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Enhancing Remote Learning: The Role of an Online Annotation Tool in Education

In today’s digital age, remote learning has become increasingly prevalent, and educators are constantly seeking innovative ways to engage students in virtual classrooms. One such tool that has gained significant traction is the online annotation tool. This powerful software enables students and teachers to collaborate, analyze, and interact with digital content like never before. In this article, we will explore the various benefits of using an online annotation tool in education and how it enhances remote learning.

Facilitating Active Reading and Critical Thinking

The primary purpose of an online annotation tool is to empower students to actively engage with the text they are reading. By allowing them to highlight, underline, or comment on specific passages or words, these tools foster critical thinking skills. Students can annotate important concepts, ask questions, make connections between ideas, and share their thoughts with peers or instructors.

Furthermore, online annotation tools often provide a platform for collaborative learning. Students can view each other’s annotations and respond with their own insights. This not only encourages active participation but also creates a dynamic learning environment where students can learn from one another.

Personalized Learning Experience

One of the key advantages of using an online annotation tool is its ability to personalize the learning experience for each student. These tools allow learners to customize their annotations based on their individual preferences and needs.

For instance, students can use different colors for highlighting different types of information (e.g., main ideas vs. supporting details). They can also add personal notes or summaries alongside the text to aid comprehension and retention. By tailoring their annotations to suit their unique learning styles, students can better process information and make connections between concepts.

Efficient Feedback Mechanism

Traditionally, providing feedback on student assignments was a time-consuming process for teachers. With an online annotation tool, however, this task becomes much more efficient.

Teachers can use these tools to annotate students’ work directly, offering feedback, suggestions, and corrections in real-time. This immediate feedback loop helps students understand their mistakes and make necessary improvements promptly. Moreover, the online nature of these tools allows for seamless communication between teachers and students, even in a remote learning environment.

Collaboration and Community Building

One of the challenges of remote learning is the lack of face-to-face interaction. Online annotation tools address this issue by providing a space for collaboration and community building.

Students can engage in discussions about specific annotations or participate in group projects where they collectively annotate a text. This collaborative approach fosters social interaction and encourages students to work together towards a common goal. Additionally, these tools also enable teachers to create shared annotation spaces where the entire class can contribute their insights on a particular topic.

In conclusion, an online annotation tool is an invaluable asset for enhancing remote learning in education. By promoting active reading, critical thinking, personalized learning experiences, efficient feedback mechanisms, collaboration, and community building, these tools empower both students and teachers in the virtual classroom. As technology continues to advance, it is crucial for educators to embrace innovative tools like online annotation software to adapt to the evolving landscape of education.

This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.


search help annotation in cds view

Search Annotations

This annotation marks a view as searchable. You define the fuzziness threshold as well as the specifics of term mappings at element level.

  • Top 10 Reasons to Choose SAP Integration Suite
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  • Extending CDS View
  • Data Modeling in SAP HANA – Introduction
  • Use of Parameter in CDS View


CDS: Search Annotations – Search.searchable

Annotations enrich the CDS views but can be confusing as well. These series of blogs have my simplified explanation.

Search.searchable is a header annotations meaning it appears before actual select is written. The possible values are true and false and the default value is true.

@Search.searchable : true Or @Search.searchab le : false

Explanation: This annotation is generally relevant for Fiori Elements and is used in the consumption view. When added to the consumption view, it creates a general search bar.

Example: For Fiori element, if you don’t want general search (marked in the red box) to come, you need to set this Search.searchable as false. (The default is true – remember). This example also shows, why it is necessary to use this annotation only in the consumption view (the one which is exposed to the external interface).

search help annotation in cds view

Search.searchable is along with some other annotations which further help to define the Elements, which columns are included in the generic search. Those annotations are following:




Follow the links to see how the deep the rabbit hole is.


CDS: VDS Annotations – VDM.viewType

  • CDS: Search Annotations – Search.ranking

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Annotations in CDS

This post summarizes the most common annotations that are required to build a RESTful Application Programming Service in ABAP. ABAP CDS are written in Data Definition Language (DDL).

These annotations are broadly categorized into two types.

ABAP CDS – ABAP Annotations

Framework-specific annotations.

These annotations are evaluated by ABAP runtime environment.

AbapCatalog Annotations

AccessControl Annotations

ClientHandling Annotations

Endusertext annotations, environment annotations, mappingrole annotations, metadata annotations.

