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Chapter2 Local and Foreign Literature:
This chapter contains the researched review done by the proponents about the related ideas regarding the proposed system.it includes the difference and similarities found among other enrollment system. this chapter contitutes more on the study of the system literature side.it also covers the related view and ideas presenting other enrollment system made possible by other proponents and programmers.to review encompasses the critical aspect of all enrollment system study.
Nestor Pascual Luna III
The system design project, automated enrollment system that will provide the needed and storing information in a faster, more convenient way by storing file of the student enrollees in a computer system that will lessen the effort of faculty staff in storing files of each student every now and then. This will also serve as information especially for the irregular students, freshmen, transferee, and professor/instructor in able to get access in course, subject, professor, and student enrollees. This information here can be viewed in just a second without worrying that a single file is lost. The idea behind an automated enrollment system is not a new concept. As student enrollees increase every year, enrollment procedure become harder to deal. This will only serve to increase the problem facing enrollment that provides more easy way in enrolling. This will also be a big help to all the enrollment staff especially under the management information system because they are the one who are entitled to touch and read the information from here. It will help our institution to have another system that will upgrade the enrollment processes so as to meet the quality that our institutions are trying to meet. Today, the use of technology has been an effective tool on improving such kind of enrolment system. In this study, the use of Visual Basic 6.0 and MS Access database will help to improve the efficiency of the enrolment in the Palompon Institute of Technology-Tabango Campus.
International Journal of Research Publications
Sheryl Contreras , Ezekiel Contreras
Automated, Systematized, Enrolment Program (A.S.E.P.) is an electronic enrolment system program designed by the researchers for schools for schools: Raja Soliman Science and Technology High School and Antonio A. Maceda Integrated School (JHS). The data gathering in A.S.E.P. is automatic. The acquisition of needed information about the enrolment status is done in real time. The main goal of A.S.E.P. is to address the problems encountered in pre-data collection, data collection, learner information system (LIS) encoding, and data retrieval. The tool used to assess the usefulness of A.S.E.P. was validated by the SRCs of RSSTHS and AAMIS and the PSDS of SDO-Manila. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the participants for the survey questionnaire. There were 26 female and 18 male respondents. Twenty (20) of the respondents were in the age range of 24-35 years old; twelve (12) were in the 36–46-year-old range; and twelve (12) were in the 47–59-year-old range. Thirty-six (36) of the participants were regular teachers (TI-TIII), four (4) master teachers, three (3) head teachers, and one (1) guidance counsellor. The results of the survey questionnaire revealed that respondents "agree" to statements 1, 2, and 6. They "strongly agree" to statements 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10. They "disagree" in statement 5. Similarly, based on the evaluation in the use of ASEP, it "exceeded the standards" with an overall mean of 3.18 and a standard deviation of 0.05. A.S.E.P. can be utilized to collect enrolment data efficiently. User-friendly, editable, sustainable, rapid, efficient, and real-time capabilities increased enrolment data gathering. Valid and accurate data were collected. It addressed enrolment concerns by conforming to the enrolment method and procedure, reduced duplicated data, automatically generated school form 1, categorized learners by gender, and captured real-time data on 4p's, vaccination status, SPED, assistive devices, and indigenous. This study's conclusions can be utilized to adjust and improve public school enrolment, creating a modified A.S.E.P. Keywords: Automated, Systematized, Enrolment, Program, System
Aloha International Journal of Multidisciplinary Advancement (AIJMU)
The traditional “paper and pen” method of student records handling manual enrolment system has been bungling the advising and enrolment process every semester. More related issues were raised by stakeholders who compelled the school to acquire and install a new system. The fundamental objective of the system was to bring the level of student record into a structured form. With such a mindset, the system was assumed to consequently improve the conduct of advising and enrolment processes in the school. To expedite the comparison, the author chose the queuing methodology as it allows generate low – cost and affordable technologies include SMS as well as barcode which area also injected into the computerized enrolment system. Further, in programming the application system, the author as FOSS advocate himself, used open – source web engineering tools along the lines of Apache 2 for web service, PHP 5 for server – side scripting, MYSQL for database service, XML AJAX, Code 3 of 9 bar codin...
