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Chapter2 Local and Foreign Literature:

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This chapter contains the researched review done by the proponents about the related ideas regarding the proposed includes the difference and similarities found among other enrollment system. this chapter contitutes more on the study of the system literature also covers the related view and ideas presenting other enrollment system made possible by other proponents and review encompasses the critical aspect of all enrollment system study.

Related Papers

relevant literature local and foreign

Nestor Pascual Luna III

The system design project, automated enrollment system that will provide the needed and storing information in a faster, more convenient way by storing file of the student enrollees in a computer system that will lessen the effort of faculty staff in storing files of each student every now and then. This will also serve as information especially for the irregular students, freshmen, transferee, and professor/instructor in able to get access in course, subject, professor, and student enrollees. This information here can be viewed in just a second without worrying that a single file is lost. The idea behind an automated enrollment system is not a new concept. As student enrollees increase every year, enrollment procedure become harder to deal. This will only serve to increase the problem facing enrollment that provides more easy way in enrolling. This will also be a big help to all the enrollment staff especially under the management information system because they are the one who are entitled to touch and read the information from here. It will help our institution to have another system that will upgrade the enrollment processes so as to meet the quality that our institutions are trying to meet. Today, the use of technology has been an effective tool on improving such kind of enrolment system. In this study, the use of Visual Basic 6.0 and MS Access database will help to improve the efficiency of the enrolment in the Palompon Institute of Technology-Tabango Campus.

International Journal of Research Publications

Sheryl Contreras , Ezekiel Contreras

Automated, Systematized, Enrolment Program (A.S.E.P.) is an electronic enrolment system program designed by the researchers for schools for schools: Raja Soliman Science and Technology High School and Antonio A. Maceda Integrated School (JHS). The data gathering in A.S.E.P. is automatic. The acquisition of needed information about the enrolment status is done in real time. The main goal of A.S.E.P. is to address the problems encountered in pre-data collection, data collection, learner information system (LIS) encoding, and data retrieval. The tool used to assess the usefulness of A.S.E.P. was validated by the SRCs of RSSTHS and AAMIS and the PSDS of SDO-Manila. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the participants for the survey questionnaire. There were 26 female and 18 male respondents. Twenty (20) of the respondents were in the age range of 24-35 years old; twelve (12) were in the 36–46-year-old range; and twelve (12) were in the 47–59-year-old range. Thirty-six (36) of the participants were regular teachers (TI-TIII), four (4) master teachers, three (3) head teachers, and one (1) guidance counsellor. The results of the survey questionnaire revealed that respondents "agree" to statements 1, 2, and 6. They "strongly agree" to statements 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10. They "disagree" in statement 5. Similarly, based on the evaluation in the use of ASEP, it "exceeded the standards" with an overall mean of 3.18 and a standard deviation of 0.05. A.S.E.P. can be utilized to collect enrolment data efficiently. User-friendly, editable, sustainable, rapid, efficient, and real-time capabilities increased enrolment data gathering. Valid and accurate data were collected. It addressed enrolment concerns by conforming to the enrolment method and procedure, reduced duplicated data, automatically generated school form 1, categorized learners by gender, and captured real-time data on 4p's, vaccination status, SPED, assistive devices, and indigenous. This study's conclusions can be utilized to adjust and improve public school enrolment, creating a modified A.S.E.P. Keywords: Automated, Systematized, Enrolment, Program, System

Jommel Manalo

Aloha International Journal of Multidisciplinary Advancement (AIJMU)

Greg Campos

The traditional “paper and pen” method of student records handling manual enrolment system has been bungling the advising and enrolment process every semester. More related issues were raised by stakeholders who compelled the school to acquire and install a new system. The fundamental objective of the system was to bring the level of student record into a structured form. With such a mindset, the system was assumed to consequently improve the conduct of advising and enrolment processes in the school. To expedite the comparison, the author chose the queuing methodology as it allows generate low – cost and affordable technologies include SMS as well as barcode which area also injected into the computerized enrolment system. Further, in programming the application system, the author as FOSS advocate himself, used open – source web engineering tools along the lines of Apache 2 for web service, PHP 5 for server – side scripting, MYSQL for database service, XML AJAX, Code 3 of 9 bar codin...

babangida ibrahim

Mayleen Dorcas Castro

—Online processing is one of the many advantages of the use of internet technology. Enrollment procedures in many universities not only in the Philippines usually done in manual process even with the advent of internet and with many sophisticated technologies. The purpose of this study is to design and develop an Online Registration and Grade Evaluation System in advancing the Pre-Enrollment Procedure. The system can help improve student's registration, grade evaluation and record keeping system of Bulacan State University, one of the Universities in the Philippines. The system can provide online registration of students, viewing of grades through their personal account, creation of subjects and curriculum, managing of different user accounts for faculty members and students, online evaluation of grades using the subject prerequisite system and printing of evaluation certificates and grade checklist of the students. The developed system can help the different Colleges of the University in terms of their enrollment procedure which can minimize inaccuracies and errors. 