  • CDS view, name of the database view
  • Any 16 character value (starting with Z for custom objects)
  • Only required for CDS View
  • CDS view extension, name of the append view
  • Required when CDS view is extended
  • CDS view, specifies how the view can be extended using CDS view extensions
  • CDS access control, specifies implicit access control
  • Default value is #NOT_REQUIRED
  • For test RAP services use the default value #NOT_REQUIRED
  • Specifies client dependency
  • This is not a mandatory but can be used for DDIC based views and Table functions
  • Default value is #INHERITED
  • The label automatically comes from the data element, but where the basic types is used the label is useful
  • Tooltip information
  • Environment, assigns an ABAP system field
  • These fields can be used to assign default system variable values to parameters or in the list
  • Access control, specifies the assignment of a CDS role to users
  • Default value is true
  • For test services or learning purpose, ignore this annotation
  • Specifies extensibility using metadata extensions
  • Specifies how propagated annotations are evaluated
  • Specfies layer in CDS metadata extension
  • Usually, we use value #CUSTOMER

Consumption Annotations

ObjectModel Annotations

OData Annotations

Search Annotations

Semantics Annotations

UI Annotations

Aggregation Annotations

These annotations are exposed to OData Service.

Define how the authorization check for a CDS entity is executed.

  • Defines the behavior of the authorization check.

Define a specific behavior that relates to the consumption of CDS content through domain-specific frameworks.

  • Specifies a default value for a filter of a view element.
  • This annotation is used in combination with defaultValue to specify a default interval for a filter of a view element.
  • Specifies that the filter is hidden
  • Enforces a user to enter a value even if a default value exists.
  • Several values can be entered on the filter input
  • Defines how values can be entered
  • #SINGLE. #INTERVAL, #RANGE, #HIERARCHY_NODE are the possible values

Element / Property

  • Prevents fields from being exposed by OData
  • Action importing parameters to define default values for the action consumption via UI consumption.
  • Used for interoperability across applications
  • The semantic semantic object that is defined in the Fiori Launchpad must be specified as the value.
  • SAP Fiori has introduced the concept of intent-based navigation, whereby an intent is a combination of <semanticObject> <action>. A semanticObject annotation is used in SAP Fiori UIs to dynamically derive navigation targets for the annotated view as a source.
  • Specifies whether the value help result list shall only contain distinct values
  • Name : Specifies the entity which contains the element that provides the value help
  • Element : element in the entity referenced in name that provides the value help 
  • Contains a language-dependent text that is used to label the value list
  • Marks value help that shall be used for validation of user input
  • This annotation enables search results in value help views to be automatically sorted by search score.
  • Sets entity element as filterable or non-filterable according to the value true or false.
  • Sets entity element as sortable  or non-sortable according to the value true or false.
  • Defines the associated view, which provides textual descriptions.
  • Connects a field with its descriptive language-independent texts.
  • The sizeCategory is used to support the resource consumption within HANA.
  • S : Expected number of rows is < 1.000
  • M : Expected number of rows is is between 1.000 and 99.999
  • L : Expected number of rows is between 100.000 and 9.999.999
  • XL : Expected number of rows is between 10.000.000 and 99.999.999
  • XXL : expected number of rows is >= 100.000.000
  • References the query implementation class for the unmanaged query.
  • References the calculation class for the annotated virtual element.

OData annotations define OData specific properties.

  • Denotes the external name of an action
  • Denotes the external name of the entity set
  • Denotes the external name of the entity type
  • Declare ETags in behavior definitions. As per SAP documentation – this annotation should not be used
  • Defines if a CDS entity is generally relevant for search scenarios.
  • Boolean (true, false) values can be assigned
  • Specifies that the element is to be considered in a freestyle search where no columns are specified.
  • Specifies how relevant the values of an element are for ranking
  • HIGH – The element is of high relevancy
  • MEDIUM – The element is of medium relevancy
  • LOW – Although the element is relevant for freestyle search, a hit in this element has no real significance on the rank
  • Specifies the least level of fuzziness
  • The value format is Decimal (3,2) and the value is between 0 to 1. For example, 0.8
  • A value between 0.7 and 0.99 would be most useful. 1 means exact match.

These are used by the core engines for data processing and data consumption.