Mayleen Dorcas Castro
—Online processing is one of the many advantages of the use of internet technology. Enrollment procedures in many universities not only in the Philippines usually done in manual process even with the advent of internet and with many sophisticated technologies. The purpose of this study is to design and develop an Online Registration and Grade Evaluation System in advancing the Pre-Enrollment Procedure. The system can help improve student's registration, grade evaluation and record keeping system of Bulacan State University, one of the Universities in the Philippines. The system can provide online registration of students, viewing of grades through their personal account, creation of subjects and curriculum, managing of different user accounts for faculty members and students, online evaluation of grades using the subject prerequisite system and printing of evaluation certificates and grade checklist of the students. The developed system can help the different Colleges of the University in terms of their enrollment procedure which can minimize inaccuracies and errors.
Aptisi Transactions On Technopreneurship (ATT)
Aptisi Transactions on Technopreneurship Journal
MTs Al-muhtadiin is the first private vocational school in the sub-district of Sukadiri, at the beginning of the opening of this school, it received quite a positive response with proven opening in 2017 around 62 students registered themselves as students at MTs Al-Muhtadiin. The new student registration system at MTs Al-Muhtadiin is already running effectively and efficiently. In analyzing the running system used the method of analysis and depiction of the system using UML (Unified Modeling Language) and in data collection used interview, observation and literature study methods. The results of the analysis of the system that runs in the admission of new students at MTs Al-Muhtadiin are still running manually with the help of Microsoft Excel in the process of making reports.
ijc (ilearning journal center)
APTISI Transactions on Management
New Directions for Higher Education
OKPEH HARRISON JACOB
Okpeh H A R R S I O N Jacob
Hampo JohnPaul , Johnpaul Hampo
EMMANUEL COMPUTER COLLEGE STUDENT REGISTRATION SYSTEM
Jhon Keneth Namias
International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET)
Zenodo (CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research)
oğuzhan menemencioğlu , Ferhat Atasoy
Cabdiraxmaan Maxamuud Cali
iJOURNALS PUBLICATIONS IJSHRE | IJSRC
IJIRST - International Journal for Innovative Research in Science and Technology
Hassan H Saleh
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications
International Journal of Leading Research Publication (IJLRP), vol. 1, no. 1, pp.43 -50
International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration
Mussa Ally Dida
Blessing Okeoghene Omobo
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology
Dr. Bharat Bhushan Naib
International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology
International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology IJSRST
Oriental journal of computer science and technology
PARTHA PRATIM GOGOI
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What is the difference of local literature to a foreign literature?
Local literature is from the region the reader is, and foreign literature is from another region. If one is living in the United States, literature from the U.S. would be local, and literature from say the Philippines .
Aerielle Agapito ∙
Foreign literature is literature which is not originally written in English (or your personal native language).
Spanish, French, Japenese and Russian literature are all considered foreign.
Any thesis topic other than in own native literature is called foreign literature. They may be the literature of another literature, comparative literature or any theme, topic, genre of a foreign literature. It can be written in one's own native language.
Literature written by foreigners in India is foreign literature
The literature which is from our state is foriegn literature
Add your answer:
What is a local and foreign literature in digital clock?
can you sent wit me the local and foreign literature of digital clock
What is local literature?
Local literature is literature from a certain area. So, for instance, if you were Quebec in Canada, you might want to read local literature by some French Canadian authors, rather than popular literature from the US, or from France. So, you would go to the library or a local bookstore and ask if they have a selection of local literature. When doing research, it is often good to review local literature *and* foreign or popular literature, so that you can avoid the biases of a certain area or culture.
Foreign literature of billing system?
What is the related foreign literature of the working students.