Aptisi Transactions On Technopreneurship (ATT)

Aptisi Transactions on Technopreneurship Journal

MTs Al-muhtadiin is the first private vocational school in the sub-district of Sukadiri, at the beginning of the opening of this school, it received quite a positive response with proven opening in 2017 around 62 students registered themselves as students at MTs Al-Muhtadiin. The new student registration system at MTs Al-Muhtadiin is already running effectively and efficiently. In analyzing the running system used the method of analysis and depiction of the system using UML (Unified Modeling Language) and in data collection used interview, observation and literature study methods. The results of the analysis of the system that runs in the admission of new students at MTs Al-Muhtadiin are still running manually with the help of Microsoft Excel in the process of making reports.

geraldine landicho


ijc (ilearning journal center)

APTISI Transactions on Management

Park ChimChim

New Directions for Higher Education

Don Hossler


Okpeh H A R R S I O N Jacob


Hampo JohnPaul , Johnpaul Hampo


antony okeno

Namakau Lubinda

Andini Ramadhani

Jhon Keneth Namias

International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET)

IJRASET Publication

Zenodo (CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research)

Manju Bargavi

Roshan Banu

dionel dumaliang

oğuzhan menemencioğlu , Ferhat Atasoy

fikirte alemu

Cabdiraxmaan Maxamuud Cali


IJIRST - International Journal for Innovative Research in Science and Technology

Hassan H Saleh

belay asmamaw

Horlarwhale Obayomi

International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications

safaa Sayed

International Journal of Leading Research Publication (IJLRP), vol. 1, no. 1, pp.43 -50

Racheal Akinbo

IAEME Publication


ayobami olaosebikan

International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration

Mussa Ally Dida

Blessing Okeoghene Omobo

Kliss Æme-Crespin

International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology

Dr. Bharat Bhushan Naib

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology IJSRST

Jamaluddin Mondal

nicole noble

nivra oznola

Fathelrhman MOHAMMED

Oriental journal of computer science and technology



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Internet impact on canada.

An increase in Internet maturity, correlates with an increase in real per capita GDP on average of $500. Looking back to the Industrial Revolution, it’s growth took 50 years to achieve these same results. This demonstrates both the magnitude and impact the internet delivers to all levels of society. In the French Economy, the internet had reported to have destroyed 500,000 jobs over the past 15 years, but has also over those same amounts of years has created 1.2 million new ones. For every job the internet has taken away, it’s created twice the amount. It’s safe to the internet has been able to increase the worlds GDP bringing great growth to the

Delios Associates: Social Media Analysis

Online advertising must go beyond affiliate marketing and display ads increase page views and attract a larger audience. Search engine marketing “represents nearly half the total online ad spend in the United States, with $12 billion in 2010 and projections of $24.45 billion

What Is The Progressive Era Of The 21st Century

Over recent years, The Internet has progressed into such a factor as source of intelligence as well as a great marketing tool that is capable of reaching almost any user. We now see that the Internet sensation has become a source for collecting suitable info or knowledge and changing data into lucrative results at a much faster rate for many organizations and individuals in this progressive era of the twenty first century.

Internet Advertising: Cause Of World War III?

For any Internet user, it’s fairly easy to see advertisements undoubtedly plaster the Internet. Many websites depend on online advertising as a main source of revenue to help keep their websites afloat. In a study entitled “ “ by Jesse Holcomb and Amy Mitchell, the two detail the role of advertising for news media, particularly on the Internet news media sources. “Advertising . . . accounts for the majority of known news revenue—a little over two-thirds” (Holcomb, Mitchell 2). When one considers that “as an industry, news in the U.S. generates roughly $63 billion to $65 billion in annual revenue”, two thirds is a colossal margin (Holcomb, Mitchell

Marketing Strategy Evaluation : Beck Consulting

We live in the digital age. The world has been made smaller and smaller through the use of the World Wide Web. Information and communication are far more accessible than ever before and studies have made it evident. ?Pew Research Center, a nonpartisan fact tank, studied the Internet access of Americans over a 15-year period, from 2000 to 2015. The study found that approximately 84% of Americans use the Internet now, compared to just 52% in the year 2000.? (The Future of Immigration Law Practice, 2016). It is no wonder that marketing trends have been moving towards online marketing strategies.

Changes That Led To The Industrial Revolution

The logical conclusion of technological innovations is the digital age we are experiencing today. The rapid developments in the field of information systems and telecommunications have led to the prevalence of the Internet. The development and upgrading of commercial activity is influenced by the internet, which is now an integral part of the communication activity of businesses and individual users.

Why I Own Google Inc. Stocks

The online advertising industry made an estimated $49.45 billion in revenue in 2014 and this number is projected to grow jump to $83.89 billion by 2019. Also, spending on Digital advertisements has been estimated to rise from $145 billion in 2014 to $253 billion by 2018. Even with competition from other small companies, Google is most likely to continue as one of the main players in this thriving online advertising industry in the years ahead. (Cardenal, 2014)

Analysis of Business Specialties 1

Each web site will be customized to the customer and will portrait an attractive, professional image to the target audience. When one considers that the average broadband user spends 48% of their leisure time online (Watershed Publishing, 2007), the rationale for investing additional funds on Internet advertising spending becomes obvious.

Digital And Direct Marketing : Topshop Case Study

Technology has changed almost every aspect of our lives. People, companies and institutions are affected from this new way of accessing information called Internet. We just have to look around and we will see how technology its after almost every operation nowadays. Because of the existence and use of the internet, companies and consumers are developing new habits of interaction between them. Companies need to take care of how they adapt to this habits, focusing in how they can offer their product and how their products can be accessed by their consumers. That is why internet marketing its the branch of marketing in which a high speed growth can be observed in this last decade. Because of technology and internet, the world its very connected, and every slightest change its noticed very rapidly, and at the same time customers are migrating their daily operations online. This can be explained by few variables: time and space convenience, easy shopping and comparison and information exchange.