  • These annotations denote that the field is part of address and means as per the annotation name
  • Specifies the currency code field from the projection list
  • Specifies that the field is a currency
  • Specifies UOM field from the projection list
  • Specifies that the field is a Unit of Measure
  • The value of the annotated field encodes accordingly.
  • Tags a field containing a date with time value.
  • Identifies a language field.
  • These can be used to annotate change logging and etag fields within entity

There are too many UI annotations which can not be covered here. Refer SAP Documentation for all the annotations

  • Allow filtering
  • UI.selectionField . position – specify the order of selection fields
  • Represent an ordered collection of data fields on a list or a table
  • UI.lineItem . position – specify the order
  • The columns that need to be displayed always, get importance HIGH and will be displayed even when the app is rendered on a smaller screen
  • UI.lineItem . label – contains a language-dependent text.
  • Represent an ordered collection of specific data fields on object page
  • UI.identification . position , UI.identification . importance , UI.identification . label are similar to UI.lineItem however they work on the object page instead of list
  • Sets up how the sections are displayed on UI
  • id – the identifier of the facet
  • default: STANDARD;
  • parentId – identifies the parent facet
  • Purpose and parentId both can not be specified for one facet

With this annotation, the aggregation behavior of elements is specified. Elements without default aggregation or with Aggregation.default: #NONE will not be aggregated and will be used in GROUP BY 

  • This is only allowed in views with dataCategory: #CUBE, #FACT, #DIMENSION.
  • Default value is #NONE
  • Exception aggregation is always performed in addition to default aggregation, which must not be equal to the #NONE. This means that data is first aggregated through the default aggregation grouped by the reference element and then aggregated with the exception aggregation.

Note that this is just a summary and there are too many other annotations. Please refer below link for examples and more explanation.

Reference: https://help.sap.com/docs/btp/sap-abap-restful-application-programming-model/cds-annotations

Visit  ABAP RESTful Application Programming Model  to explore all articles on ABAP RAP Model.

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  • March 2, 2023

Sara Sampaio

  • Technical Articles

In an SAP UI5 application, search helps are widely used and make up for a better user experience in selecting the data. There are multiple ways of adding search help to a field in the SAP UI5 application. The most commonly used way is by creating a search help dialog and binding it through the JSON model or OData model. Creating a dialog usually requires a lot of development and maintenance. It also may not provide the same user experience that a smart field provides.

Hence this blog speaks of the ways to add search help using a smart field and annotations. Annotations can be added in multiple ways such as in CDS views, Model(MPC) Ext class or directly in UI annotation files.

The blog demonstrates all three ways of adding annotations specific to search help. We will take adding a Customer field as an example in this blog. We will be using standard Value Help CDS I_Customer_VH provided by SAP for customers.

1. CDS Views

If our data is modelled using CDS Views, this approach works the best.

@Consumption.valueHelpDefinition is the annotation that helps us define the value help to be used.


CDS View: Annotation

2. MPC Ext Class

This scenario is suitable when the data is modelled through the entities in SEGW. The properties of an entity can be annotated using the Model class ( MPC_EXT ) before the service’s metadata is generated. The annotation for Search Help can be added using class cl_fis_shlp_annotation.


Model Class Extension: Annotation

3. UI Annotation

The third way is to add the annotation in the annotation file on the UI. We must make sure to add the CDS View that is being used as a collection path is part of the service’s metadata. For the CDS view to appear in the metadata one should add the CDS View as Data Source Reference if we are using a gateway (SEGW) object or add it as an association if we are exposing CDS View as an OData Service.

search help annotation in cds view

UI Annotation

Now implement the smart field in the form. The element renders the search help through annotations defined.


The smart field renders the search help and generates a value help dialog without writing a single line of code in the controller.


Customer field with Search Help


Search help dialog generated from annotations

The idea behind writing this blog is to help you build a search help much faster and accelerate your app development.

Thanks for reading the blog. Hope this blog will help you in your implementation. Please feel free to submit your questions/feedback through the comments.

Sara Sampaio

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ABAP RAP Search help

RAP - Search help

In this article we will look at how we enrich fields in the RAP Business Object UI with search helps.

A clean UI and a good UX also include search help for fillable or editable fields. In this article, we'll go a little deeper into the search help, how to bind it to the fields, create your own, or reuse existing ones.

Search helps are created in a similar way to the dictionary, on the object, and affect this field. With core data services, other core data services are usually used to generate the value propositions. SAP already provides numerous search helps in the form of core data services in the system. Such objects can be found quickly using the Eclipse search:

search help annotation in cds view

In most cases, such views begin with "I_" or "C_" if they were created in the correct namespace. Within the name you will also find the corresponding "VH" for "Value Help". By delimiting the type, you will then only find the CDS views.

Hint: Search helps are mainly used in the consumption layer, since this is where the final UI of the Fiori Elements app is created. A special VH view does not always have to be used.

