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Chemistry Problems

Use chemistry problems as a tool for mastering chemistry concepts. Some of these examples show using formulas while others include lists of examples.

Acids, Bases, and pH Chemistry Problems

Learn about acids and bases. See how to calculate pH, pOH, K a , K b , pK a , and pK b .

  • Practice calculating pH.
  • Get example pH, pK a , pK b , K a , and K b calculations.
  • Get examples of amphoterism.

Atomic Structure Problems

Learn about atomic mass, the Bohr model, and the part of the atom.

  • Practice identifying atomic number, mass number, and atomic mass.
  • Get examples showing ways to find atomic mass.
  • Use Avogadro’s number and find the mass of a single atom .
  • Review the Bohr model of the atom.
  • Find the number of valence electrons of an element’s atom.

Chemical Bonds

Learn how to use electronegativity to determine whether atoms form ionic or covalent bonds. See chemistry problems drawing Lewis structures.

  • Identify ionic and covalent bonds.
  • Learn about ionic compounds and get examples.
  • Practice identifying ionic compounds.
  • Get examples of binary compounds.
  • Learn about covalent compounds and their properties.
  • See how to assign oxidation numbers.
  • Practice drawing Lewis structures.
  • Practice calculating bond energy.

Chemical Equations

Practice writing and balancing chemical equations.

  • Learn the steps of balancing equations.
  • Practice balancing chemical equations (practice quiz).
  • Get examples finding theoretical yield.
  • Practice calculating percent yield.
  • Learn to recognize decomposition reactions.
  • Practice recognizing synthesis reactions.
  • Practice recognizing single replacement reactions.
  • Recognize double replacement reactions.
  • Find the mole ratio between chemical species in an equation.

Concentration and Solutions

Learn how to calculate concentration and explore chemistry problems that affect chemical concentration, including freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and vapor pressure elevation.

  • Get example concentration calculations in several units.
  • Practice calculating normality (N).
  • Practice calculating molality (m).
  • Explore example molarity (M) calculations.
  • Get examples of colligative properties of solutions.
  • See the definition and examples of saturated solutions.
  • See the definition and examples of unsaturated solutions.
  • Get examples of miscible and immiscible liquids.

Error Calculations

Learn about the types of error and see worked chemistry example problems.

  • See how to calculate percent.
  • Practice absolute and relative error calculations.
  • See how to calculate percent error.
  • See how to find standard deviation.
  • Calculate mean, median, and mode.
  • Review the difference between accuracy and precision.

Equilibrium Chemistry Problems

Learn about Le Chatelier’s principle, reaction rates, and equilibrium.

  • Solve activation energy chemistry problems.
  • Review factors that affect reaction rate.
  • Practice calculating the van’t Hoff factor.

Practice chemistry problems using the gas laws, including Raoult’s law, Graham’s law, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, and Dalton’s law of partial pressures.

  • Calculate vapor pressure.
  • Solve Avogadro’s law problems.
  • Practice Boyle’s law problems.
  • See Charles’ law example problems.
  • Solve combined gas law problems.
  • Solve Gay-Lussac’s law problems.

Some chemistry problems ask you identify examples of states of matter and types of mixtures. While there are any chemical formulas to know, it’s still nice to have lists of examples.

  • Practice density calculations.
  • Identify intensive and extensive properties of matter.
  • See examples of intrinsic and extrinsic properties of matter.
  • Get the definition and examples of solids.
  • Get the definition and examples of gases.
  • See the definition and examples of liquids.
  • Learn what melting point is and get a list of values for different substances.
  • Get the azeotrope definition and see examples.
  • See how to calculate specific volume of a gas.
  • Get examples of physical properties of matter.
  • Get examples of chemical properties of matter.
  • Review the states of matter.

Molecular Structure Chemistry Problems

See chemistry problems writing chemical formulas. See examples of monatomic and diatomic elements.

  • Practice empirical and molecular formula problems.
  • Practice simplest formula problems.
  • See how to calculate molecular mass.
  • Get examples of the monatomic elements.
  • See examples of binary compounds.
  • Calculate the number of atoms and molecules in a drop of water.


Practice chemistry problems naming ionic compounds, hydrocarbons, and covalent compounds.

  • Practice naming covalent compounds.
  • Learn hydrocarbon prefixes in organic chemistry.

Nuclear Chemistry

These chemistry problems involve isotopes, nuclear symbols, half-life, radioactive decay, fission, fusion.

  • Review the types of radioactive decay.

Periodic Table

Learn how to use a periodic table and explore periodic table trends.

  • Know the trends in the periodic table.
  • Review how to use a periodic table.
  • Explore the difference between atomic and ionic radius and see their trends on the periodic table.