Essay on Marketing Cyberlaw

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The Internet Economy Within Digital Media

Digital Media has changed over the years, making a substantial impact on society, as technology is linking people from across the world in ways that would seem nearly impossible years ago. The global online population is currently 1.2 billion, projected to grow to 1.8 billion by 2010, According to Central Intelligence Agency statistics collected in 2005 and 2006. Media within society is constantly changing, which makes it critical for advertisers to keep up with improving technology and the transformation that occurs within it. The internet has provided a channel for consumers, which has now the first port-of-call for finding information to select or buy the best deal.

A Long Standing Publishing Industry

Furthermore, in another report of European Commission, revenue from advertising on print newspaper has reducing because it is transferred into the source of income in online news’ revenue. Figure 2 shows how new technology affects the revenue of advertising on newspaper. Figure 3 also demonstrates the rapidly declining of the total advertising revenue in both British national and regional

Advertising Analysis And Industry Trends For Digital Advertising

Even though the larger more established marketing firms are still holding on to the greater market shares for online services, the advancements in technology and consumer buying trends are enabling small digital advertising companies to attract a market niche of local businesses that require advertising services at affordable prices. No matter what the economic conditions are consumers are spending and sellers are looking for inventive and reliable system services to help with marketing products online. What is affected are marketing budgets, the need to plan better and execute effective campaigns to offset and prevent reductions to profit. As the economy improves and budgets expand allowing for new campaigns, the digital industry will also

Strategic Plan For Chronicle Gazette

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Many businesses are currently using various online platforms to promote and marketing their products. With the advancement of technology and increased access of the internet by people, the business have taken the opportunity to reach their potential customers through the internet. There are various advantages that accrue to a business entity that uses internet as a marketing tool. The internet marketing has tremendously increased and the businesses that have not embraced internet marketing are missing out on great opportunity (Schibrowsky, Peltier & Nill, 2007). The importance of using internet as a marketing tool is as explained below;

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What is the difference of local literature to a foreign literature?

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Local literature is from the region the reader is, and foreign literature is from another region. If one is living in the United States, literature from the U.S. would be local, and literature from say the Philippines .

Aerielle Agapito ∙

Foreign literature is literature which is not originally written in English (or your personal native language).

Spanish, French, Japenese and Russian literature are all considered foreign.

Any thesis topic other than in own native literature is called foreign literature. They may be the literature of another literature, comparative literature or any theme, topic, genre of a foreign literature. It can be written in one's own native language.

Anonymous ∙

Literature written by foreigners in India is foreign literature

The literature which is from our state is foriegn literature

Add your answer:


What is a local and foreign literature in digital clock?

can you sent wit me the local and foreign literature of digital clock

What is local literature?

Local literature is literature from a certain area. So, for instance, if you were Quebec in Canada, you might want to read local literature by some French Canadian authors, rather than popular literature from the US, or from France. So, you would go to the library or a local bookstore and ask if they have a selection of local literature. When doing research, it is often good to review local literature *and* foreign or popular literature, so that you can avoid the biases of a certain area or culture.

Foreign literature of billing system?

What is the related foreign literature of the working students.

It is a book that reviews related studies and literature. The studies are conducted in the United States and abroad.

What does local interpretation mean?

It means just how it sounds... It's what local people represent some piece of literature.

What is foreign and local related literature?

Foreign literature is from another country and local is from around you.

What is foreign and local literature?

Local literature is literature found in your own country. Foreign literature are ones that are found outside your country.

Foreign and local literature of effects of computer online games?

The foreign and local literature of effects of computer online games has led to the advancement of these computer games.

Is there any related local and foreign literature about time monitoring system?

Some related studies about enrollment system local foreign literature.

Yes there is.

What is the difference of local actors from foreign actors?

The local actors speak your language.

Related studies about payroll system local foreign literature?

john paul s. Valdez

What are the local and foreign literature of class scheduling system?

You need to have a comprehensive schedule of literature in order to teach properly. Language skills are critical in developing minds.

Difference of local travel to foreign travel?

Local travel (caution when using taxis and tuk-tuks)

What is the difference between local and foreign address?

local address: address that a computer can never understand foreign address: that which a computer can always understand very well


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Related Studies Local and Foreign

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Is this content inappropriate, review of related literature and studies.

This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth

search done by the researchers. It includes ideas, finished thesis, generalization and/or

conclusions, methodologies and others. Those were included in this chapter helps in

familiarizing information that are relevant and similar to the present study.


echnology aids student expression and improves their study habit. Present what they

have learned. They can use software to make presentations and projects. This makes

them more interested in the subject and leads to better retention of information.

(Andersen and Becker, 2009)

Based on freeman dyson, 2008 he stated that “technology is a teaching aid:, computers offer an interactive audio-visual medium. powerpoint presentations and, animation software can be used to present information in an interactive way. owing to.

the audio-visual effects, this way of teaching invites greater interest from students. The

method is equally helpful for teachers.

Technology has revolutionized the field of education. the importance of technology in.

schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of gadgets in education, it has

become easier for teachers to impart knowledge and for students to acquire it. The use of technology has made the process of teaching and learning enjoyable. (Muir-Herzig,

Hooft (2006) found gadgets as important resources which make teaching more

relevant and meaningful thereby improving students literacy and numeracy skills. In

another study Attewell (2004) reported how gadget use encourages both independent

and collaborative learning experiences and, in the process, raises self-esteem and self-

confidence. Kukulska-Hulme and Traxler (2007) believe that gadgets are a form of

multiple literacy which provides a bridge between the real-life texts of the community

and formal learning thereby providing a multimodal literary approach to learning.

