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## What is a computer system?

A COMPUTER SYSTEM is made up of software, data, hardware, communications and people; each computer system can be divided up into a set of sub-systems. Each subsystem can be further divided into sub-systems and so on until each sub-system just performs a single action.

## Top-down design

TOP-DOWN DESIGN is the breaking down of a computer system into a set of subsystems, then breaking each sub-system down into a set of smaller sub-systems, until each sub-system just performs a single action

## Structure diagrams

The STRUCTURE DIAGRAM shows the design of a computer system in a hierarchical way, with each level giving a more detailed breakdown of the system into sub-systems.

A FLOWCHART shows diagrammatically the steps required for a task (sub-system) and the order that they are to be performed. These steps together with the order are called an ALGORITHM

PSEUDOCODE is a simple method of showing an algorithm, using English-like words and mathematical operators that are set out to look like a program

## Library routines

A LIBRARY ROUTINE is a set of programming instructions for a given task that is already available for use

## Sub-routines

A SUB-ROUTINE is a set of programming instructions for a given task that forms a subsystem, not the whole system

An ALGORITHM sets out the steps to complete a given task. This is usually shown as a flowchart or pseudocode

Validation is the automated checking by a program that data is reasonable before it is accepted into a computer system

There are many different types of validation checks including:

• range checks

• length checks

• type checks

• character checks

• format checks

• presence checks

• check digits.

## Verification

Verification is checking that data has been accurately copied onto the computer or transferred from one part of a computer system to another

Verification methods include:

• double entry

• screen/visual check

• parity check

• checksum.

## Trace tables

Trace tables are used to allow programmers to trace the value of variables as each line of code is executed. The values of the variables are displayed in a table and assist the programmer in identifying any potential errors

Test data is then used to dry run the flowchart and record the results on the trace table

Test data: 9, 7, 3, 12, 6, 4, 15, 2, 8, 5

## Stages in producing an algorithm

1 Make sure that the problem is clearly specified.

2 Break the problem down into sub-problems; if it is complex, you may want to consider writing an algorithm for each sub-problem. Most problems, even the simplest ones can be divided into:

• processing

• output of results.

3 Decide on how any data is to be obtained and stored, what is going to happen to the data and how any results are going to be displayed.

4 Decide on how you are going to construct your algorithm, using a flowchart or pseudocode.

5 Construct your algorithm, making sure that it can be easily read and understood by someone else. This involves setting it out clearly and using meaningful names for any data stores. The algorithms that you have looked at so far in this chapter were not designed with readability in mind because you needed to work out what the problem being solved was.

6 Use several sets of test data (normal, abnormal and boundary) and trace tables to find any errors.

7 If any errors are found, repeat the process until you think that your algorithm works perfectly

## Standard solutions

• Standard solutions - Linear Search
• Standard solutions - Bubble Sort
• Standard solutions - Totalling
• Standard solutions - Counting
• Standard solutions - Finding the maximum, minimum and average

## Notes mentioning this note

Here are all the topics on this website, along with their links, visualized as a graph.

## Computer Science IGCSE

Providing education for computer science knowledge seekers, chapter 9 problem-solving and design.

A computer system is made of software, data, hardware, communications and people; each computer system ca be divided into a set of sub systems. Each sub system can be divided into another sub system until each sub system performs a single task.

The division of sub system is by “top down design”. The process of breaking down into smaller sub systems is called ‘step wise refinement’.

Structure diagrams can be used, it shows the design of a computer system in a hierarchical way, with each level giving a more detailed breakdown of the system into sub systems.

A Sub-Routine is set of programming instructions for a given task that forms a sub-system, not the whole system. Sub-Routines written in high level languages are called ‘procedures’ or ‘functions’ depending on how they are used.

An example of a Structure Diagram

Validation is the automated checking by a program that data is reasonable and in the right criteria that it is accepted into a computer system. There are many different kinds of data check such as: range checks, length checks, type checks, character checks, presence checks, etc. When data is validated by a computer system, if the data is rejected a message should be output explaining why the data was rejected and a second opportunity given to enter the correct data.

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## IGCSE Computer Science -Year 10/11- Chapter 7-Algorithm design and problem-solving- 2023/2024

Subject: Computing

Age range: 14-16

Resource type: Lesson (complete)

Last updated

16 November 2023

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** IGCSE Computer Science -Year 10/11 ** 2023/2024 updated version

Chapter 7-Algorithm design and problem-solving:

** Learning Objectives: **

1 Understand the program development life cycle, limited to: analysis, design, coding and testing. 2 (a) Understand that every computer system is made up of sub-systems, which are made up of further sub-systems (b) Understand how a problem can be decomposed into its component parts © Use different methods to design and construct a solution to a problem 3 Explain the purpose of a given algorithm 4 Understand standard methods of solution 5 (a) Understand the need for validation checks to be made on input data and the different types of validation check (b) Understand the need for verification checks to be made on input data and the different types of verification check. 6 Suggest and apply suitable test data 7 Complete a trace table to document a dry-run of an algorithm. 8 Identify errors in given algorithms and suggest ways of correcting these errors. 9 Write and amend algorithms for given problems or scenarios, using: pseudocode, program code and flowcharts

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## Algorithm Design and Problem-Solving

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1. Algorithm design and problem solving Topical Past Papers Computer

Algorithm design and problem solving Topical Past Papers Computer Science 0478 IGCSE Past Papers All Files Question Paper Mark Scheme Grade Threshold Examiner Report Insert Instructions 2.1.1-Problem-solving-and-design.pdf

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The user can compare the displayed data against a paper document used as an input form or rely on their own knowledge to verify correctness. Best free resources for CAIE IGCSE Computer Science 0478 Practical including summarized notes, topical and past paper walk through videos by top students.