It is a book that reviews related studies and literature. The studies are conducted in the United States and abroad.
What does local interpretation mean?
It means just how it sounds... It's what local people represent some piece of literature.
What is foreign and local related literature?
Foreign literature is from another country and local is from around you.
What is foreign and local literature?
Local literature is literature found in your own country. Foreign literature are ones that are found outside your country.
Foreign and local literature of effects of computer online games?
The foreign and local literature of effects of computer online games has led to the advancement of these computer games.
Is there any related local and foreign literature about time monitoring system?
Some related studies about enrollment system local foreign literature.
Yes there is.
What is the difference of local actors from foreign actors?
The local actors speak your language.
Related studies about payroll system local foreign literature?
john paul s. Valdez
What are the local and foreign literature of class scheduling system?
You need to have a comprehensive schedule of literature in order to teach properly. Language skills are critical in developing minds.
Difference of local travel to foreign travel?
Local travel (caution when using taxis and tuk-tuks)
What is the difference between local and foreign address?
local address: address that a computer can never understand foreign address: that which a computer can always understand very well
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Is this content inappropriate, review of related literature and studies.
This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth
search done by the researchers. It includes ideas, finished thesis, generalization and/or
conclusions, methodologies and others. Those were included in this chapter helps in
familiarizing information that are relevant and similar to the present study.
echnology aids student expression and improves their study habit. Present what they
have learned. They can use software to make presentations and projects. This makes
them more interested in the subject and leads to better retention of information.
(Andersen and Becker, 2009)
Based on freeman dyson, 2008 he stated that “technology is a teaching aid:, computers offer an interactive audio-visual medium. powerpoint presentations and, animation software can be used to present information in an interactive way. owing to.
the audio-visual effects, this way of teaching invites greater interest from students. The
method is equally helpful for teachers.
Technology has revolutionized the field of education. the importance of technology in.
schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of gadgets in education, it has
become easier for teachers to impart knowledge and for students to acquire it. The use of technology has made the process of teaching and learning enjoyable. (Muir-Herzig,
Hooft (2006) found gadgets as important resources which make teaching more
relevant and meaningful thereby improving students literacy and numeracy skills. In
another study Attewell (2004) reported how gadget use encourages both independent
and collaborative learning experiences and, in the process, raises self-esteem and self-
confidence. Kukulska-Hulme and Traxler (2007) believe that gadgets are a form of
multiple literacy which provides a bridge between the real-life texts of the community
and formal learning thereby providing a multimodal literary approach to learning.
Kahari (2013) stressed that cell phones are a very important tool for study as most of
the respondents used their phones for study purposes. "cell phones are increasingly
one of the most popular information access devices and what stands out from the study
is the high use of interactive, multi user functions which can at times be disrupted or
beneficial during study. In essence, the study revealed that cell phones are beneficial
for learning but learners have a tendency to abuse them. The presence of cell phones
presents a host of options and challenges for today’s students. "cell phones are
undeniably convenient, helpful tools for study. However, it can be a hurtful source of
distraction depending on the attitude and use pattern of a student.
Majority of students who spend more time on electronic gadget use have a high level of
dependency towards gadget, poor academic achievement and good health status.
Thus, the healthcare providers should plan effective intervention such as introducing
applications on electronic gadgets for academic purposes and health tracking to
overcome these problems so that students can balance between their academic achievement and health status and increase wellness and health among school
students (Othman, Kelana & Jamaludin, 2020).
There are various educational benefits of mobile phone technologies that are most often
cited as; easily accessing content, integrating a broad range of educational activities,
supporting independent study and student organization, encouraging student
Enthusiasm, supporting classroom-based collaboration and interaction as well as.
supporting inquiry- based instruction and learning (Roschelle, 2003). More sophisticated
mobile phones, also known as smartphones, can be used to assist students in
accessing information from the web, transforming it, transferring it, collaborating with
students and also creating a more media-rich approach to instruction (Ferry, 2009).
of technology has made the process of teaching and learning enjoyable. (Muir-Herzig,
According to Serra (2012), As this technology introduce students are driven away from
their study. They also become enslaved by the cellphone-idol that when this little God
demands their attention, sleep is disturbed, grades are affected and intimate moments
are interrupted. The students sleeping time also affected when they are overlaps of
using their mobile phone it might cause them to not go to sleep early because they still
use their mobile phone and it can also affect their studies because they lack sleep.