Kahari (2013) stressed that cell phones are a very important tool for study as most of

the respondents used their phones for study purposes. "cell phones are increasingly

one of the most popular information access devices and what stands out from the study

is the high use of interactive, multi user functions which can at times be disrupted or

beneficial during study. In essence, the study revealed that cell phones are beneficial

for learning but learners have a tendency to abuse them. The presence of cell phones

presents a host of options and challenges for today’s students. "cell phones are

undeniably convenient, helpful tools for study. However, it can be a hurtful source of

distraction depending on the attitude and use pattern of a student.

Majority of students who spend more time on electronic gadget use have a high level of

dependency towards gadget, poor academic achievement and good health status.

Thus, the healthcare providers should plan effective intervention such as introducing

applications on electronic gadgets for academic purposes and health tracking to

overcome these problems so that students can balance between their academic achievement and health status and increase wellness and health among school

students (Othman, Kelana & Jamaludin, 2020).

There are various educational benefits of mobile phone technologies that are most often

cited as; easily accessing content, integrating a broad range of educational activities,

supporting independent study and student organization, encouraging student

Enthusiasm, supporting classroom-based collaboration and interaction as well as.

supporting inquiry- based instruction and learning (Roschelle, 2003). More sophisticated

mobile phones, also known as smartphones, can be used to assist students in

accessing information from the web, transforming it, transferring it, collaborating with

students and also creating a more media-rich approach to instruction (Ferry, 2009).

of technology has made the process of teaching and learning enjoyable. (Muir-Herzig,

According to Serra (2012), As this technology introduce students are driven away from

their study. They also become enslaved by the cellphone-idol that when this little God

demands their attention, sleep is disturbed, grades are affected and intimate moments

are interrupted. The students sleeping time also affected when they are overlaps of

using their mobile phone it might cause them to not go to sleep early because they still

use their mobile phone and it can also affect their studies because they lack sleep.

Some students did not realize that sleeping hours is very important for them so that their

brain would function well and they will use it will.

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Foreign and Local Literature

In: English and Literature

Foreign and Local Literature EVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE By conducting a research of some related studies and literature, it enables the researchers to understand the conducted study. The survey and investigation of the past studies is essential to the researchers to for it to give ideas and also as guide. Also some related studies are intended to seek the solution to the problem and make them better by the used of proponent. Foreign Literature [1]According to the Right Pharmacy Management System, the key benefits of the pharmacy management system-automating processes, streamlining workflow and thereby enhancing the customer base-are attracting enough to draw retail pharmacy chains competing in a world of growing challenges. However, the choices are tough with a handful of products and the high cost of customized solutions. This Infosys paper outlines some ideas on selecting the right option. [2] "Inventory", to many small business owners is one of the more visible and tangible aspects of doing business. Raw materials, goods in process and finished goods all represent various forms of inventory. Each type represents money tied up until the inventory leaves the company as purchased products. Likewise, merchandise stocks in a retail store contribute to profits only when their sale puts money into the cash register. In a literal sense, inventory refers to stocks of anything necessary to do business. These stocks represent a large portion of the business investment and must be well managed in order to maximize profits. In fact, many small businesses cannot absorb the types of losses arising from poor inventory management. Unless inventories are controlled, they are unreliable, inefficient and costly. Successful inventory management involves balancing the costs of inventory with the benefits of inventory. Many small...

relevant literature local and foreign

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...CHAPTER I: PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING   Introduction   Statement of the problem and specific questions   Significance of the study   Delimitation of the SIP   Definition of terms    CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES   Local studies   Foreign studies   Other readings    CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY   Research design   Respondents/ content of the study   Sampling techniques   Data gathering and procedure   Statistical treatment  CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA    CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION    CHAPTER VI: BIBLIOGRAPHIES    OTHERS:   Appendices   Curriculum vitae   Questionnaire/ interviewer guide   readings and other documents    HOMEWORK: TECHNICAL WRITING  CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES    TWO MAJOR PARTS OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE   Conceptual – It contains literature coming from books, journalism and other  forms of material, concerning ore relevant to the study, but are data‐free or  non‐empirical material, coming from both foreign and local sources.   Research  –  These  are  empirically‐based,  like  scientific  paper,  theses  and  dissertations,  both  published  and  unpublished,  coming  from  local  and  foreign sources.  PURPOSE OF REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE   It  gives  researcher  several  ideas  on  how  to  select  and  formulate  his  own  research problem.   It helps researcher identify studies that have been done related to the topic  he is interested in.  ......

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...CHAPTER 2 REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE and STUDIES This chapter is about the related literature – foreign and local which is subjected to review including previous studies relevant to this investigation. The information acquired herein is deemed adequate to establish a common backdrop for haven of the investigation. LOCAL LITERATURE As a rule in the school of Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology (EARIST), they recommend the student’s study habit should have at least three hours and one and a half hour out of class for every hour spent in class. The students must have a special or specific place for that study habit hour and the students should not be cramped. They presuppose that study time will go better if a learner will take a few minutes to freshen things up and they must have everything or their books maybe before they will begin. Students are not suggested to spend on time jumping up and down to get things. The Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology (EARIST) also suggests that distracting noise should be minimized however they said that there are some people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must find what works for him or her. Moreover, adjustment by the students of Hospitality Management in Study Habits and Academic Performance must be prioritized their schooling otherwise their Study Habits can affect their Academic Performance that influenced their activities that...

