at mid-blocks stops near the intersection
NOTE 661 TOD K P
Position of Bus stop with respect to intersection
40. The presence of a bus stop in close proximity to an intersection can create certain challenges for traffic mobility and for safety. A bus waiting at its stop may hold up traffic trying to clear the intersection, which affects intersection throughput capacity. Furthermore, the waiting bus may act as a visual impediment for motorists and crossing pedestrians, which can have a negative impact on safety. These issues raise some crucial concerns with respect to the design and positioning of bus stops at intersections.
41. Normally, a bus stop is best positioned a few meters after the intersection. In this way, the bus would have to cross the intersection before reaching the stop. The advantage of this positioning is that it does not hold up traffic that wants to go through or make a turn at the intersection. This is especially important for signalized intersections. If the bus stop were to be located just before the intersection, then, if a bus happened to reach the stop during the green signal phase, it would unnecessarily hold-up traffic behind it even though the light is green. Motorists cannot overtake the bus from the other side if they plan to turn left at the intersection (in contexts where traffic drives on the left), so they would end up queuing behind the waiting bus (Figure 39).
42. Locating the bus stop after the intersections allows all traffic, (including the bus) to queue up in the correct lane, Figure 39. Impact on traffic due to Figure 40. Impact on traffic due to depending on which direction they intend to move. It stop positioned before intersection stop positioned after intersection mitigates the risk of motorists trying to overtake or cut across the bus in order to make a turn (Figure 40).
43. Another safety advantage of locating the bus stop after the intersection is that the pedestrian crossing for this intersection (which will also service the bus stop) will be located behind the bus. A bus is a large vehicle and can block the view of motorists and crossing pedestrians of each other. By positioning the bus stop after the intersection, it ensures that most bus commuters will walk back to the intersection in order to cross the road, putting them out of the blind-spot created by the bus.
Distance of bus stops from intersections
44. The bus stop should be located some distance away from the intersection to allow for vehicles entering this arm of the road to move out of the lane occupied by the bus in order to overtake the waiting bus (Figure 41 and Figure 42). Figure 41. Impact on traffic Figure 42. Impact on traffic due to due to stop positioned close to stop positioned short distance from intersection the intersection
662 NOTE TOD K P
Mid-block bus stops
45. In some context, locating a bus stop along the mid-block of a road may have some advantages. The intersections in the near vicinity may have certain complications that make it difficult to locate the stop there. In some cases, the distance between successive intersections may be very far, warranting the need for a mid-block stop. In other cases, adjacent land-use conditions may dictate the location of the stop. For instance if a prominent node, such as an educational institution or a hospital, is located at the mid-block, then it may warrant the positioning of the stop as close to this node as possible.
46. There are certain aspects to be kept in mind regarding the provision of mid-block stops. Avoid locating the bus stops along curves or slopes in the roadway, as this effects visibility of crossing pedestrians (Figure 43). As a general principle, try to locate the bus stops on opposite sides of the road, such that they share a common pedestrian crossing that is located behind both stops (Figure 44). The safety implications of locating a crossing in front of a stop were already discussed in the previous section, that is, the waiting bus blocks the visibility of motorists and crossing pedestrians of each other.
Figure 43. Incorrect location of Figure 44. Ideal mid-block mid-block bus stops along curved location of bus stops with common roads crosswalk
47. Para-transit normally operates along the general traffic roadway in mixed traffic conditions. Typically, pick-up and drop-off happens all along the roadway, except where there are legal restrictions against stopping. As such, para-transit commuters do not normally require specific street infrastructure elements.
48. However, certain locations may warrant the provision of specific para-transit, where there is a high demand for para-transit services. These include nodes of high commuter footfall, such as shopping malls, educational institutes, office complexes, etc. Where demand is high, there tends to be a concentration of para-transit vehicles waiting to pick-up passengers. If adequate infrastructure is not provided, this can result in the haphazard stalling of vehicles along the roadway, which affects both traffic throughput and safety.