Physical Chemistry

Explore thermochemistry and physical chemistry, including enthalpy, entropy, heat of fusion, and heat of vaporization.

  • Practice heat of vaporization chemistry problems.
  • Practice heat of fusion chemistry problems.
  • Calculate heat required to turn ice into steam.
  • Practice calculating specific heat.
  • Get examples of potential energy.
  • Get examples of kinetic energy.
  • See example activation energy calculations.

Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry Problems

See chemistry problems involving the interaction between light and matter.

  • Calculate wavelength from frequency or frequency from wavelength.

Stoichiometry Chemistry Problems

Practice chemistry problems balancing formulas for mass and charge. Learn about reactants and products.

  • Get example mole ratio problems.
  • Calculate percent yield.
  • Learn how to assign oxidation numbers.
  • Get the definition and examples of reactants in chemistry.
  • Get the definition and examples of products in chemical reactions.

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How to Solve a Chemistry Problem

Last Updated: October 4, 2023

This article was co-authored by Anne Schmidt . Anne Schmidt is a Chemistry Instructor in Wisconsin. Anne has been teaching high school chemistry for over 20 years and is passionate about providing accessible and educational chemistry content. She has over 9,000 subscribers to her educational chemistry YouTube channel. She has presented at the American Association of Chemistry Teachers (AATC) and was an Adjunct General Chemistry Instructor at Northeast Wisconsin Technical College. Anne was published in the Journal of Chemical Education as a Co-Author, has an article in ChemEdX, and has presented twice and was published with the AACT. Anne has a BS in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, and an MA in Secondary Education and Teaching from Viterbo University. This article has been viewed 14,520 times.

Chemistry problems can vary in many different ways. Some questions are conceptual and others are quantitative. Each problem requires its own approach, and each has a different way to solve it correctly. What you can do is make a set of steps that can help us with any problems that you come across in the field of chemistry. Using these steps should help give you a guideline to working on any chemistry problem you encounter.

Starting the Problem

Step 1 Read the problem completely.

Finishing the Problem

Step 1 Check your units again.

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Online Chemistry Calculators

Chemistry Calculators.

Table of Contents

Acid-base reactions, chemical equilibrium, empirical and molecular formulas, electrochemistry, electrolysis, electron quantum numbers, gas laws (ideal, dalton's and graham's law), ionic/covalent bonds, ions and molecules, mass spectrometry.

  • Nuclear decay

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Percentage composition, significant figures, solution concentration.

  • Solution Stoichiometry (Moles, Titration and Molarity Calculations)

List of Common Equations

Periodic table, basic units of measurement (metric/si).

Chemistry is the science of matter: its composition, its properties, the changes that lead to its formation, and the ways it interacts with other matter in its surroundings.  We start with the building blocks of matter - electrons, neutrons, and protons - and build atoms and ions, which then form the molecules and ionic compounds that can react to produce the material world we know.  Careful investigation of the properties and tendencies of these material formations promotes better understanding of the capabilities of the material world.

This collection of chemistry calculators, broken down into different fundamental concepts, is a good survey of introductory chemistry, but also contains some tools for higher level endeavors in such topics as quantum numbers and advanced stoichiometry.