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...assignment conforms to all of the rules and regulations contained therein. Please note: the guidelines can be found in the Student Handbook (see section 6.4). Assignment Checklist Please make sure you have completed the below points before submitting your assignment: • Spelling and grammar check • Referencing completed • Word count fulfilled • Proof read completed • All parts of the question answered Introduction The purpose of this report is to discuss the relevance of customisation and standardisation within international marketing, and how that will have a bearing upon a market entry strategy by a firm who wishes to enter a foreign market. Firstly the definition of the customisation-standardisation debate within international marketing shall be explored. Secondly, a literature analysis of customisation shall be performed. Thirdly, a firm analysis of recent market entries that used customisation shall be carried out; including the main influences this has had on the market strategy adopted by a firm...

Words: 2250 - Pages: 9

...Chapter 2 Related Literature and Studies This study sought to present related literatures and studies that are relevant to the study. It includes foreign and local literature, and foreign and local studies from journals, websites and books, online newspaper and online articles, similar studies such as thesis, and dissertations that have been previously conducted by other researchers, some studies that were analyzed by the researchers. These following literatures and studies will surely be very helpful for the researchers for the analysis of the study that will serve as foundation of overview that will be undertaken by reviewing articles from books, published materials and of course, the internet. Review of Related Literatures Local Literature Foreign Literature Review of Related Studies Local Studies Foreign Studies Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework shows the diagram about the input-process-output (IPO) of the existing or present and the proposing system. A theoretical framework guides the proponents to the research to the outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought. The diagram will be use on showing and explaining the flow and outcome of both systems. Input Input Process Process Output Output The teacher manually uses chalks to writes on board and students still uses pencil and paper on every session. Same process used frequently. The teacher manually uses chalks to......

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FDI In Indonesia

...This evidence indicates that Indonesia’s economy is not inclusive which means that many people are still excluded from economic activity. The second is: Indonesia still relies upon foreign investment to support the economy. Central government who is responsible for managing FDI provides policies to attract more FDI. However, some evidence in some part of Indonesia regions showed that high FDI did not ensure prosperity of those regions. The evidences also demonstrate that expected positive impacts...

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

Impacts of Fdi to Developing Countries

...Introduction Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) have been found to be important aspects of economic development of host countries, and crucial, in building technological capabilities of local companies in developing countries. It is a channel for international diffusion of technology, having the potential to transfer technological, organizational and managerial practices to developing countries, which may, in the long run, lead to higher technological capabilities, and innovation, resulting in economic growth in these countries. For Tanzania specifically, FDI is a type of investment which is relatively infant as the government had opted for a socialist path of economic development from 1967 to around mid 1980s, following the Arusha Declaration. In mid 1980s, the government initiated and implemented deliberate economic liberalization policies. These resulted into the rise of FDI in Tanzania. For instance, FDI inflows increased from USD 2,418.7 million in 1999 to USD 3,776.6 million in 2001. Such investments were concentrated in the sectors of manufacturing (33.4%), mining and quarrying (28%) as well as agricultural (6.7%) (TIC, BoT and NBS, 2004: 23-24)4. 2.2 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Definition and Characteristics 2.2.1 Defining FDI Several FDI definitions have been given in the literature and these are more or less similar. A more representative definition of FDI is that by Rutherford (1992: 178; 1995: 178-179) who defines FDI as business investment in......

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Mnc's Effect on Local Businesses in Retailing Sector (India)

...MNC's Effect on Local Businesses in Retailing Sector (India) Contents Abstract 1 Introduction 2 Literature Review 2 Effect of MNC’s into Indian Retail Market 5 Advantages 5 Disadvantages 7 Hypothesis 8 Conceptual Model 8 Conclusion 10 References 10 Abstract Globalization paved the way for entrepreneurs to expand their wings beyond their respective counties. MNCs exploit the business opportunities in other countries based on the FDI policies in those countries. This has both advantages and disadvantages to the target country. The MNCs have their impact on the economy and people of countries in which they operate business. This paper focuses on the impact of MNCs on local businesses in retail sector in India. The report review existing literature which provides insights into FDI policies in India, the level of FDI allowed by Indian government with respect to single –brand and multi-brand foreign companies, the advantages, opportunities, risks, threats and disadvantages of allowing MNCs into retailing sector in India. Introduction Retailing is the business taking up by individuals or families in India. Generally mom and pop kind of businesses operate in retail sector. The retail sector has tremendous growth in India. Moreover retailing is a profitable business in India. Since India is the country with huge population, naturally it is the correct destination to foreign investors to get profits from the market. India has been traditionally depending...

Words: 2743 - Pages: 11

...Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction ( Introduce your study here..define your topic…what it is all about..why do you think there is a need to conduct this study?) Background of the Study (Give background on the topic….maybe a brief history of its existence and its relevance to the current study) Theoretical Framework (Research on related theories that are already established. Include them in this part and describe how it will support your study. Include the diagram of their theory…) Conceptual Framework Based from the above mentioned theoretical framework, the proponent of this study has conceptualized her research paradigm as shown in Figure 7. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT [pic] Figure 7 Paradigm of the Study (This is sample only. You have to design your own model.) Figure 7 shows the paradigm of the study. The first box on the left side concerns with the input data which includes …. Statement of the Problem The main thrust of the study is to……. Specifically, it also intends to answer the following questions: Scope and Limitation of the Study The study covers the.. The timeframe of this study was within the fiscal year 2013. Significance of the Study The researcher deemed that the following would......