49. It is recommended that the provision of dedicated pick-up and drop-off infrastructure at all such nodes, to facilitate the orderly alignment of para-transit vehicles, which allow for passengers to embark and disembark these vehicles safely. The pick-up and drop-off zones function best when they are physically separated from each other, in a manner that allows for a para-transit vehicle to quickly move from the drop-off zone to the pick-up zone, (in order to pick-up new passengers). The length of each zone should be adequate to meet demand and operational conditions.
NOTE 663 TOD K P
Traffic-Calming Measures for Shared Streets
50. A shared street is one where the infrastructure is designed to meet the mobility and safety standards of all road users. These standards are very different for motor-vehicle traffic than for non-motorized traffic. Thus, if a street is to be designed for all road users, it is essential that is meets the safety standards of the most vulnerable road users - pedestrians and cyclists.
51. The implementation of traffic-calming measures is an essential component of creating safe, shared streets. In most built-up urban areas, it is impractical to provide dedicated lanes to every feeder mode due to pre-existing constraints, like availability of right-of-way, traffic dynamics or adjacent land-use conditions. Where possible and practical, one may consider off-road connectors, (through parks and public places); or off-grade infrastructure. However, the opportunities for such interventions are limited, or their installation is immensely expensive. They cannot be considered as a blanket resolution for all areas where street right-of-way is limited. The most practical solution then becomes the implementation of shared streets.
52. The most important aspect of developing safe, shared streets is to slow down traffic speed. A slower street reduced the probability of conflicts between road users, while also reducing the severity of a crash when it happens. A second aspect of developing shared streets is the reduction of traffic volume, achieved mainly through the diversion of non-local traffic.
53. In some contexts, certain motor-vehicle user groups may prefer a slower street. For instance, local traffic accessing adjacent properties, will have a slower speed expectation than thoroughfare traffic. Similarly, feeder buses may also prefer slower streets, due to their need to frequently stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. This is also true of para-transit services that may prefer slower movement, while scoping for passengers.
General design measures
54. The total width of the section of the road reserved for vehicular movement is often referred to as the carriageway. The width of this carriageway is a crucial factor in influencing traffic speed. There are two aspects to be considered here:
• The traffic lane width- Wider traffic lanes allow motorists to drive faster, because of perceived lower conflict risk with traffic in other lanes.
• Number of traffic lanes- Greater number of traffic lanes result in increased carrying capacity, which improves traffic free-flow conditions, which further allows for faster travel.
55. Streets in urban areas are still being designed as per inter- city highway standards, where lane width of 3.5m and more, are considered the norm. This standard allows for a design speed in excess of 50km/h, which is an extremely unsafe speed for urban conditions. Figure 45 illustrates a typical four-lane street.
56. If a street has to be shared with vulnerable road users, then the design speed should be closer to 30km/h. For
local, neighborhood streets, and even lower design speed Figure 45. Existing typical distribution of ROW with wide travel lanes is desirable.
664 NOTE TOD K P
57. A shared street must not have more than 2 traffic lanes in either direction. Anything more than 2 lanes makes it difficult to implement a design speed close to 30km/h. In most cases, 1 lane in each direction is adequate for local, neighborhood streets. If an existing road of more than 2+2 lanes is to be redesigned along shared street principles, then consider converting the additional lanes into a parking lane; or utilizing the additional road width to increase space for other street elements, such as sidewalks. Table 7 below includes some alternatives for re-distributing the street ROW.
A traffic lane width of 3m (upper limit) is recommended for all shared streets. An exception may be made for roads that are part of the transit bus network, where the lane utilized by the bus, (in most cases adjacent to the sidewalk), may be as wide as 3.5m. For neighborhood streets, and even narrower lane width than 3m is desired, especially if this street is meant to cater primarily to local traffic movement. Figure 46. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and bus lane
Travel lanes rearranged to have a center turn lane and unidirectional cycle lanes.
Figure 47. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and center turn lane
Additional on-street parking lane
Figure 48. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and on street parking
Extended sidewalk widths to provide space for pedestrians.
Figure 49. Redistributed ROW with narrower travel lanes, cycle lanes, and wider sidewalks
Table 7. Alternatives for ROW redistribution
NOTE 665 TOD K P
Urban design measures: Streetscapes and gateways
58. Traffic-calming measures include several engineering interventions to slow down of traffic. In addition, there are many urban design measures that act as visual cues, encouraging motorists to select the appropriate speed for this zone.