Some students did not realize that sleeping hours is very important for them so that their
brain would function well and they will use it will.
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Words: 9368 - Pages: 38
Mnc's Effect on Local Businesses in Retailing Sector (India)
...MNC's Effect on Local Businesses in Retailing Sector (India) Contents Abstract 1 Introduction 2 Literature Review 2 Effect of MNC’s into Indian Retail Market 5 Advantages 5 Disadvantages 7 Hypothesis 8 Conceptual Model 8 Conclusion 10 References 10 Abstract Globalization paved the way for entrepreneurs to expand their wings beyond their respective counties. MNCs exploit the business opportunities in other countries based on the FDI policies in those countries. This has both advantages and disadvantages to the target country. The MNCs have their impact on the economy and people of countries in which they operate business. This paper focuses on the impact of MNCs on local businesses in retail sector in India. The report review existing literature which provides insights into FDI policies in India, the level of FDI allowed by Indian government with respect to single –brand and multi-brand foreign companies, the advantages, opportunities, risks, threats and disadvantages of allowing MNCs into retailing sector in India. Introduction Retailing is the business taking up by individuals or families in India. Generally mom and pop kind of businesses operate in retail sector. The retail sector has tremendous growth in India. Moreover retailing is a profitable business in India. Since India is the country with huge population, naturally it is the correct destination to foreign investors to get profits from the market. India has been traditionally depending...
Words: 2743 - Pages: 11
...Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction ( Introduce your study here..define your topic…what it is all about..why do you think there is a need to conduct this study?) Background of the Study (Give background on the topic….maybe a brief history of its existence and its relevance to the current study) Theoretical Framework (Research on related theories that are already established. Include them in this part and describe how it will support your study. Include the diagram of their theory…) Conceptual Framework Based from the above mentioned theoretical framework, the proponent of this study has conceptualized her research paradigm as shown in Figure 7. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT [pic] Figure 7 Paradigm of the Study (This is sample only. You have to design your own model.) Figure 7 shows the paradigm of the study. The first box on the left side concerns with the input data which includes …. Statement of the Problem The main thrust of the study is to……. Specifically, it also intends to answer the following questions: Scope and Limitation of the Study The study covers the.. The timeframe of this study was within the fiscal year 2013. Significance of the Study The researcher deemed that the following would......
Words: 987 - Pages: 4
...Goneda, Imee T. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Chapter 2: (Local Literature) | July 2212nn | August 16pm | July 263pm | | 10 days & 5 hours | Chapter 1: Out Scope(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 151pm | July 183pm | 3 days & 2 hours | Analysis of the system and Database | On going | On going | On going | On going | | Fabilane, Janeny D. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Chapter 2: (Foreign Literature) | July 2212nn | August 16pm | July 263pm | | 10 days & 5 hours | Chapter 2: (Local Literature) | July 2212nn | August 16pm | July 263pm | | 10 days & 5 hours | Padilla, Christian S. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Planning of Database for the system | July 212pm | July 302pm | July 212pm | On going | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Roxas, Jade M. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Chapter 1: Problem/Opportunity Description(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 151pm | July 183pm | 3 days & 2 hours | Chapter 1: Benefits and Goals(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 153pm | July 186pm | 3 Days & 3 hours | Chapter 1: Stakeholders and Clients(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 161pm | July 182pm | 2 days & 1 hour | ......
