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APA Citation Information

  • APA 7th Edition Citation Format instructions--Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

APA Style Manual

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APA Style Help & Tools

{{page_title}}, best bet: apa's academic writer.

Image of Academic Writer logo.  Click to access Academic Writer.

Academic Writer is the only authoritative and complete online environment for teaching, writing, and publishing in APA Style®, now updated to the 7th Edition. Designed to help users develop their writing and professional research skills, Academic Writer combines sophisticated learning and teaching tools, advanced writing and content management technology, and full integration of APA’s best-selling Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association® to create an unparalleled web-based suite of integrated services and tools.

Access Academic Writer anytime with this link:

library.purdueglobal.edu/academicwriter

Academic Writer Documentation & Tips

The below links lead to more information, tips, and training about the basics of using Academic Writer.

  • Library Guide to Academic Writer
  • Getting Started Guide (PDF)
  • Creating Academic Writer Accounts (PDF)
  • Accessing the Publication Manual (PDF)
  • Technical Requirements

Using Academic Writer's Writing Tools

Academic Writer contains a Writing section where you can create and write a full APA-formatted paper.  You can write the entire paper in Academic Writer or just use it to setup the title page, headings, and references.  Export your work at any time to a Microsoft Word document.  Below are documents from Academic Writer about the essential features of their Writing tools.  

  • Setting up the Title Page
  • Adding References to Papers (PDF)
  • Adding In-Text Citations (PDF)
  • Adding Tables (PDF)
  • Exporting Papers (PDF)

Featured Items from Academic Writer

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Basics of APA Style

Learn the basics of APA Style, including how to format a manuscript, understand the form and function of common manuscript parts, organize and express your thoughts clearly and precisely, employ the mechanics of style, use graphic elements effectively, credit sources and acknowledge the contributions of others, and construct a comprehensive and reliable reference list.

Academic Writer

© 2020 American Psychological Association.

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How to Avoid Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism

Learn how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism, including how to identify plagiarism, understand its risks and consequences, cite sources properly, and develop sound writing practices.

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Learn how to set up the title page of an APA Style paper, including the page header and running head, title, author name and affiliation, and author note.

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Paper Template: ("Merenda" Sample Student Paper)

This sample response paper presents a university student's personal reaction to an article about whether medication is prescribed too often to young children to treat psychological disorders. The title page demonstrates the simple default layout for a student paper. The paper has a simple setup with only a title page, body of text, and references. No "running head"! Response papers typically do not include author notes or abstracts, though this may vary by assignment.

Visit the Writing Center

Need writing help?  Visit the Writing Center to contact a tutor, submit your paper for review and feedback, or ask APA Style-related questions, as well as access dozens of writing tutorials, videos, webinars, and other instructional resources.

  • Writing Center

PG Writing Center's Top APA Links

  • Common Citations in APA Format
  • APA Title Page and Running Head Video
  • APA (7th Edition) Demystified in 5 Minutes Video
  • Formatting an APA Style (7th Edition) Reference List Video
  • Writing With Integrity (APA Style 7th Ed.)

eBook on APA Style 7th Edition

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Zotero: Free Reference Management Tool

Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. This tool is especially popular for heavy researchers at the grad level and above.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

APA Sample Paper

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Media Files: APA Sample Student Paper  ,  APA Sample Professional Paper

This resource is enhanced by Acrobat PDF files. Download the free Acrobat Reader

Note: The APA Publication Manual, 7 th Edition specifies different formatting conventions for student  and  professional  papers (i.e., papers written for credit in a course and papers intended for scholarly publication). These differences mostly extend to the title page and running head. Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper.

However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample paper below: one in  student style and one in  professional  style.

Note: For accessibility purposes, we have used "Track Changes" to make comments along the margins of these samples. Those authored by [AF] denote explanations of formatting and [AWC] denote directions for writing and citing in APA 7. 

APA 7 Student Paper:

Apa 7 professional paper:.