59. The presence of setbacks along the road front have a psychological impact on speed selection. A street where buildings are set nearer the road edge are perceived to be narrower than streets of similar widths, but where the buildings are further apart. This induces motorists to drive slower on the former kind of street, due to the narrower visibility range. Trees planted close to the carriageway edge have a similar impact on speed selection. From a TOD zone planning perspective, regulations can be implemented to relax frontage setback norms, (where appropriate), to encourage more compact development
60. Another measure to encourage motorists to slow down when entering a traffic-calmed street is to include more diverse road users, such as on-street parking and street-vending. These uses increase the perceived disruptions to the motorist, which encourages them to slow down. In addition, softer streetscape elements may also be considered to signal to the motorists that they have entered a traffic-calmed street. This include measures such as change of carriageway surface material and color, as well as the increased use of landscaping and other street furniture.
61. If there are definitive entry points into a neighborhood from a main street, it is a good practice to install a gateway feature across the entry point, which informs motorists that they’re about to enter a different kind of right-of-way. This encourages them to slow down and choose the appropriate speed for this zone.
Mid-block design measures
Vertical speed controls: Speed humps, speed tables and speed bumps
62. There are three kinds of vertical deflectors, that are effective in controlling vehicular speed as shown below in Table 8. They have slightly different design features which also impacts their functionality and applicability.
Type Diagram Description
Speed Curved, raised area, along the width of the Hump carriageway, which causes a vertical deflection for vehicles as they traverse it, which induces motorists to slow down in order to cross the hump comfortably.
Figure 50. Speed hump
Speed Refers to an elongated speed hump, with a flattish Table section between the up and down slopes of the hump. A pedestrian crossing may be included along the flat section of a speed table.
Figure 51. Speed table
Speed Significantly narrower in cross-sectional width than a Bump speed hump, which causes a more striking vertical deflection for a vehicle. A vehicle, normally, has to come to a near stop, in order to cross the bump comfortably. Figure 52. Speed bump
Table 8. Vertical speed control alternatives
666 NOTE TOD K P
63. Speed humps or tables are recommended for local, neighborhood streets as a traffic-calming device. Speed bumps are normally not recommended for public streets, because of their abrupt impact on vehicles. They are more suitable for driveway or parkway entries. The frequency of speed humps along a stretch of road should be such that it discourages speeding in-between two humps.
Figure 53. Speed humps before pedestrian crossing. 64. Speed humps may be provided before pedestrian crossings, especially in cities where motorists are unlikely to slow down for a crossing pedestrian (Figure 53).
65. If there is no median barrier on the roadway, it is better to locate the pedestrian crossing on top of the speed table (Figure 54).
66. If such vertical speed controls are needed near to an intersection, it is recommended to use a speed hump instead of a speed table so that pedestrians don´t confuse Figure 54. Pedestrian crossing on top of speed table it with a pedestrian crossing.
67. Speed humps must be avoided along curved sections of the road, or in sections where forward visibility of the roadway is low. Speed humps should also be avoided on sloping sections of the road. Normally, a speed hump should not be installed just before a traffic signal, as it affects the green phase traffic throughput for this signal.
Figure 55. Speed table doubling up as a mid-block crossing with safety bollards in New Delhi, India. (Source: The World Bank)
NOTE 667 TOD K P
Horizontal speed controls: Chicanes, curb-extensions, bulb-outs and staggered on-street parking
68. Table 9 below discusses the various types of horizontal speed control measures.
Chicanes These refer to the series of physical deflectors that are installed along alternating sides of the road, which result in the creation of a serpentine-like roadway. This forces motorists to slow down as they steer left and right through the successive chicanes. Chicanes are a useful retrofit for long, Figure 56. Chicanes neighborhood streets, though consideration should be given to their impact on cyclists and emergency vehicle movement.