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Payroll Related Study
...Chapter II Review of Related Literature This chapter includes foreign literatures and foreign studies taken from the internet, other unpublished thesis, and studies conducted by other research groups. This chapter also includes local literatures, taken from local published books and materials, and local studies, taken from research works and studies related to the subject matter. Related foreign and local literature and studies that dealt with theories, principles, concepts, approaches and techniques are reviewed which contributed a lot towards the enrichment of knowledge, deeper understanding and insight of the researchers. Foreign Literature One of the more significant economic statistics to be released of late concerns labor productivity. This is an interesting topic and widely non-understood concept -- very few people understand either what it is or why it really matters. Simply stated, labor productivity measures the amount (or value) of output generated per hour worked. Why does it matter? Greater labor productivity enables firms to produce a given amount of goods or services with a smaller number of labor hours. And, since payroll cost is related to the number of hours they use, this helps firms control their costs, making their enterprises more profitable. Wages are not the correct measure the cost of labor to a firm. In economics, it doesn’t just focus on the costs of an activity, such as wages here. It looks at both costs and benefits......
Words: 2238 - Pages: 9
... | |THE RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES | | | |I. Objectives: | | | |Define and explain the meaning of the related literatures and related studies. | |Enumerate and discuss the importance, purposes, and functions of Related Literature and Studies | |Enumerate and discuss the characteristics of Related Literature and Studies | |Enumerate and identify sources of Related Literature and Studies | | ...
Words: 1306 - Pages: 6
...Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related studies and literature both local and foreign that serves as guide in the development of the proposed study. Foreign Literature India’s higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and United State. The main governing body at tertiary level is the University Grants Commission. Which enforces its standards, advises the government, and help coordinate between the center and the state? Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. As of 2009, India has 2 central university 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the state act, and 13 institutes which are of national importance. Other institutions include 16000 colleges, including 1800 exclusive women’s colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions. A software development and IT service firm implemented its catalyst in Governor Andres Pascual College was integrated web platform to provide content management, transaction processing, marketing and interactive community functions to the two rice schools. Catalyst delivers on the Jones Schools two primary criteria for selecting web-based platform simplifying content management, and enabling user’s response to information such as event RSVP and course registration. The content management tools let the......
Words: 631 - Pages: 3
Knowledge of Culture and Politics as Critical Success Factors
...Success in Managing International Business Dzulfakar Bin Abdullah (Student no: 20131241445) UiTM Programme Code : BM 995 (Doctor of Philosophy in Business Management) Course Code : MGT 950 (Global Strategic Sustainable Management) Assignment 3: Theoretical Paper Lecturer : AP Dr Roshidi Hassan ABSTRACT Business life in the new millennium is becoming increasingly global. The concepts of globalization apply to both large multi-national corporations as well as to local organizations. Knowledge of local culture and politics has become critical success factors (CFSs) for multi-national corporations in their effort for global expansion. Thus in enhancing the success of managing international business (IB) managers must have knowledge of local cultures and political situations. Research on the impact of local culture and political stability on successful management of international business has become of interest only recently due to globalization process. The paper reviews several literatures that try to prove that knowledge of culture and political situation as CFSs for the success of managing international business. Keywords: Critical Success Factors (CFSs), Knowledge, Culture, Politics, International Business, Success. Knowledge of Cultures and Politics as Critical Success Factors in Enhancing Managers Success in Managing International Business Introduction Globalization and international market development are phenomenon that allows......