APA 7th Edition - Citation Guide

  • Introduction to APA Style
  • Edition Note
  • What's New in the 7th Edition?
  • Paper Formatting
  • Reference Components
  • Book Examples
  • Article Examples
  • Media Examples
  • Internet Resources Examples
  • Other Examples
  • In-Text Citations

This guide was adapted from the APA 7th Edition guide created by Diana Matthews, Librarian at Santa Fe College . Thanks to Diana for permission to adapt her content!

The APA citation style is primarily used by disciplines in the business, social sciences, health, and education fields. The official guide is published by the American Psychological Association:

purdue owl apa guide pdf

There are several resources online to help you with APA 7th Edition:

  • Purdue OWL Guide to APA 7th Edition "These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster."
  • APA Style and Grammar Guidelines
  • APA Style Blog The official blog for the 7th edition, answering and clarifying questions about APA.
  • APA Quick Reference Guide [PDF]

The main navigation links will show you how to set up your paper in APA format, and how to properly cite a variety of resources, both in your references list and within your paper using in-text citations.

  • APA Style APA Style is used by writers in many disciplines around the world for concise, powerful, and persuasive scholarly communication.

(*** Please view this What's Changed?   summary for differences from 6th to 7th edition)

  • Next: What's New in the 7th Edition? >>
  • Last Updated: Jun 3, 2021 9:44 AM
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APA Style from OWL Purdue

  • APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) guide to APA gives a user friendly overview of APA style. The linked overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using APA 7th edition, including how to format the reference page and in-text citations.
  • APA General Format This webpage provides an overview of the format of an APA style paper.
  • Reference List: Basic Rules This webpage review the basic format of the APA style reference list.
  • Reference List: Articles in Periodicals This webpage describes how to cite articles from journals, magazines, and newspapers.
  • Reference List: Books This webpage shows how to cite books and book chapters in APA style.
  • APA Sample Paper This webpage has an annotated paper that show what an APA style looks like.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: 7th Edition

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Table of Contents: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

  • Scholarly Writing and Publishing Principles​
  • Paper Elements and Format​
  • Journal Articles Reporting Standards​
  • Writing Style and Grammar​
  • Bias-Free Language Guidelines​
  • Mechanics of Style​
  • Tables and Figures​
  • Works Credited in the Text​
  • Reference List​
  • Reference Examples​
  • Legal References​
  • Publication Process

APA Style Blog

  • APA Style Blog Stay up-to-date on the lastest in APA Style.

Sample articles from the blog

How to cite ChatGPT  (April 7, 2023)

How to capitalize medication names (June 15, 2022)

Introducing APA Style Journal Article Reporting Standards for Race, Ethnicity, and Culture  (November 2, 2023)

APA Style Overview

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purdue owl apa guide pdf

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  • APA Citation Style Information

Plagiarism Prevention

Learn more at the slu academic integrity pages, slu academic integrity policy, helpful apa citation style sources.

In addition to the sources below, check out SLU Librarian Jamie Emery's guide  Style Guides & Manuals , including resources for APA, MLA, Chicago & more.

Includes information on APA style citations, as well as information on other citation styles and formatting. This site also includes a variety of other useful writing related information.

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 7th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (7th ed.).

This poster created by Purdue Owl summarizes APA style in a visual format.

The style and grammar guidelines pages present information about APA Style as described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition and the Concise Guide to APA Style, Seventh Edition.

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purdue owl apa guide pdf

NSED 150 (Sinha) 2024

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Style by Discipline

Apa formatting guides & examples, key characteristics, apa examples.

  • APA Template
  • Research Help

APA style is usually used in Social Sciences and Psychology and is an author-date system. APA stands for the American Psychological Association.

  • Purdue Owl APA General Format Guidelines
  • APA Style Blog
  • The Basics of APA Style - Tutorial (from APA)
  • APA Documentation Guide (University of Wisconsin, Madison) includes PDF Handout
  • Pre-Formatted Word Document in APA This is a pre-formatted Word document in APA style. Your course instructor may have additional instructions for how the paper should be formatted.

Big Picture

APA style features in-text parenthetical citations , with a focus on author/date, and a corresponding Reference page.