Staggered A similar traffic-calming impact that chicanes on street provide can be achieved by staggering the parking provision of on-street parking. The presence of on-street parking has the added advantage of increasing perceived traffic disruptions, which induces motorists to drive slower. Figure 57. Staggered on-street parking
Curb Ex- This refers to the physical extension of the tensions curb, (normally the sidewalk curb) into the carriageway, partly or fully cutting out a traffic lane. Curb extensions are also referred to as chokers, because, they, in effect create a physical bottleneck, with the intention of choking traffic.
Figure 58. Chokers This induces motorists to slow down while driving through the curb-extension area.
Median Curb-extensions may also be provided along bulb-out a curbed median, which then creates, what is called a bulb-out in the center of the road. The advantage of such a bulb-out is that is allows for the inclusion of a pedestrian refuge area between the crossing, where pedestrians can stop and wait while crossing the road.
Figure 59. Median bulb-out
Table 9. Horizontal speed control alternatives
668 NOTE TOD K P
Segregated cycle track
IPT parking for easy access by pedestrians
Raised mid-block crossing cutting through cycle lanes and BRT lanes, with push-to-walk buttons
Pedestrian refuge area, with physical barrier between BRT lanes, carved out as a chicane for traffic calming at the crosswalk
Figure 60. Mid-block crossings in BRT lane as a combination of horizontal and vertical traffic calming measures
(Source: © WRI India)
Intersection design measures
Tightening and/or extending curb corners
69. The most important measure to reduce traffic speed at intersection is to minimize the radius of curb corners at intersections. A tighter corner induces motorists to slow down to make a turn, which adds to safety. It also increases the available sidewalk area at the intersection and decreases the crossing length, which allows for safer crossings.
Figure 61. Extending curb corners at intersections to create gateways
NOTE 669 TOD K P
70. Table 10 below highlights features of different types of modified intersections.
Raised A raised intersection is an effective traffic-calming intersection measure, applicable for un-signalized intersections between neighborhood streets. They are similar in profile to a speed table, wherein the entire intersection area is slightly raised to create a vertical displacement for vehicles.
Figure 62. Raised intersection, at the level of sidewalk
Mini Mini-roundabouts consists of a small circle located roundabout within the intersection area, which creates a lateral displacement for vehicles, forcing them to slow down. They differ in form and function from conventional roundabouts, which are much larger, and their primary function is to channelize traffic circulation, rather than slowing down traffic.
Figure 63. Mini roundabout
Physical Restricting movement at intersections through barriers the installation of physical barriers (median barrier across an intersection), impacts the volume of traffic using this intersection, (and the adjoining streets), by curtailing thoroughfare traffic.
Another measure is to install a diagonal barrier across the intersection, preventing through movement in either direction.
Figure 64. Restricting movement at intersections using barriers
Table 10. Alternatives for a modified intersection
670 NOTE TOD K P
Primary Station Area Design
71. The primary station area in the context of TOD, refers to the area immediately surrounding the transit station i.e. within 0 – 400m or 5 minutes walking, where the transfer of commuters between feeder modes and the main transit line takes place. This is the meeting point for the trunk routes of all feeder modes. Hence, safety and mobility challenges are the most crucial at the station area, given the high concentration of commuters and traffic into a relatively small space. Infrastructure for the transfer of pedestrian commuters should be provided nearest to the station gates, followed by infrastructure for cyclists and feeder buses, then para-transit, and finally, for personal motor-vehicles.
Figure 65. Cycle parking facility and pedestrian only area at the entrance of Figure 66. Transit station access using segregated sidewalks, Mexico (Source: Transmilenio in Bogota, Colombia (Source: The World Bank) The World Bank)
Includes the transit Includes the area and major destinations around Catchment areas include the broader station and the the station, which are direct and safe, and can be area of influence from the mass immediate access accessed by walking and cycling. transit station, where feeder and routes within paratransit services are critical. 5minutes of walking distance prioritizing pedestrian needs. PRIMARY AREA PRIMARY CATCHMENT AREA SECONDARY AREA SECONDARY
72. It is important to ensure that transit infrastructure, including station structures, do not impede the movement of any mode. It is commonly observed that the pillars of elevated transit stations completely block the sidewalks below them. In other cases, elevator shafts and stairways to the stations are placed across the sidewalk, forcing pedestrians to walk on the roadway.