Words: 3533 - Pages: 15
...REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This Chapter discusses the local and foreign literature and studies of the proposed study. Related Literature The proponents gathered some information that is related in the proposed study entitled, “Payroll System for United Auctioneers Incorporated” to have a guide and background in developing a system. Local. According to Ramon Faloran (2008), in the article “The Computer Edge of the New Employment and Opportunities” that he wrote in the Philippine Daily Inquirer. He stated that: “Computer gives you a different feeling about what is happening in the company. Business will be highly competitive and innovative because the computer provides instant information.” According to Ms. Stephanie Manalaysay (2010), in the essay she wrote in www.studymode.com. She stated that: “Payroll processes are the perfect place to begin when looking to control costs. New developments in software, such as allowing the integration of payroll system info into existing HR systems, mean you can look beyond traditional ERP options.” Junald Astronomo Lagod (2010) stated that: “Any small business owner can tell you that paying employees involves a lot more than writing a check every two week. There are dozens of laws governing employee compensation. If you don’t want to run afoul of various government agencies, you have to be well organized and stay up to date on federal and state guideline.” Gabriel Esteban (May, 2012) stated that: “Payroll systems......
Words: 308 - Pages: 2
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How to Make a Literature Review in Research (RRL Example)
What is an RRL in a research paper?
A relevant review of the literature (RRL) is an objective, concise, critical summary of published research literature relevant to a topic being researched in an article. In an RRL, you discuss knowledge and findings from existing literature relevant to your study topic. If there are conflicts or gaps in existing literature, you can also discuss these in your review, as well as how you will confront these missing elements or resolve these issues in your study.
To complete an RRL, you first need to collect relevant literature; this can include online and offline sources. Save all of your applicable resources as you will need to include them in your paper. When looking through these sources, take notes and identify concepts of each source to describe in the review of the literature.
A good RRL does NOT:
A literature review does not simply reference and list all of the material you have cited in your paper.
- Presenting material that is not directly relevant to your study will distract and frustrate the reader and make them lose sight of the purpose of your study.
- Starting a literature review with “A number of scholars have studied the relationship between X and Y” and simply listing who has studied the topic and what each scholar concluded is not going to strengthen your paper.
A good RRL DOES:
- Present a brief typology that orders articles and books into groups to help readers focus on unresolved debates, inconsistencies, tensions, and new questions about a research topic.
- Summarize the most relevant and important aspects of the scientific literature related to your area of research
- Synthesize what has been done in this area of research and by whom, highlight what previous research indicates about a topic, and identify potential gaps and areas of disagreement in the field
- Give the reader an understanding of the background of the field and show which studies are important—and highlight errors in previous studies
How long is a review of the literature for a research paper?
The length of a review of the literature depends on its purpose and target readership and can vary significantly in scope and depth. In a dissertation, thesis, or standalone review of literature, it is usually a full chapter of the text (at least 20 pages). Whereas, a standard research article or school assignment literature review section could only be a few paragraphs in the Introduction section .
Building Your Literature Review Bookshelf
One way to conceive of a literature review is to think about writing it as you would build a bookshelf. You don’t need to cut each piece by yourself from scratch. Rather, you can take the pieces that other researchers have cut out and put them together to build a framework on which to hang your own “books”—that is, your own study methods, results, and conclusions.
What Makes a Good Literature Review?
The contents of a literature review (RRL) are determined by many factors, including its precise purpose in the article, the degree of consensus with a given theory or tension between competing theories, the length of the article, the number of previous studies existing in the given field, etc. The following are some of the most important elements that a literature review provides.
Historical background for your research
Analyze what has been written about your field of research to highlight what is new and significant in your study—or how the analysis itself contributes to the understanding of this field, even in a small way. Providing a historical background also demonstrates to other researchers and journal editors your competency in discussing theoretical concepts. You should also make sure to understand how to paraphrase scientific literature to avoid plagiarism in your work.
The current context of your research
Discuss central (or peripheral) questions, issues, and debates in the field. Because a field is constantly being updated by new work, you can show where your research fits into this context and explain developments and trends in research.
A discussion of relevant theories and concepts
Theories and concepts should provide the foundation for your research. For example, if you are researching the relationship between ecological environments and human populations, provide models and theories that focus on specific aspects of this connection to contextualize your study. If your study asks a question concerning sustainability, mention a theory or model that underpins this concept. If it concerns invasive species, choose material that is focused in this direction.