In-Text Citations

  • elements include author's last name, year of publication and page number(s)
  • elements in are separated by commas - Example:   (Arnold, 2015, p. 378)
  • a direct quote requires a page number preceded by p. - Example: ... as the "individuals pronounced vocally and fearlessly" (Smith, 2016, p. 201)
  • page numbers are still encouraged for summary and paraphrase though not necessary - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)
  • author's name may be excluded if found in the introductory text - Example: Patel (2013) found that .... " " (p. 67)
  • p. used for page; pp. used for multiple pages - Example: (Ramble, 2014, pp. 45-49)
  • works by two authors use the ampersand in the parentheses - Example: (Goriava & Woodland, 2017)

In-Text Citations: The Basics (OWL Purdue) In-Text Citations: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue) When and How to Include Page Numbers in APA Style Citations (APA Blog) Citing References in Text (Basics of APA Style Tutorial)

Reference List ...

  • has the title of References, centered at top
  • includes hanging indents after the first line for each entry
  • is organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author
  • gives initials to first names of authors
  • italicizes book and journal titles
  • capitalizes the first word and the first word after a semi-colon of a journal article title
  • capitalizes all major words in journal titles
  • common elements & order of citation elements:

Reference List: Basic Rules (OWL Purdue) Reference List: Author/Authors (OWL Purdue)

Note: hanging indents not included

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  • Last Updated: Feb 14, 2024 4:28 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.ucmerced.edu/NSED150

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IMAGES

  1. Owl Purdue Apa 7Th Edition : The cambridge guide to english usage

    purdue owl apa guide pdf

  2. Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide

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  3. Owl APA Format Cover Page Purdue owl apa style guide

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  4. Purdue Owl Apa Style Reference Page

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  5. Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide5.pdf

    purdue owl apa guide pdf

  6. Owl Purdue Apa Annotated Bibliography / Annotated Bibliographies Apa

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VIDEO

  1. APA

  2. APA Tutorial (Part 2 of 8): APA Help from the BHCC Library

  3. Purdue OWL Overview

  4. Spring 2024 Purdue OWL Website Introduction

  5. Citations: A Beginning (1/24/24)

  6. ATU Approved Referencing and Citation Style: APA Citation and Referencing Style (7th Edition)

COMMENTS

  1. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc. Reference List Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats Basic Rules

  2. Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

    According to The APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6 th edition, you should use the DOI format which the article appears with. So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI. If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. The Purdue OWL maintains examples of citations using both ...

  3. General Format

    General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. Include a page header (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page. For a professional paper, this includes your paper title and the page number.

  4. APA Style Introduction

    Using citation machines responsibly Powered by APA Overview and Workshop This workshop provides an overview of APA (American Psychological Association) style and where to find help with different APA resources. It provides an annotated list of links to all of our APA materials and an APA overview.

  5. APA Formatting and Style Guide (6th Edition)

    APA Stylistics: Basics; APA Headings and Seriation; APA PowerPoint Slide Presentation; APA Sample Paper; APA Tables and Figures 1; APA Tables and Figures 2; APA Abbreviations; Numbers in APA; Statistics in APA; APA Classroom Poster; APA Changes 6th Edition; General APA FAQs; Suggested Resources Style Guide Overview MLA Guide APA Guide Chicago ...

  6. APA Style Guide

    ISBN: 9781433832161 Publication Date: 2019-10-01 The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style. Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) provides instruction on how to use APA 7th. Below are a few topics covered by the OWL. APA Style Introduction APA 7th

  7. APA Citation Style

    A self-paced tutorial for the beginner. Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) tutorials Short YouTube videos on the APA style. APA Guidelines & Expectations Download the Guidelines for APA Writing Style and Format file. Using APA to Cite Sources Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing

  8. PDF Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) QUOTATIONS

    OTHER APA STYLE SOURCES AND REFERENCES Use widely available, easily readable fonts (such as 12. Indent the first line of each paragraph. APA Style Blog

  9. PDF Reference Guide

    APA Style Reference Guide for Journal Articles, Books, and Edited Book Chapters, APA Style 7th Edition Author: American Psychological Association Subject: references Keywords: APA Style; 7th edition; reference; journal article; book; chapter in an edited book Created Date: 12/30/2019 10:15:20 AM