NOTE 671 TOD K P
Station access points
73. A transit station with one access point can become a potential bottleneck for commuter movement, especially during the peak commuting hours of the day. For a high-volume station, it is recommended to provide multiple entries and exits to the station, ideally connecting to different roads and different directions of the station areas as can be seen in Figure 67
Multiple access points, including elevator and escalator Pedestrian crossings aligned with median refuge islands access for universal accessibility, placed closer to the and avoiding elevated metro corridor pillars intersection so that commuters do not jay-walk or walk longer Smaller turning radius with curb-cuts allowing distance to cross. for universal accessibility.
Figure 67. Designed access to DN Nagar Metro Station Mumbai near an intersection (Source: WRI India)
74. Often local access needs are combined with station access points. Access to underground mass transit stations also double up as underpasses to cross major roads. Similarly, BRT stops located in the middle of a highway do not typically have at-grade access. FOBs with ramps or elevators to access the stops are provided. However, if these stations are not functioning during some hours or closed, then the local access can get impeded due to closing of the access facility as well. It is advisable to have these FOBs or underpasses to remain functional all day long and have a connection made from these off-road connectors to the transit facility.
75. BRT services requiring dedicated lanes must be protected to avoid jay walking, with access to stops provided at intersections with wider crosswalks or at mid-block crossings. Additional button-activated mid-block crossings must be provided in the station area where the blocks are large or a high volume of pedestrian movement is expected.
76. Station access points can also be separated according to the transfer mode (Figure 68, Figure 69). A direct access link may be provided, connecting the station to the feeder bus routes separating the movement of bus commuters from other commuters.
77. Grade separated infrastructure can be utilized in conjunction with sidewalks, to increase access points to the stations. This is particularly useful when the grade separated infrastructure connects directly to important nearby land-uses that are likely to generate a high footfall of commuters, such as a shopping center or an office complex. However, such infrastructure must only be provided in addition to at-grade infrastructure, and must never come at the expense of at-grade sidewalks.
672 NOTE TOD K P
Pedestrians crossing along the median, Wide at-grade refuge island in the median to especially with longer BRT Green phase. accommodate passengers entering and exiting the BRT station using a protected ramp. (Many Latin American BRT Systems have such design including Macrobus in Guadalajara) Figure 68. Pedestrian access to a raised BRT station in the center of the ROW (Source: WRI)
Cycle rack on sidewalk along the road perpendicular to the BRT lane, allowing riders to lock the cycles and transfer to BRT system. Figure 69. Facilities for cyclists to access the BRT station along with pedestrians (Source: WRI)
NOTE 673 TOD K P
Transfer facility design
78. As far as possible, transfer zones in the vicinity of the transit station, should be provided such that it eliminates, or reduces the crossing requirement.
• Traffic management at the Thane suburban railway station in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India involves grade separated infrastructure for public bus services and IPT infrastructure. The bus services are on an elevated deck and connect to the railways station through skywalks, and the IPT services are available at grade with pick-up, drop-off and queuing areas (Figure 70).
Figure 70. Thane Suburban station in India with lower level for auto-rickshaws and upper levels for bus bays. It connects to the road level via elevated walkways (Source: WRI India)
79. Wherever possible, the transfer stop should be provided on the same side as the transit station access point. For instance, a feeder bus-loop / terminal may be located near the transit station. In such a case, it is a good idea to ensure that there is no road in between the feeder bus-facility and the station access point. Similarly, a para-transit facility is best located on the same side of the transit station.
• A typical transfer station along Bogota, Colombia’s TransMilenio BRT corridor includes an integrated transfer facility between the trunk BRT route and the feeder service (Figure 71). These terminals are designed to have a common central platform where both the services can dock on either side of the platform allowing the passengers to transfer by crossing across it.
Figure 71. Typical transfer platform at station along Bogota, Colombia’s TransMilenio BRT corridor with height differences on either side to accommodate the different floor heights of BRT bus (on left side) and feeder services (right side) (Source: WRI)
674 NOTE TOD K P
80. It may not always be possible to locate all transfer facilities on the same side of the transfer station. This may be the case, for feeder buses plying in opposite directions, in which case, only the stop for one direction can be located on the station side. In such contexts, it is essential that safe crossing infrastructure is provided to access the station. Given the high expected transfer volumes, a signalized crossing may be warranted.