Definitions of relevant terminology
In the natural sciences, the meaning of terms is relatively straightforward and consistent. But if you present a term that is obscure or context-specific, you should define the meaning of the term in the Introduction section (if you are introducing a study) or in the summary of the literature being reviewed.
Description of related relevant research
Include a description of related research that shows how your work expands or challenges earlier studies or fills in gaps in previous work. You can use your literature review as evidence of what works, what doesn’t, and what is missing in the field.
Supporting evidence for a practical problem or issue your research is addressing that demonstrates its importance: Referencing related research establishes your area of research as reputable and shows you are building upon previous work that other researchers have deemed significant.
Types of Literature Reviews
Literature reviews can differ in structure, length, amount, and breadth of content included. They can range from selective (a very narrow area of research or only a single work) to comprehensive (a larger amount or range of works). They can also be part of a larger work or stand on their own.
- A course assignment is an example of a selective, stand-alone work. It focuses on a small segment of the literature on a topic and makes up an entire work on its own.
- The literature review in a dissertation or thesis is both comprehensive and helps make up a larger work.
- A majority of journal articles start with a selective literature review to provide context for the research reported in the study; such a literature review is usually included in the Introduction section (but it can also follow the presentation of the results in the Discussion section ).
- Some literature reviews are both comprehensive and stand as a separate work—in this case, the entire article analyzes the literature on a given topic.
Literature Reviews Found in Academic Journals
The two types of literature reviews commonly found in journals are those introducing research articles (studies and surveys) and stand-alone literature analyses. They can differ in their scope, length, and specific purpose.
Literature reviews introducing research articles
The literature review found at the beginning of a journal article is used to introduce research related to the specific study and is found in the Introduction section, usually near the end. It is shorter than a stand-alone review because it must be limited to very specific studies and theories that are directly relevant to the current study. Its purpose is to set research precedence and provide support for the study’s theory, methods, results, and/or conclusions. Not all research articles contain an explicit review of the literature, but most do, whether it is a discrete section or indistinguishable from the rest of the Introduction.
How to structure a literature review for an article
When writing a literature review as part of an introduction to a study, simply follow the structure of the Introduction and move from the general to the specific—presenting the broadest background information about a topic first and then moving to specific studies that support your rationale , finally leading to your hypothesis statement. Such a literature review is often indistinguishable from the Introduction itself—the literature is INTRODUCING the background and defining the gaps your study aims to fill.
The stand-alone literature review
The literature review published as a stand-alone article presents and analyzes as many of the important publications in an area of study as possible to provide background information and context for a current area of research or a study. Stand-alone reviews are an excellent resource for researchers when they are first searching for the most relevant information on an area of study.
Such literature reviews are generally a bit broader in scope and can extend further back in time. This means that sometimes a scientific literature review can be highly theoretical, in addition to focusing on specific methods and outcomes of previous studies. In addition, all sections of such a “review article” refer to existing literature rather than describing the results of the authors’ own study.
In addition, this type of literature review is usually much longer than the literature review introducing a study. At the end of the review follows a conclusion that once again explicitly ties all of the cited works together to show how this analysis is itself a contribution to the literature. While not absolutely necessary, such articles often include the terms “Literature Review” or “Review of the Literature” in the title. Whether or not that is necessary or appropriate can also depend on the specific author instructions of the target journal. Have a look at this article for more input on how to compile a stand-alone review article that is insightful and helpful for other researchers in your field.
How to Write a Literature Review in 6 Steps
So how do authors turn a network of articles into a coherent review of relevant literature?
Writing a literature review is not usually a linear process—authors often go back and check the literature while reformulating their ideas or making adjustments to their study. Sometimes new findings are published before a study is completed and need to be incorporated into the current work. This also means you will not be writing the literature review at any one time, but constantly working on it before, during, and after your study is complete.
Here are some steps that will help you begin and follow through on your literature review.
Step 1: Choose a topic to write about—focus on and explore this topic.