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

...Goneda, Imee T. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Chapter 2: (Local Literature) | July 2212nn | August 16pm | July 263pm | | 10 days & 5 hours | Chapter 1: Out Scope(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 151pm | July 183pm | 3 days & 2 hours | Analysis of the system and Database | On going | On going | On going | On going | | Fabilane, Janeny D. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Chapter 2: (Foreign Literature) | July 2212nn | August 16pm | July 263pm | | 10 days & 5 hours | Chapter 2: (Local Literature) | July 2212nn | August 16pm | July 263pm | | 10 days & 5 hours | Padilla, Christian S. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Planning of Database for the system | July 212pm | July 302pm | July 212pm | On going | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Roxas, Jade M. Task | Target Start | Target Finish | Actual Start | Actual Finish | Duration | Chapter 1: Problem/Opportunity Description(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 151pm | July 183pm | 3 days & 2 hours | Chapter 1: Benefits and Goals(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 153pm | July 186pm | 3 Days & 3 hours | Chapter 1: Stakeholders and Clients(Research Base) | July 1512nn | July 166pm | July 161pm | July 182pm | 2 days & 1 hour | ......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Payroll Related Study

...Chapter II Review of Related Literature This chapter includes foreign literatures and foreign studies taken from the internet, other unpublished thesis, and studies conducted by other research groups. This chapter also includes local literatures, taken from local published books and materials, and local studies, taken from research works and studies related to the subject matter. Related foreign and local literature and studies that dealt with theories, principles, concepts, approaches and techniques are reviewed which contributed a lot towards the enrichment of knowledge, deeper understanding and insight of the researchers. Foreign Literature One of the more significant economic statistics to be released of late concerns labor productivity. This is an interesting topic and widely non-understood concept -- very few people understand either what it is or why it really matters. Simply stated, labor productivity measures the amount (or value) of output generated per hour worked. Why does it matter? Greater labor productivity enables firms to produce a given amount of goods or services with a smaller number of labor hours. And, since payroll cost is related to the number of hours they use, this helps firms control their costs, making their enterprises more profitable.  Wages are not the correct measure the cost of labor to a firm. In economics, it doesn’t just focus on the costs of an activity, such as wages here. It looks at both costs and benefits......

Words: 2238 - Pages: 9

... | |THE RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES | | | |I. Objectives: | | | |Define and explain the meaning of the related literatures and related studies. | |Enumerate and discuss the importance, purposes, and functions of Related Literature and Studies | |Enumerate and discuss the characteristics of Related Literature and Studies | |Enumerate and identify sources of Related Literature and Studies | | ...

Words: 1306 - Pages: 6

...Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related studies and literature both local and foreign that serves as guide in the development of the proposed study. Foreign Literature India’s higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and United State. The main governing body at tertiary level is the University Grants Commission. Which enforces its standards, advises the government, and help coordinate between the center and the state? Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. As of 2009, India has 2 central university 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the state act, and 13 institutes which are of national importance. Other institutions include 16000 colleges, including 1800 exclusive women’s colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions. A software development and IT service firm implemented its catalyst in Governor Andres Pascual College was integrated web platform to provide content management, transaction processing, marketing and interactive community functions to the two rice schools. Catalyst delivers on the Jones Schools two primary criteria for selecting web-based platform simplifying content management, and enabling user’s response to information such as event RSVP and course registration. The content management tools let the......

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Knowledge of Culture and Politics as Critical Success Factors

...Success in Managing International Business Dzulfakar Bin Abdullah (Student no: 20131241445) UiTM Programme Code : BM 995 (Doctor of Philosophy in Business Management) Course Code : MGT 950 (Global Strategic Sustainable Management) Assignment 3: Theoretical Paper Lecturer : AP Dr Roshidi Hassan ABSTRACT Business life in the new millennium is becoming increasingly global. The concepts of globalization apply to both large multi-national corporations as well as to local organizations. Knowledge of local culture and politics has become critical success factors (CFSs) for multi-national corporations in their effort for global expansion. Thus in enhancing the success of managing international business (IB) managers must have knowledge of local cultures and political situations. Research on the impact of local culture and political stability on successful management of international business has become of interest only recently due to globalization process. The paper reviews several literatures that try to prove that knowledge of culture and political situation as CFSs for the success of managing international business. Keywords: Critical Success Factors (CFSs), Knowledge, Culture, Politics, International Business, Success. Knowledge of Cultures and Politics as Critical Success Factors in Enhancing Managers Success in Managing International Business Introduction Globalization and international market development are phenomenon that allows......

Words: 3533 - Pages: 15

...REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This Chapter discusses the local and foreign literature and studies of the proposed study. Related Literature The proponents gathered some information that is related in the proposed study entitled, “Payroll System for United Auctioneers Incorporated” to have a guide and background in developing a system. Local. According to Ramon Faloran (2008), in the article “The Computer Edge of the New Employment and Opportunities” that he wrote in the Philippine Daily Inquirer. He stated that: “Computer gives you a different feeling about what is happening in the company. Business will be highly competitive and innovative because the computer provides instant information.” According to Ms. Stephanie Manalaysay (2010), in the essay she wrote in She stated that: “Payroll processes are the perfect place to begin when looking to control costs. New developments in software, such as allowing the integration of payroll system info into existing HR systems, mean you can look beyond traditional ERP options.” Junald Astronomo Lagod (2010) stated that: “Any small business owner can tell you that paying employees involves a lot more than writing a check every two week. There are dozens of laws governing employee compensation. If you don’t want to run afoul of various government agencies, you have to be well organized and stay up to date on federal and state guideline.” Gabriel Esteban (May, 2012) stated that: “Payroll systems......

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How to Make a Literature Review in Research (RRL Example)

relevant literature local and foreign

What is an RRL in a research paper?