Speed humps at least on the Curb extension to create waiting area At-grade refuge island on the median two approaches that cross the for High pedestrian volume that can be to access the BRT station with a ramp transfer path for pedestrians. expected at this corner
Figure 72. Transfer facility between two intersecting BRT Lines (Source: WRI)
81. If the transit station is located at a different level than the road, it may be a good idea to extend the grade-separated connector across the width of this road. In normal circumstances, grade-separated structures are not recommended for crossing the road. However, if they provide direct connectivity to a the grade-separated station, then this becomes acceptable.
82. When designing para-transit zones in station areas, it is important to separate the drop-off zones from the pick-up zone, to allow for the smooth functioning of such facilities. Normally, the drop-off zone should be located before the pick-up zone, which allows for the para-transit driver to enter the pick-up zone after dropping off passengers. There should also be a provision for the vehicle to leave the drop-off zone, in case the driver does not want to pick up new passengers.
83. Care should be taken to ensure that the movement of para-transit vehicles does not impede the movement of feeder bus services. This can be achieved through the physical segregation of both zones, which add to safety, while also creating more access points for the transit station.
NOTE 675 TOD K P
Grade-separated feeder service stop IPT parking and waiting area, separate Motor-vehicle free shared streets to and access to station and connection from vehicle parking. access the transit station to developments using non-motorized shared streets
Figure 73. Para-transit access and transfers to transit station, with connections for vehicular traffic, and with connections through motor-vehicle free shared streets (Source: WRI India)
676 NOTE TOD K P
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- Published: 10 November 2023
Evolution analysis of cross-domain collaborative research topic: a case study of cognitive-based product conceptual design
- Yuanrong Zhang 1 ,
- Wei Guo 1 , 2 ,
- Jian Ma 1 ,
- Zhonglin Fu 1 ,
- Zhixing Chang 1 &
- Lei Wang ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-5205-2951 1
Scientometrics ( 2023 ) Cite this article
Knowledge absorption and integration between research domains can generate new concepts and ideas, and cross-domain research cooperation has become an effective way to promote innovation. Observing and discovering the patterns and trends in the development of cross-domain collaborative research topics is an important area of research for promoting the innovative development of disciplines. In this paper, we propose an evolution analysis method for cross-domain collaborative research topics, which first employs LDA and Word2vec models to extract topics from the domain corpus, and proposes a cross-domain topic evolution model (CDTEM) based on cross-time and cross-domain topic associations. Based on CDTEM, combined with the evolution analysis strategy of forward extrapolation and backward tracking, the method realizes the evolution analysis of cross-domain topics (CDTs) and generates a synergistic evolution vein of CDTs. Finally, we combine the integration and evolution of research topics in conceptual design (CD) and design cognition (DC) to perform validation analysis. The methodology of this paper provides a new perspective for studying interdisciplinary topic convergence trends based on collaborative goal-oriented research, which can help scholars capture the convergence and development trends of cross-domain collaborative research topics over the years and explore dynamic CDTs to effectively support interdisciplinary scientific exchange. At the same time, the case study part of this paper provides scholars conducting research in cognition-based product design with a scientific analysis of the integration and development of research topics.
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This work was supported by the TIANJIN RESEARCH INNOVATION PROJECT FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS (2022BKYZ041).
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, No.135 Yaguan Road, Haihe Education Park, Tianjin, 300350, People’s Republic of China
Yuanrong Zhang, Wei Guo, Jian Ma, Zhonglin Fu, Zhixing Chang & Lei Wang
Tianjin Ren’ai College, Bo Xue Yuan, Tuanbo New City, Jinghai District, Tianjin, 301636, People’s Republic of China
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Zhang, Y., Guo, W., Ma, J. et al. Evolution analysis of cross-domain collaborative research topic: a case study of cognitive-based product conceptual design. Scientometrics (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-023-04865-5
Received : 29 July 2023
Accepted : 23 October 2023
Published : 10 November 2023
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-023-04865-5
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