Implementation search help

In the first example, we want to reuse a search help that already exists in the standard to be able to select the currency field in the partner. The search gives us the released CDS view "I_CurrencyStdVH", which we want to use. In order to make the search help available on the field, we have to add the annotation to the field in the Consumption View:

We enter the corresponding CDS view in the "name" field via the entity attribute. The Element field refers to the field to be returned as a result. Let's take a look at the field before customization:

search help annotation in cds view

A standard field without any special characteristics or the possibility to get additional values. After integrating the search help, the appearance changes accordingly:

search help annotation in cds view

A button with an icon can now be seen in the rear part of the field. We use this button to call up the search help and it is displayed in a separate popup. The search and display fields result from the definition of the core data service that is used as a basis.

search help annotation in cds view

Own search help

As a second search help, we want to create our own search help for the country codes, which we enrich with the appropriate features. Before we start with that, here is the search box before any search help is available:

search help annotation in cds view

First we have to create a corresponding core data service as a basis. To do this, we rely on the I_Country interface and use it to create a view entity.

We now include this view as a search help in consumption view ZBS_C_RAPPartner.

After integration, the field now looks like this and has already been given a real search help with the button.

search help annotation in cds view

If we look at the search help in detail, we will notice that the key field and text are available and the fields have been given an appropriate filter:

search help annotation in cds view

Search field

The filters of the last search were still "cumbersome" to use and we would like a proper entry via a search field to speed up access. Maybe even a fuzzy search if the user only enters parts or includes spelling mistakes. To do this, we expand the annotations of the view:

We still carry out the following steps:

  • First, the "Search.searchable" property must be activated so that the general search field is displayed in the view.
  • In the next step, the fields to be searched for must be activated. This is done with "Search.defaultSearchElement" on each relevant field.
  • With "Search.fuzzinessThreshold" you can set how accurate the search is on the field. A fuzzy search looks for similar elements or parts in terms and also shows hits that do not match the search pattern 100%.
  • "Search.ranking" can be used to determine which columns are more effective when a hit occurs.

After the adjustment, the search help, i.e. the popup, now looks correspondingly different. A corresponding search field has been added and the filter fields have been hidden.

search help annotation in cds view

You can now use the search to restrict the text and the country code and you will get the corresponding results.

In some cases it is only a small number of values and you want to make everything directly available to the user in a dropdown list without having to use a popup. All you have to do is add one element to the Core Data Service:

With the annotation " ObjectModel.resultSet.sizeCategory: #XS " Fiori Elements is told that the result set is very small and the field directly becomes a dropdown element:

search help annotation in cds view

When we added the dropdown, you must have noticed that the texts are now missing and there is no longer a popup available to display them. In such cases, we can add the text in the dropdown or in the standard search so that the user receives more information and does not have to work with the technical values. We have two elements available for this:

  • @ObjectModel.text.element: [ 'Description' ] - We refer to a field of the entity in which the text is located. The language does not play a role here, but the content of the field is used.
  • @ObjectModel.text.association: '_Text' - where we use the entity's text association. The app then takes care of the language and the text to be displayed.

If the field is in display mode, then we get the text + the corresponding technical key:

search help annotation in cds view

If the field is in edit mode, the user only receives the text and can select it via the dropdown:

search help annotation in cds view

Since the field is ready for input, you can also search for the country when you start typing in the field. With each letter, the number of hits in the list decreases:

search help annotation in cds view

Complete search help

Now that the search help has been fully developed, here is an overview of the entire CDS view. We also included a Semantics object to show that "Description" is a text field.

The definition of search helps is quite simple, since standard CDS views can already be used for this. If the view is then enriched with additional annotations, useful features result for the user. It may also be important that the features of the search help are controlled via the corresponding CDS view.

search help annotation in cds view

RAP - Show app count (Tile)

Category - ABAP

This example is about displaying a counter on the tile of a Fiori Elements application and how such a thing can be implemented.

search help annotation in cds view

RAP - Generator (Fiori)

In this article we will look at the more complex RAP generator as a Fiori Elements application and what advantages you have with it.

RAP - Generator (ADT)

Today, let's take a look at the RAP Generator, which is already integrated into ABAP Development Tools, and how you can use it to easily build new RAP apps.

search help annotation in cds view

RAP - Unmanaged (Remote)

Here you can learn more about the unmanaged RAP object with a remote data source and how you can implement such scenarios.

RAP - Unmanaged (Local)

In this article an example for the implementation of an unmanaged RAP object based on a locally available API.


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