3. PDF COMPUTER SCIENCE 0478/21

Cambridge IGCSE COMPUTER SCIENCE 0478/21 Paper 2 Problem-solving and Programming May/June 2021 1 hour 45 minutes You must answer on the question paper. No additional materials are needed. INSTRUCTIONS Answer all questions. Do not attempt Tasks 1, 2 and 3 in the copy of the pre-release material on page 2; these are for information only.

4. Chapter 9: Problem Solving & Design

Welcome to the IGCSE Computer Science Guide / Tutorial updated for the 2021-2022 syllabus.What you will learn in this chapter:Top-down designs and structure ...

5. PDF IGCSE Computer Science 0478 y20-21

Practical problem-solving and programming 2.1 Algorithm design and problem-solving 2.1.1 Problem-solving and design 2.1.2 Pseudocode and flowcharts 2.2 Programming 2.2.1 Programming concepts 2.2.2 Data structures; arrays 2.3 Databases Support for Cambridge IGCSE Computer Science

6. Problem Solving and Design

Most problems, even the simplest ones can be divided into: • set up. • input. • processing. • output of results. 3 Decide on how any data is to be obtained and stored, what is going to happen to the data and how any results are going to be displayed. 4 Decide on how you are going to construct your algorithm, using a flowchart or pseudocode.

7. Algorithms, design and problem-solving

Algorithms, design and problem-solving Last updated on May 23, 2022 Designing and understanding algorithms. Program development life cycle; Decomposition and sub-systems; Methods of designing a solution; ... Free resources for IGCSE computer science. Created by Jared Rigby.

8. Standard solutions

Algorithms, design and problem-solving. Designing and understanding algorithms Here are all the topics on this website, along with their links, visualized as a graph. Free resources for IGCSE computer science. Created by Jared Rigby. Support this website.

9. PDF COMPUTER SCIENCE 0478/22

Cambridge IGCSE COMPUTER SCIENCE 0478/22 Paper 2 Problem-solving and Programming October/November 2021 1 hour 45 minutes You must answer on the question paper. No additional materials are needed. INSTRUCTIONS Answer all questions. Do not attempt Tasks 1, 2 and 3 in the copy of the pre-release material on page 2; these are for information only.

10. 2.1 Algorithm Design and Problem Solving

Activities and resources for the Cambridge IGCSE Computer Science 0478 topic 2.1 Algorithm Design and Problem Solving Teach Computing Computing, Computer Science, and Information Technology resources for GCSE, IGCSE, IB, and GCE A-Level

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Cambridge IGCSE Computer Science helps learners develop an interest in computational thinking and an understanding of the principles of problem-solving using computers. They apply this understanding to create computer-based solutions to problems using algorithms and a high-level programming language. Learners also develop a range of technical ...

12. Chapter 9 Problem-solving and design

Chapter 9 Problem-solving and design. A computer system is made of software, data, hardware, communications and people; each computer system ca be divided into a set of sub systems. Each sub system can be divided into another sub system until each sub system performs a single task. The division of sub system is by "top down design". The ...

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Download sample lesson above. Lesson 3: Algorithms and pseudocode. Lesson 4: Standard algorithms. Lesson 5: Validation and verification. Lesson 6: Testing and trace tables. Lesson 7: Creating and refining algorithms. Assessment. There are 7 worksheets, 7 homework tasks, and an assessment test, each with answers included in this unit.

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15. IGCSE Computer Science -Year 10/11- Chapter 7-Algorithm design and

** IGCSE Computer Science -Year 10/11 ** 2023/2024 updated version. Chapter 7-Algorithm design and problem-solving: ** Learning Objectives: ** 1 Understand the program development life cycle, limited to: analysis, design, coding and testing. 2 (a) Understand that every computer system is made up of sub-systems, which are made up of further sub ...

16. PDF Syllabus Cambridge IGCSE Computer Science 0478

in computer science. Learners gain confidence in computational thinking and programming, an appreciation of automated and emerging technologies and the benefits of their use. They develop an understanding of the main principles of problem-solving by creating computer-based solutions using algorithms and a high-level programming language.

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This is an effective way of designing a computer system to provide a solution to a problem, since each part of the problem is broken down into smaller more manageable problems. The process of breaking down into smaller sub-systems is called 'stepwise refinement'. This structured approach works for the development of both large and small ...

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Verified answer. anatomy and physiology. Answer the following question to test your understanding of the preceding section: Name the connective tissue layers of a muscle beginning with the individual muscle fiber and ending with the tissue that separates the muscles from the skin. Verified answer.

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Algorithm Design and Problem-Solving theory and quizzes for Computer Science GCSE.

20. Problem solving and design

3. PROBLEM SOLVING PHASE: STEP 1: Define the problem STEP 2: Find the solution to the problem STEP 3: Evaluate alternative solutions STEP 4: Represent the most efficient solution as an algorithm STEP 5: Test the algorithm for correctness. 4.

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Algorithm design and problem-solving 7.2 Algorithms Explaining Algorithms. Explaining Algorithms. Download PDF. ... Dan graduated from the University of York with a BEng in Computer Science and has been a teacher and tutor of GCSE and A-Level Computer Science in the Yorkshire area for over six years. His goals are to engage students in the ...

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Cambridge IGCSE Computer Science learners study the principles and practices of computing and gain confidence in computational ... 2.1 Algorithm design and problem-solving 2.1.1 Problem-solving and design 2.1.2 Pseudocode and flowcharts 2.2 Programming 2.2.1 Programming concepts 2.2.2 Data structures; arrays