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Purdue Owl: APA Formatting & Style Guide

Developed by Purdue's Online Writing Lab. Contains resources on in-text citation and the references page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

Author/Editor (By:)

Contributor, corporate author, related organizations, citation type.

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Form and Style Review Home Page

Capstone Form and Style

More apa style guidelines: lists.

When listing three or more items, include a serial comma (also known as an Oxford comma) before the last item and the conjunction “and” or “or.” If one or more clauses contains commas in them, use a semicolon instead of a comma to separate the clauses. (Note that the term "seriation" used in APA 6 does not appear in APA 7 and has been replaced by "lists.”)

You may also list items in three other formats: lettered, numbered, and bulleted.

Lettered Lists (APA 7, Section 6.50)

If you have a series of elements in the body of a paragraph, separate each element with lowercase letters enclosed in parentheses. Although only necessary for more complex elements, here is a simple example: (a) lions, (b) tigers, and (c) bears. Items and phrasing should be parallel.

Numbered Lists (APA 7, Section 6.51)

When ordinal position is important, list items vertically.

The organization’s emergency management protocol consists of seven sequential steps:

  • Step 1 involves ...
  • Step 2 consists of …
  • Step 3 has five components: ...

This would be appropriate when you need to show a specific order of elements, such as in steps in a procedure or conclusions.

List items should be complete sentences or paragraphs in a series (not phrases).

Use Microsoft Word’s numbered list function to create the list; select the option with Arabic numerals (not enclosed within parentheses) followed by a period. Capitalize the first word after the number and the first word of any subsequent sentence. End each sentence with appropriate final punctuation. List items should be double-spaced and indented .5 inch.

Bulleted Lists (APA 7, Section 6.52)

Bulleted lists are appropriate when presenting a list of items in no particular order. Bulleted list items can be complete sentences or phrases or sentence fragments. Use Word’s bulleted list function to create the list. List items should be double-spaced and indented .5 inch.

If complete sentences, begin each list item with a capital letter as you would a regular sentence and insert final punctuation (usually a period) at the end of each list item.

Recommendations for improving patient safety at the facility include the following:

  • Install adequate lighting and ventilation in wards, patient rooms, and other areas.
  • Incorporate regular training and drills to promote staff awareness of safety procedures.
  • Regularly solicit staff and patient and family feedback using an outside firm.

If phrases or sentence fragments, begin each list item with a lowercase letter.

In APA 7, you have two options for punctuating bulleted phrases: to include no punctuation after each list item and after the last list item or to include commas or semicolons, as appropriate, after each list item and final punctuation at the end of the list. (Note that APA 6 only recommended the option to punctuate lists with commas or semicolons.)

The first option may be better for shorter, less complex lists.

  • installing adequate lighting and ventilation
  • incorporating regular training and drills
  • regularly soliciting staff and patient and family feedback

The second option may be better for longer, more complex lists.

  • installing adequate lighting and ventilation in wards, patient rooms, and other areas;
  • incorporating regular training and drills to promote staff awareness of safety procedures; and
  • regularly soliciting staff and patient and family feedback using an outside firm.

Seriation Video

  • APA Formatting & Style: Seriation (video transcript)
  • Previous Page: Serial Commas
  • Next Page: Titles
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Citations & Formatting : from OWL at Purdue

  • Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Copyright Basics

All creations are copyrighted .

It is important to know, understand, and consider the rules for using copyrighted material whenever you draw on a resources created by someone else. The links below will help you begin understanding your responsibilities when you use copyrighted material.

  • CyberBee - Ethical Use of Information Scroll over and click on different cartoon students to learn about copyright basics and your responsibilities when you use information compiled or created by others.
  • Fair Use & Public Domain (LLCC subject guides: Copyright) Refer to this guide to better understand the Fair Use "loophole" for copyright restricted material used for educational purposes. more... less... Guide Author: Amanda Wiesenhofer, Librarian LLCC

APA Citations Checklist & OWL

  • APA Formatting Checklist
  • OWL link & navigation tips

Reference list / Sample Paper: 

  • center title: References
  • APA citation for each source
  • ABC order by first letter of citation (usually author/title)
  • Hanging indent (highlight, right click, paragraph, indentation, special menu, hanging)

In-Text Citations:

  • the basic rules
  • special instruction for authors

Use Reference List Electronic Sources (for articles from LLCC Databases)  (see screenshots below)