  • WebQC pH calculator - Need to know the pKa of a solution? Or maybe even just the pH? Check out this page for all your acid-base reaction needs.
  • EasyCalculation Neutralization Reaction - There are two ways of checking your work: turning it in and hoping for the best, or using this site. It's as easy as click, plug, and check!
  • Meracalculator Neutralization Reactions - Great when working on neutralization reactions of acids and bases, get back to “normality” with this easy to use problem solver.
  • PFG Buffer Recipes - This simple tool delivers fast and accurate answers, along with the option to print out your results and buffer recipe for future reference.
  • Wiley Buffers - Very simple, ad-free site for buffer calculation.
  • Science Gateway Common Reagents & Buffers - Need to know a buffers' mass or volume? How about the volume of buffer necessary to dilute a solution? Click here also to see a list of common reagents.
  • Activation Energy - Need to know a reaction's activation energy in J/mol instead of Btu/lb mol? Just plug and chug your activation energy answers here for fast and convenient computations.
  • Onlinesciencetools Chemical Equilibrium - Tip the scales in the right direction with this easy to use equilibrium balance. Simply insert your figures into the spaces provided and your formulas will always even out.
  • Tutorvista Equilibrium Constant - Find the equilibrium constant for any equation with this easy to use online equation. Simply input your equilibrium values and click “calculate equilibrium constant.”
  • Colorado State Equilibria - A more advanced, precise online source for tallying equilibria.
  • Chemicalaid Empirical Formulas - Perfect when you need to know the empirical formula of an equation and need the molecular formula, or vice versa.
  • Easycalculation Chemical Formulas - Click here for simple and efficient calculations for the percentage of each element in a given compound.
  • Empirical and Molecular Formula Solver - Want to make sure all your empirical and molecular ducks are in a row? Simply follow the easy instructions on and you'll master this aspect of chemistry in no time.
  • University of Sydney Empirical Formula Calculator - Enter your empirical formulas here and get back the percentage of mass for each element involved.
  • Electrical Driving Force Calculator  - Find the driving force behind any electrochemical reaction with this easy-to-use tool.
  • Nernst Solver - Need to know the actual or standard reversible potential of a Nernst equation? Enter your data into the text boxes and start getting some answers.
  • TutorVista Nernst Equation - Find an equation's reduction potential using this simple Nernst equation. Fill in the allotted text boxes with your figures and let it do the rest.
  • Convert Coulombs to Faraday Constants - Struggling with converting coulombs to Faraday constants? Start your conversions now.
  • Quantum Numbers and Electron Configuration - Need to see electron quantum numbers explained a different way? This is a great place to start the understanding and mastery process of quantum numbers.
  • Quantum Numbers, Atomic Orbitals, and Electron Configurations - Didn't quite catch onto electron configurations in class? Here you'll find plenty of examples and explanations of quantum numbers.
  • AJ Design Ideal Gas Law Formulas and Equations - Whether you're solving for density, pressure, temperature or volume using the Ideal gas law,  
  • WebQC Ideal Gas Law - An ideal place for any chemist, student, or otherwise to have quick access to multiple equations and easy-to-use calculation.
  • EasyCalculation Ideal Gas Law - Simply plug in the figures you know from your Ideal gas law equations and let do the rest.
  • Mera Calculator Dalton's Law - If you need to know the partial pressures of an equation then is the right fit for you. This site uses Dalton's Law to compute those partial pressure values for you.
  • 1728 Graham's Law of Diffusion - This is a great place to go for Graham's law of diffusion equations. User-friendly, accurate results.
  • Chemical Bond Polarity – Perfect for identifying the bond polarity between two elements.
  • Digital Ionic Equation - Know the name of a molecule but not what it's made of? Simply type in the name and this tool will provide you with the molar mass and empirical formula of the molecule.
  • Shodor Polyatomic Ion - If you know the empirical formula of an ion or molecule, then you can know its name. Great for if you're new to ion and molecules or if you just want to double-check your work.
  • Mera Calculator Polyatomic Ion - Simple yet effective, this calculator allows you to input the positive and negative ions from an empirical formula and it then spits out the molecule's name.
  • AJ Design Kinetic Energy Equations and Formulas - Got kinetic energy equations and numeric values with nowhere to compute them? Derive kinetic energy values here.
  • EngineersEdge Kinetic Energy Equations - Short and simple way to find the kinetic energy of an object. Plug in the equations values in the text boxes and your problems are solved.
  • EasyCalculation Kinetic Energy - Whether you're solving for kinetic energy or mass, just enter in your data and you'll have your answers.
  • Native Mass Spectrometry – Interchangeable calculations of m/z, charge, mass, theoretical charge states.
  • Isotope Distribution and Mass Spec Plotter – Provides both equations as well as plots your mass spectrometry chart for you.

Nuclear Decay

  • AJ Design Radioactive Material Equations and Formulas – Here you'll find detailed instructions on nuclear decay reactions and easy to use interactive equations.
  • UWashington Radioactive Decay - Simple and complete nuclear decay equations that provide precise answers.
  • Rad Pro Nuclear Calculations - Whether you're a career chemist or learning about nuclear decay for the first time, this is the perfect place to input your data and learn more.
  • Radioactive Isotopes Decay - Need a place for fast and easy nuclear decay equations? Here you'll find a fantastic online equation solver.
  • Shodor Nuclear Decay - Need to know the nuclear decay of unstable molecules? With easy data input and answers, and a brief summary of nuclear decay equations themselves.
  • TutorVista Oxidation Number - Type in the desired chemical formula and this useful online tool spits out the oxidation-reduction number in seconds.
  • Shodor Redox Reactions - For a more in depth look at oxidation-reduction reactions check out this great plug and chug problem solver.
  • Wolfram Oxidation Number - Simply type in a chemical formula and in no time at all you will have the oxidation-reduction reaction numbers and structure diagram.
  • TutorVista Percent Composition - Learn the percentage composition by mass of each element in a chemical formula.
  • Chemhaven Percent Composition - Know the percent composition of each element in any chemical formula.
  • Significant Figures - Don't slow down due to long handwritten equations. Plug in your equations or numbers here for fast and reliable tallies of your significant figures.
  • Ostermiller Significant Figures -  Significant figures tripping you up? Click here and input your numbers to derive the correct amount of significant figures for any number as well as identify the least significant decimal.
  • Significant Digits Counter for Chemists - Want to double-check your significant figure count? Just type in your numbers for accurate and precise significant figures.
  • CalculatorSoup Significant Figures – With extensive details on identifying significant figures, this tool also helps teach you how to round (and can check your work).
  • TutorCircle Significant Figures – Extensive listing of examples and instructions on significant figures, with a sig-fig counter so you can even check your work.
  • Calctool Solution Concentration – Convert between mass, volume, and molecular volume to calculate molecular and/or mass concentrations.
  • Advamacs Concentrations – Switch between molecular weight and density, with built in sample solutions to help you study.
  • Easycalculation Dilution of Solutions – Identify the volumes and concentrations of a solution before and after dilution.