Choose a topic that you are familiar with and highly interested in analyzing; a topic your intended readers and researchers will find interesting and useful; and a topic that is current, well-established in the field, and about which there has been sufficient research conducted for a review. This will help you find the “sweet spot” for what to focus on.
Step 2: Research and collect all the scholarly information on the topic that might be pertinent to your study.
This includes scholarly articles, books, conventions, conferences, dissertations, and theses—these and any other academic work related to your area of study is called “the literature.”
Step 3: Analyze the network of information that extends or responds to the major works in your area; select the material that is most useful.
Use thought maps and charts to identify intersections in the research and to outline important categories; select the material that will be most useful to your review.
Step 4: Describe and summarize each article—provide the essential information of the article that pertains to your study.
Determine 2-3 important concepts (depending on the length of your article) that are discussed in the literature; take notes about all of the important aspects of this study relevant to the topic being reviewed.
For example, in a given study, perhaps some of the main concepts are X, Y, and Z. Note these concepts and then write a brief summary about how the article incorporates them. In reviews that introduce a study, these can be relatively short. In stand-alone reviews, there may be significantly more texts and more concepts.
Step 5: Demonstrate how these concepts in the literature relate to what you discovered in your study or how the literature connects the concepts or topics being discussed.
In a literature review intro for an article, this information might include a summary of the results or methods of previous studies that correspond to and/or confirm those sections in your own study. For a stand-alone literature review, this may mean highlighting the concepts in each article and showing how they strengthen a hypothesis or show a pattern.
Discuss unaddressed issues in previous studies. These studies that are missing something you address are important to include in your literature review. In addition, those works whose theories and conclusions directly support your findings will be valuable to review here.
Step 6: Identify relationships in the literature and develop and connect your own ideas to them.
This is essentially the same as step 5 but focused on the connections between the literature and the current study or guiding concepts or arguments of the paper, not only on the connections between the works themselves.
Your hypothesis, argument, or guiding concept is the “golden thread” that will ultimately tie the works together and provide readers with specific insights they didn’t have before reading your literature review. Make sure you know where to put the research question , hypothesis, or statement of the problem in your research paper so that you guide your readers logically and naturally from your introduction of earlier work and evidence to the conclusions you want them to draw from the bigger picture.
Your literature review will not only cover publications on your topics but will include your own ideas and contributions. By following these steps you will be telling the specific story that sets the background and shows the significance of your research and you can turn a network of related works into a focused review of the literature.
Literature Review (RRL) Examples
Because creating sample literature reviews would take too long and not properly capture the nuances and detailed information needed for a good review, we have included some links to different types of literature reviews below. You can find links to more literature reviews in these categories by visiting the TUS Library’s website . Sample literature reviews as part of an article, dissertation, or thesis:
- Critical Thinking and Transferability: A Review of the Literature (Gwendolyn Reece)
- Building Customer Loyalty: A Customer Experience Based Approach in a Tourism Context (Martina Donnelly)
Sample stand-alone literature reviews
- Literature Review on Attitudes towards Disability (National Disability Authority)
- The Effects of Communication Styles on Marital Satisfaction (Hannah Yager)
Additional Literature Review Format Guidelines
In addition to the content guidelines above, authors also need to check which style guidelines to use ( APA , Chicago, MLA, etc.) and what specific rules the target journal might have for how to structure such articles or how many studies to include—such information can usually be found on the journals’ “Guide for Authors” pages. Additionally, use one of the four Wordvice citation generators below, choosing the citation style needed for your paper:
Wordvice Writing and Academic Editing Resources
Finally, after you have finished drafting your literature review, be sure to receive professional proofreading services , including paper editing for your academic work. A competent proofreader who understands academic writing conventions and the specific style guides used by academic journals will ensure that your paper is ready for publication in your target journal.
See our academic resources for further advice on references in your paper , how to write an abstract , how to write a research paper title, how to impress the editor of your target journal with a perfect cover letter , and dozens of other research writing and publication topics.