Step-by-step: 

  • SELECT APA FORMAT and email the article from the database
  • copy Database Provided Citation (see screenshots for EbscoHost below) from database and/or email 
  • paste into word with middle paste option
  • check the citation against the requirements in OWL
  • Use OWL to create in-text citations corresponding to each source on the Reference List

owl apa list

APA Reference List Citations for Electronic (Database) Sources

  • APA for Electronic (Database) Sources
  • Finding APA Citations in EBSCOhost

owl apa list

Most LLCC subscription databases will provide assistance creating the citation for articles in a variety of formats - including APA. Screenshots below provide details for obtaining APA 7th Edition Citations from the EbscoHost databases recommended for many Nursing assignments. 

owl apa list

NOTE: Database-generated citations often (but inconsistently) include errors. It is still good practice to begin by finding, copying and pasting the citation from the database. You can use this as a starting point and refer to the guides provided (above) to make any necessary corrections. 

COMMON MISTAKES made by EbscoHost when creating APA 7th Edition citations: 

  • Author's first name typed out (Initials are standard formatting)
  • Title of Article is CAPITALIZED INCORRECTLY; often Article Titles are given a capital for every important word. See guide above. Article titles are capitalized like sentences in APA 7. 
  • Title of Journal not in Italics ( be sure to double check)

Other databases that are not included in the EbscoHost group of databases (for example Ovid or Gale databases) also provide citations. Look for the icon or a note for the citation. NOTE: some databases may not be updated to APA 7 and are still using the 6th edition. Watch carefully..

BREAKDOWN: Electronic Sources APA 7th

  • AUTHOR Last Name, First & Middle Initials.
  • DATE (YEAR of publication in parens).
  • (note: CAPITALIZATION for article titles is like a SENTENCE. Capitalize the first word, proper nouns, and the first letter after a colon: ONLY.)
  • (note: All Important Words in the Journal Title are Captilized; the whole title in Italics). 
  • (note: the volume number of the journal is in Italics)
  • (note: the issue number of the journal is in parentheses right next to the Volume number - no space or comma - and NOT in italics ). 
  • page numbers of article.
  • FOR LLCC DATABASES -- leave blank (no URL is required for Database articles with mostly stable urls)
  • FOR ONLINE ARTICLES NOT FROM SUBSCRIPTION DATABASES -- include Retrieved from date and URL
  • << Previous: LLCC Search & Discover
  • Next: Sonography Project Tips & Resources >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 12, 2024 1:46 PM
  • URL: https://library.llcc.edu/sonography

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Master of Science Engineering Technology (MSET)

  • Manage Your Research
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  • Common APA Citation Questions
  • MET 52700 This link opens in a new window

Purdue OWL: APA

  • APA Guidlines
  • Videos on the Basics of APA
  • General Format
  • In-Text Citations: The Basics
  • Reference List: The Basics
  • Types of APA Papers
  • APA Changes 6th Edition
  • General APA Facts
  • APA Sample Paper
  • APA Formatting - The Basics
  • APA Formatting: Reference List Basics
  • APA References List: Complex Authors
  • APA References: Periodicals
  • APA References Entries for Books

Purdue OWL: Writing Tips

Choosing a Topic

Where Do I Begin?

Developing Strong Thesis Statements

Writing a Research Paper

Citation Management

  • Citation Management Tools
  • Quick Reference Generators

Citation management tools help you track and organize the articles you are gathering for your research.  Citation management tools also generate in-text citations, import records from databases, and reference pages.   NOTE : Errors do occasionally occur with citation managers, so always check your citations and references.

  • Zotero by Michael Witt
  • Endnote Desktop by Robert Freeman
  • Endnote Basic by Jerilyn Tinio
  • Endnote Web vs. Zotero
  • Citation Machine
  • NoodleToole Express (my favorite for difficult references)
  • << Previous: Manage Your Research
  • Next: Copyright and Plagiarism >>
  • Last Edited: Jan 16, 2024 12:13 PM
  • URL: https://guides.lib.purdue.edu/mset

Scribbr APA Citation Generator

Accurate APA citations, verified by experts, trusted by millions.

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Citation Generator features you'll love

Search for your source by title, URL, DOI, ISBN, and more to retrieve the relevant information automatically.