A relevant review of the literature (RRL) is an objective, concise, critical summary of published research literature relevant to a topic being researched in an article. In an RRL, you discuss knowledge and findings from existing literature relevant to your study topic. If there are conflicts or gaps in existing literature, you can also discuss these in your review, as well as how you will confront these missing elements or resolve these issues in your study.

To complete an RRL, you first need to collect relevant literature; this can include online and offline sources. Save all of your applicable resources as you will need to include them in your paper. When looking through these sources, take notes and identify concepts of each source to describe in the review of the literature.

A good RRL does NOT:

A literature review does not simply reference and list all of the material you have cited in your paper.

  • Presenting material that is not directly relevant to your study will distract and frustrate the reader and make them lose sight of the purpose of your study.
  • Starting a literature review with “A number of scholars have studied the relationship between X and Y” and simply listing who has studied the topic and what each scholar concluded is not going to strengthen your paper.

A good RRL DOES:

  • Present a brief typology that orders articles and books into groups to help readers focus on unresolved debates, inconsistencies, tensions, and new questions about a research topic.
  • Summarize the most relevant and important aspects of the scientific literature related to your area of research
  • Synthesize what has been done in this area of research and by whom, highlight what previous research indicates about a topic, and identify potential gaps and areas of disagreement in the field
  • Give the reader an understanding of the background of the field and show which studies are important—and highlight errors in previous studies

How long is a review of the literature for a research paper?

The length of a review of the literature depends on its purpose and target readership and can vary significantly in scope and depth. In a dissertation, thesis, or standalone review of literature, it is usually a full chapter of the text (at least 20 pages). Whereas, a standard research article or school assignment literature review section could only be a few paragraphs in the Introduction section .

Building Your Literature Review Bookshelf

One way to conceive of a literature review is to think about writing it as you would build a bookshelf. You don’t need to cut each piece by yourself from scratch. Rather, you can take the pieces that other researchers have cut out and put them together to build a framework on which to hang your own “books”—that is, your own study methods, results, and conclusions.

literature review bookshelf

What Makes a Good Literature Review?

The contents of a literature review (RRL) are determined by many factors, including its precise purpose in the article, the degree of consensus with a given theory or tension between competing theories, the length of the article, the number of previous studies existing in the given field, etc. The following are some of the most important elements that a literature review provides.

Historical background for your research

Analyze what has been written about your field of research to highlight what is new and significant in your study—or how the analysis itself contributes to the understanding of this field, even in a small way. Providing a historical background also demonstrates to other researchers and journal editors your competency in discussing theoretical concepts. You should also make sure to understand how to paraphrase scientific literature to avoid plagiarism in your work.

The current context of your research

Discuss central (or peripheral) questions, issues, and debates in the field. Because a field is constantly being updated by new work, you can show where your research fits into this context and explain developments and trends in research.

A discussion of relevant theories and concepts

Theories and concepts should provide the foundation for your research. For example, if you are researching the relationship between ecological environments and human populations, provide models and theories that focus on specific aspects of this connection to contextualize your study. If your study asks a question concerning sustainability, mention a theory or model that underpins this concept. If it concerns invasive species, choose material that is focused in this direction.

Definitions of relevant terminology

In the natural sciences, the meaning of terms is relatively straightforward and consistent. But if you present a term that is obscure or context-specific, you should define the meaning of the term in the Introduction section (if you are introducing a study) or in the summary of the literature being reviewed.

Description of related relevant research

Include a description of related research that shows how your work expands or challenges earlier studies or fills in gaps in previous work. You can use your literature review as evidence of what works, what doesn’t, and what is missing in the field.

Supporting evidence for a practical problem or issue your research is addressing that demonstrates its importance: Referencing related research establishes your area of research as reputable and shows you are building upon previous work that other researchers have deemed significant.

Types of Literature Reviews

Literature reviews can differ in structure, length, amount, and breadth of content included. They can range from selective (a very narrow area of research or only a single work) to comprehensive (a larger amount or range of works). They can also be part of a larger work or stand on their own.

types of literature reviews

  • A course assignment is an example of a selective, stand-alone work. It focuses on a small segment of the literature on a topic and makes up an entire work on its own.
  • The literature review in a dissertation or thesis is both comprehensive and helps make up a larger work.
  • A majority of journal articles start with a selective literature review to provide context for the research reported in the study; such a literature review is usually included in the Introduction section (but it can also follow the presentation of the results in the Discussion section ).
  • Some literature reviews are both comprehensive and stand as a separate work—in this case, the entire article analyzes the literature on a given topic.

Literature Reviews Found in Academic Journals

The two types of literature reviews commonly found in journals are those introducing research articles (studies and surveys) and stand-alone literature analyses. They can differ in their scope, length, and specific purpose.

Literature reviews introducing research articles

The literature review found at the beginning of a journal article is used to introduce research related to the specific study and is found in the Introduction section, usually near the end. It is shorter than a stand-alone review because it must be limited to very specific studies and theories that are directly relevant to the current study. Its purpose is to set research precedence and provide support for the study’s theory, methods, results, and/or conclusions. Not all research articles contain an explicit review of the literature, but most do, whether it is a discrete section or indistinguishable from the rest of the Introduction.

How to structure a literature review for an article

When writing a literature review as part of an introduction to a study, simply follow the structure of the Introduction and move from the general to the specific—presenting the broadest background information about a topic first and then moving to specific studies that support your rationale , finally leading to your hypothesis statement. Such a literature review is often indistinguishable from the Introduction itself—the literature is INTRODUCING the background and defining the gaps your study aims to fill.