  10. PDF APA 7th Edition (2020): Citations & Reference List

    For more detailed instructions and a greater variety of examples and scenarios, we recommend referring to the APA Publication Manual (2019) in book format or online (apastyle.apa.org), or the Purdue OWL (owl.purdue.edu). In-Text Citations Overview of In-Text Citations

  11. PDF APA Formatting and Style Guide

    EX: Research suggests that the Purdue OWL is a good resource for students (Atkins, 2018, p. 12). For a narrative citation, the page number comes at the end of the sentence,

  12. APA Citation Format

    This guide includes books, journals, databases, and reference sources in the psychological sciences discipline. ... APA 7th Edition Citation Format instructions--Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) APA Style Manual. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. by American Psychological Association. Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 ...

  13. Library: Purdue Global Library: APA Style Help & Tools

    Getting Started Guide (PDF) Creating Academic Writer Accounts (PDF) Accessing the Publication Manual (PDF) Technical Requirements Using Academic Writer's Writing Tools Academic Writer contains a Writing section where you can create and write a full APA-formatted paper.

  14. APA Style (7th Edition)

    Style Guide Overview MLA Guide APA Guide Chicago Guide OWL Exercises. Purdue OWL; Research and Citation; APA Style (7th Edition) APA Style (7th Edition) APA Style (7th Edition) Welcome to the Purdue OWL. This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

  15. APA Formatting and Style Guide

    General APA Guidelines. Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5 X 11 inches) with margins of 1 inch on all sides. Your final essay should include, in the order indicated below, as many of the following sections as are applicable, each of which should begin on a separate page:

  16. APA Sample Paper

    Download the free Acrobat Reader Note: The APA Publication Manual, 7th Edition specifies different formatting conventions for student and professional papers (i.e., papers written for credit in a course and papers intended for scholarly publication).

  17. Handouts and Guides

    The following are instructional aids for the seventh edition Publication Manual, Concise Guide to APA Style, and Mastering APA Style Student Workbook. They can be used in homes, classrooms, libraries, or anywhere you are learning or teaching APA Style. These instructional aids are in PDF format and include

  18. Library Guides: APA 7th Edition

    APA 7th Edition - Citation Guide. The APA citation style is primarily used by disciplines in the business, social sciences, health, and education fields. The official guide is published by the American Psychological Association: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition. The official handbook for APA style.

  19. PDF APA Formatting and Style Guide

    Number the first text page as page number 3. Type and center the title of the paper centered, at the top of the page. Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break. Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical in-text citations. Format tables and figures.

  20. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    This guide will help you set up an APA Style student paper. The basic setup directions apply to the entire paper. Annotated diagrams illustrate how to set up the major sections of a student paper: the title page or cover page, the text, tables and figures, and the reference list. Basic Setup

  21. PDF 7th edition Common Reference Examples Guide

    This guide contains examples of common types of APA Style references. Section numbers indicate where to find the examples in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). More information on references and reference examples are in Chapters 9 and 10 of the Publication Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA ...

  22. LibGuides: PSYC 6020 Course Guide: APA Style

    Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) guide to APA gives a user friendly overview of APA style. The linked overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using APA 7th edition, including how to format the reference page and in-text citations.

  23. APA Citation Style Information

    APA Formatting & Style Guide by Purdue Owl APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 7th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference ...

  24. LibGuides: NSED 150 (Sinha) 2024: APA Citation Style

    Big Picture. APA style features in-text parenthetical citations, with a focus on author/date, and a corresponding Reference page.. In-Text Citations . elements include author's last name, year of publication and page number(s) elements in are separated by commas - Example: (Arnold, 2015, p. 378) a direct quote requires a page number preceded by p.

  25. Purdue OWL

    Purdue OWL_ APA Formatting and Style Guide - Read online for free. Purdue OWL_ APA Formatting and Style Guide

  26. Purdue Owl Apa Formatting and Style Guide

    purdue owl apa formatting and style guide - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site.