APA 6th & 7th edition

Scribbr's Citation Generator supports both APA 6 and APA 7 (as well as MLA and Harvard ). No matter what edition you're using, we’ve got you covered!

Export to Bib(La)TeX

Easily export in BibTeX format and continue working in your favorite LaTeX editor.

Export to Word

Reference list finished? Export to Word with perfect indentation and spacing set up for you.

Sorting, grouping, and filtering

Organize the reference list the way you want: from A to Z, new to old, or grouped by source type.

Save multiple lists

Stay organized by creating a separate reference list for each of your assignments.

Choose between Times New Roman, Arial, Calibri, and more options to match your style.

Industry-standard technology

The Scribbr Citation Generator is built using the same citation software (CSL) as Mendeley and Zotero, but with an added layer for improved accuracy.

Annotations

Create perfectly formatted annotated bibliographies with just a few clicks.

Explanatory tips help you get the details right to ensure accurate citations.

Citation guides

Getting to grips with citation is simple with the help of our highly rated APA citation guides and videos .

Secure backup

Your work is saved automatically after every change and stored securely in your Scribbr account.

  • Introduction
  • Parenthetical vs. narrative
  • Multiple authors

Missing information

  • Sources to include

Tools and resources

  • Scroll to top

APA 7th edition publication manual

How to create APA citations

APA Style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the social and behavioral sciences. Scribbr’s free citation generator automatically generates accurate references and in-text citations.

This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020).

  • Cite a webpage
  • Cite a book
  • Cite a journal article
  • Cite a YouTube video

APA in-text citations

APA in-text citations include the author’s last name, publication date, and, if relevant, a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example, (Smith, 2021, p. 170) . See it as a shorter version of the entry in the reference list .

You should include in-text citations every time you’re quoting or paraphrasing someone else’s ideas or words. In doing so, you give credit to the original author and avoid plagiarism .

Parenthetical vs. narrative citation

The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
  • Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.

APA Citation Generator

Generate accurate APA citations in seconds

Get started

APA references

APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.

Formatting the APA reference page

APA reference page (7th edition)

On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .

Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  • Double spacing (within and between references)
  • Hanging indent of ½ inch
  • Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
  • Page number in the top right header

Which sources to include

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).

In addition to the APA Citation Generator, Scribbr provides many more tools and resources that help millions of students and academics every month.

  • Citation Generator : Generate flawless citations in APA, MLA , and Harvard style .
  • Citation Checker : Upload your paper and have artificial intelligence check your citations for errors and inconsistencies.
  • Free plagiarism checker : Detect plagiarism with unparalleled accuracy with Scribbr’s free plagiarism checker.
  • AI Proofreader : Upload and improve unlimited documents and earn higher grades on your assignments. Try it for free!
  • Paraphrasing tool: Avoid accidental plagiarism and make your text sound better.
  • Grammar checker : Eliminate pesky spelling and grammar mistakes.
  • Summarizer: Read more in less time. Distill lengthy and complex texts down to their key points.
  • AI detector: Find out if your text was written with ChatGPT or any other AI writing tool. ChatGPT 2 & ChatGPT 3 supported.
  • Proofreading services : Have a professional editor (or team of editors) improve your writing so you can submit your paper with pride and confidence. Scribbr offers admission essay editing , paper editing , and academic editing .
  • Guides and videos : Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

APA Style Introduction

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

APA Overview and Workshop

This workshop provides an overview of APA (American Psychological Association) style and where to find help with different APA resources. It provides an annotated list of links to all of our APA materials and an APA overview. It is an excellent place to start to learn about APA format.

APA Formatting and Style Guide

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 7 th  edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (7 th  ed.).

This poster summarizes APA style in a visual format. For more detailed information, please review the formatting and style guide linked above. 

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

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College Pick'em

Fantasy football, football pick'em, fantasy basketball, fantasy hockey, franchise games, 24/7 sports news network.

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The Early Edge

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NFL Playoff Time!

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2024 Super Bowl halftime show: Usher takes the stage, set list, full video of singer's performance

Usher's star-studded show included alicia keys, h.e.r., will.i.am, ludacris and lil jon.

usher.jpg

Once again, the Super Bowl halftime show is the biggest musical performance of the year. Award-winning singer Usher just took the stage, with a slightly longer halftime performance than usual, getting two extra minutes, up from 13 to 15 minutes.