The stand-alone literature review

The literature review published as a stand-alone article presents and analyzes as many of the important publications in an area of study as possible to provide background information and context for a current area of research or a study. Stand-alone reviews are an excellent resource for researchers when they are first searching for the most relevant information on an area of study.

Such literature reviews are generally a bit broader in scope and can extend further back in time. This means that sometimes a scientific literature review can be highly theoretical, in addition to focusing on specific methods and outcomes of previous studies. In addition, all sections of such a “review article” refer to existing literature rather than describing the results of the authors’ own study.

In addition, this type of literature review is usually much longer than the literature review introducing a study. At the end of the review follows a conclusion that once again explicitly ties all of the cited works together to show how this analysis is itself a contribution to the literature. While not absolutely necessary, such articles often include the terms “Literature Review” or “Review of the Literature” in the title. Whether or not that is necessary or appropriate can also depend on the specific author instructions of the target journal. Have a look at this article for more input on how to compile a stand-alone review article that is insightful and helpful for other researchers in your field.

literature review examples

How to Write a Literature Review in 6 Steps

So how do authors turn a network of articles into a coherent review of relevant literature?

Writing a literature review is not usually a linear process—authors often go back and check the literature while reformulating their ideas or making adjustments to their study. Sometimes new findings are published before a study is completed and need to be incorporated into the current work. This also means you will not be writing the literature review at any one time, but constantly working on it before, during, and after your study is complete.

Here are some steps that will help you begin and follow through on your literature review.

Step 1: Choose a topic to write about—focus on and explore this topic.

Choose a topic that you are familiar with and highly interested in analyzing; a topic your intended readers and researchers will find interesting and useful; and a topic that is current, well-established in the field, and about which there has been sufficient research conducted for a review. This will help you find the “sweet spot” for what to focus on.

Step 2: Research and collect all the scholarly information on the topic that might be pertinent to your study.

This includes scholarly articles, books, conventions, conferences, dissertations, and theses—these and any other academic work related to your area of study is called “the literature.”

Step 3: Analyze the network of information that extends or responds to the major works in your area; select the material that is most useful.

Use thought maps and charts to identify intersections in the research and to outline important categories; select the material that will be most useful to your review.

Step 4: Describe and summarize each article—provide the essential information of the article that pertains to your study.

Determine 2-3 important concepts (depending on the length of your article) that are discussed in the literature; take notes about all of the important aspects of this study relevant to the topic being reviewed.

For example, in a given study, perhaps some of the main concepts are X, Y, and Z. Note these concepts and then write a brief summary about how the article incorporates them. In reviews that introduce a study, these can be relatively short. In stand-alone reviews, there may be significantly more texts and more concepts.

Step 5: Demonstrate how these concepts in the literature relate to what you discovered in your study or how the literature connects the concepts or topics being discussed.

In a literature review intro for an article, this information might include a summary of the results or methods of previous studies that correspond to and/or confirm those sections in your own study. For a stand-alone literature review, this may mean highlighting the concepts in each article and showing how they strengthen a hypothesis or show a pattern.

Discuss unaddressed issues in previous studies. These studies that are missing something you address are important to include in your literature review. In addition, those works whose theories and conclusions directly support your findings will be valuable to review here.

Step 6: Identify relationships in the literature and develop and connect your own ideas to them.

This is essentially the same as step 5 but focused on the connections between the literature and the current study or guiding concepts or arguments of the paper, not only on the connections between the works themselves.

Your hypothesis, argument, or guiding concept is the “golden thread” that will ultimately tie the works together and provide readers with specific insights they didn’t have before reading your literature review. Make sure you know where to put the research question , hypothesis, or statement of the problem in your research paper so that you guide your readers logically and naturally from your introduction of earlier work and evidence to the conclusions you want them to draw from the bigger picture.

Your literature review will not only cover publications on your topics but will include your own ideas and contributions. By following these steps you will be telling the specific story that sets the background and shows the significance of your research and you can turn a network of related works into a focused review of the literature.

Literature Review (RRL) Examples

Because creating sample literature reviews would take too long and not properly capture the nuances and detailed information needed for a good review, we have included some links to different types of literature reviews below. You can find links to more literature reviews in these categories by visiting the TUS Library’s website . Sample literature reviews as part of an article, dissertation, or thesis:

  • Critical Thinking and Transferability: A Review of the Literature (Gwendolyn Reece)
  • Building Customer Loyalty: A Customer Experience Based Approach in a Tourism Context (Martina Donnelly)

Sample stand-alone literature reviews

  • Literature Review on Attitudes towards Disability (National Disability Authority)
  • The Effects of Communication Styles on Marital Satisfaction (Hannah Yager)

Additional Literature Review Format Guidelines

In addition to the content guidelines above, authors also need to check which style guidelines to use ( APA , Chicago, MLA, etc.) and what specific rules the target journal might have for how to structure such articles or how many studies to include—such information can usually be found on the journals’ “Guide for Authors” pages. Additionally, use one of the four Wordvice citation generators below, choosing the citation style needed for your paper:

Wordvice Writing and Academic Editing Resources

Finally, after you have finished drafting your literature review, be sure to receive professional proofreading services , including paper editing for your academic work. A competent proofreader who understands academic writing conventions and the specific style guides used by academic journals will ensure that your paper is ready for publication in your target journal.

See our academic resources for further advice on references in your paper , how to write an abstract , how to write a research paper title, how to impress the editor of your target journal with a perfect cover letter , and dozens of other research writing and publication topics.


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