Usher came out wearing all white and began his performance with "Caught Up," kicking things off with a bang. He was joined by dancers on the field, looking like an authentic Las Vegas performance. He was also joined by a marching band that had a significant presence during "Love In This Club."

🔥🔥🔥 @Usher #AppleMusicHalftime pic.twitter.com/HFtG4qHeSH — NFL (@NFL) February 12, 2024
Love in this club! @Usher #AppleMusicHalftime pic.twitter.com/tiWWvEhMIe — NFL (@NFL) February 12, 2024

He brought out singer Alicia Keys, who before the event was reported to be the surprise guest.  Keys was revealed with an all red piano, with an outfit to match. She began singing her own song, "If I Ain't Got You," joined by Usher. They then transitioned to "My Boo," a song they did together in 2004.

MY BOO! @AliciaKeys @Usher #AppleMusicHalftime pic.twitter.com/DtjPVsxnPn — NFL (@NFL) February 12, 2024

Jermaine Durpri was another surprise guest, one that was not reported ahead of the game. H.E.R. later came out with her signature guitar, showing off to the Super Bowl crowd.

H.E.R. 🎸 @HERMusicx #AppleMusicHalftime pic.twitter.com/p8qI6bujRM — NFL (@NFL) February 12, 2024

As H.E.R. was performing, Usher put on roller skates and performed in skates while performing "OMG" with will.i.am. The surprise guests did not end there, Lil Jon and Ludacris joined Usher to their perform their hit song "Yeah!"

During their performance of "Yeah!" the marching band spelled out "USHER."

Many fans were hoping Justin Bieber, who has worked with Usher in the past on "Somebody to Love," would be another surprise guest, but unfortunately for Bieliebers he did not show up. Usher reportedly reached out to Bieber to perform and the pop singer was seen in Las Vegas one day before the Super Bowl .

Bieber was not on the stage, but he was dancing in the crowd at Allegiant Stadium.

Justin and Hailey Bieber vibing to @Usher 🔥 #AppleMusicHalftime pic.twitter.com/Mt33p2QVeX — NFL (@NFL) February 12, 2024

Here is Usher's setlist:

  • U Don't Have To Call
  • Love In This Club
  • If I Ain't Got You (with Alicia Keys)
  • My Boo (with Alicia Keys)
  • Confessions Part II
  • U Got It Bad (with H.E.R)
  • OMG (with will.i.am)
  • Yeah! (with Lil Jon and Ludacris)

Turn Down For What/Get Low (Lil Jon)

Going into halftime the 49ers are up 10-3 over the Kansas City Chiefs . The only touchdown of the game was from Niners star running back Christian McCaffrey  off a trick play.

In the end, however, it was the Chiefs who  prevailed 25-22 in OT  for their second straight Super Bowl win and third in four years.  

Our Latest NFL Stories

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Where Chiefs rank among back-to-back champs

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owl apa list

Usher's Super Bowl halftime show is star-studded affair

owl apa list

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Mock Draft: Bucs find Mayfield replacement

owl apa list

5 teams poised to take major fall in 2024

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owl apa list

Why Monday important day for Bucs to keep their stars

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Garoppolo banned two games for PED violation

owl apa list

Report: Chiefs pick up option on DT Jones' contract

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Text shows when Mahomes 'decided' he would win title

IMAGES

  1. Owl Com Apa : General Format Purdue Writing Lab

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VIDEO

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  2. क्या आप जानते हैं Owl Related on Diwali #neerubhagtibhajan

  3. Larry Pollard explains the Owl Theory. Part 1. May 2008

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  6. APA Tutorial (Part 2 of 8): APA Help from the BHCC Library

COMMENTS

  1. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc. Reference List Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats Basic Rules

  2. Purdue OWL: APA Formatting: Reference List Basics

    0:00 / 3:18 Purdue OWL: APA Formatting: Reference List Basics OWLPurdue 37.3K subscribers Subscribe Subscribed Like 544K views 11 years ago APA This vidcast introduces the viewers to the...

  3. PDF Creating an APA Style Reference List Guide

    Creating an APA Style Reference List Guide The reference list contains all the works you cited in the text of your paper. In general, there should be a one-to-one correspondence between the works cited in the text and the works listed in the reference list. An exception is personal communications, which are

  4. Purdue Owl: APA Formatting & Style Guide

    English Developed by Purdue's Online Writing Lab. Contains resources on in-text citation and the references page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  5. APA Style Guide

    ISBN: 9781433832161 Publication Date: 2019-10-01 The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style. Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) provides instruction on how to use APA 7th. Below are a few topics covered by the OWL. APA Style Introduction APA 7th

  6. PDF APA 7th Edition (2020): Citations & Reference List

    This handout summarizes key concepts you'll need to know when using APA Style for citations. For more detailed instructions and a greater variety of examples and scenarios, we recommend referring to the APA Publication Manual (2019) in book format or online (apastyle.apa.org), or the Purdue OWL (owl.purdue.edu).

  7. APA Style

    APA Style | How To Format in APA | Excelsior OWL Citation & Documentation » APA Style APA Style 7th Edition6th Edition You will often use sources for academic writing, and it's important to know how to responsibly cite and integrate those sources into your own writing.

  8. APA Formatting and Style Guide

    This resource was written by David Neyhart and Erin Karper. Last full revision by Jodi Wagner. Last edited by Dana Lynn Driscoll on May 17th 2007 at 3:24PM. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA ...

  9. APA Style

    Grumble... Applaud... Please give us your feedback! Remembering the best practices for APA formatting can be difficult, This is why Excelsior OWL highlights APA formatting guidelines to help!

  10. Academic Guides: More APA Style Guidelines: Lists

    End each sentence with appropriate final punctuation. List items should be double-spaced and indented .5 inch. Bulleted Lists (APA 7, Section 6.52) Bulleted lists are appropriate when presenting a list of items in no particular order. Bulleted list items can be complete sentences or phrases or sentence fragments.

  11. APA Formatting & Citation

    APA 7th EDITION: CITATIONS & FORMATTING This link connects DIRECTLY TO THE APA 7th Edition information from OWL at Purdue (reducing the need to search through other formatting and citation options such as MLA). The OWL guide provides instructions for many different kinds of citations (for example for books and print sources as well as scholalry academic peer-reviewed research in ELECTRONIC ...

  12. APA Citation Format

    APA Citation Information. APA 7th Edition Citation Format instructions--Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) APA Style Manual. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. by American Psychological Association. Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2020 (three copies at HSSE reference desk, one in HICKS)

  13. APA

    Purdue OWL: APA. APA Guidlines; Videos on the Basics of APA; General Format. In-Text Citations: The Basics. Reference List: The Basics. Types of APA Papers. APA Changes 6th Edition. ... Purdue OWL: Writing Tips. Choosing a Topic. Where Do I Begin? Developing Strong Thesis Statements. Writing a Research Paper. Citation Management.

  14. Print Book

    Elements: Chapter Author's Last name, Chapter Author's First and Middle initials, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or article. In Editor(s) First and Middle initials and Last names (Ed. or Eds.), Book title italicized (pp. followed by the page range for the chapter/article). Place of publication: Publisher.

  15. Bulleted lists

    To create a bulleted list, use the bulleted list function of your word-processing program. This will automatically indent the list as well. Symbols such as small circles, squares, dashes, and so forth may be used for the bullets. Learn more

  16. Free APA Citation Generator

    Cite manually Save hours of repetitive work with Scribbr's APA Citation Generator. Stop wasting hours figuring out the correct citation format. With Scribbr's citation generator, you can search for your source by title, URL, ISBN, or DOI and generate accurate APA citations in seconds. No experience needed.

  17. APA Side By Side

    APA Side By Side. Sometimes, the easiest way to think about your in-text citations and references (and how they must match) is to see them side by side. The following examples provide reference information and corresponding in-text citation information for common source types and situations you are likely to encounter while working with your ...

  18. Lists

    Home Style and Grammar Guidelines Lists Just as heading structure alerts readers to the order of ideas in a paper, lists help readers understand a related set of key points within a sentence or paragraph. When writing a list, ensure all items are syntactically and conceptually parallel.

  19. APA Style Introduction

    Using citation machines responsibly Powered by APA Overview and Workshop This workshop provides an overview of APA (American Psychological Association) style and where to find help with different APA resources. It provides an annotated list of links to all of our APA materials and an APA overview.

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    2024 Super Bowl halftime show: Usher takes the stage, set list, full video of singer's performance Usher's star-studded show included Alicia Keys, H.E.R., will.i.am, Ludacris and Lil Jon