Solution Stoichiometry (Moles, titration, and molarity calculations)

  • Endmemo Chemical Mole Grams - Input chemical formulas here to figure out the number of moles or grams in a chemical formula.
  • AJ Design Ideal Gas Law Formulas and Equations - Use this online number cruncher to solve Ideal Gas Law equations and formulas using pressure, volume, and temperature.
  • Lenntech Molecular Weights – Compute the average molecular weight (MW) via molecular formula or from one of the two lists of common organic compounds or elements of the periodic table.
  • Stoichiometry Tool - Enter your balanced chemical equations (use the Chemical Equation Balancer if need be!) to derive the stoichiometry of each equation.
  • OST Stoichiometry – With a wide range of entry parameters and options for gas type as well as output, this tool is essential for your stoichiometry calculations.
  • Reaction Stoichiometry – Given a reaction and select whether you want to calculate the reactant or product.
  • Concentration of a Solution via Titration – Online tool to titrate samples given the concentration of the standard, volume of titrant needed for titration of the standard and of the sample.
  • GraphPad Molarity – Mass, volume, and concentration: given two, easily calculate the other, or else dilute a stock solution.
  • – Allowing you to calculate mass, volume, or concentration depending on which two are known, this page also has extensive explanations of the different ways to perform these calculations manually.
  • Sigma-Aldrich Mass Molarity – Calculate the mass required for a molar solution of a specified concentration and volume.

Extra Tools

  • Reference Guide of Common Chemistry Equations - Missing an equation in your notes or textbook? Check here for a list of commonly and frequently used equations in chemistry.
  • Interactive Periodic Table - Need a reference while you're doing your chemistry homework, or maybe you just want to learn more about the elements? If so this interactive periodic table is perfect for the casual browser or studying for tests.
  • UCDavis SI Units - Need to know which unit of measure to use for that density equation? Maybe you need to brush up on your measurement prefixes? Whatever the case may be, this list of SI units is a handy reference.
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Nutrients by the Numbers: Food and Nutrition Statistics with Wolfram Language

Learn multivariable calculus through incredible visualizations with wolfram language, announcing the 2023 wolfram innovator award winners, chemistry step-by-step solutions: chemical reactions.

Chemistry Step-by-Step Solutions: Chemical Reactions

If you’re studying chemistry or are in a discipline requiring chemistry prerequisite courses, then you know how expensive the required textbooks can be. To combat this, the chemical education community has developed open educational resources to provide free chemistry textbooks. However, although free textbooks keep cash in your wallet, they don’t include solution guides for all the homework problems.

Luckily, the Step-by-Step Solutions feature of Wolfram|Alpha has got your back! Whether you’re studying remotely or collaborating via video conferencing, Wolfram|Alpha helps you learn and apply the problem-solving frameworks for chemical word problems. The step-by-step solutions provide stepwise solution guides that can be viewed one step at a time or all at once. The guides not only hone efficient problem solving, but also facilitate digging deeper into concepts that might still be murky.

Over the next few weeks, we’ll be exploring some of the popular topics that middle-school, high-school and college students encounter in their chemistry courses and final exams: chemical reactions, structure and bonding , chemical solutions , and finally, quantum chemistry . Read on for example problems in chemical reactions and their step-by-step solutions!

Balancing Chemical Equations

A fundamental aspect of chemistry is balancing chemical equations . If chemical equations are the language in which chemical processes are expressed, then balancing chemical equations is the corresponding grammar. The step-by-step solution walks you through a robust algebraic approach to identifying the stoichiometric coefficients.

Example Problem

Write the balanced equation for the reaction of copper with nitric acid to produce copper nitrate, nitrogen oxide and water.

Step-by-Step Solution

For this class of problem, just enter “ balance copper + nitric acid -> copper nitrate + nitrogen dioxide + water ”.

"balance copper + nitric acid -> copper nitrate + nitrogen dioxide + water"

After balancing the related chemical equations, the next step in planning a laboratory experiment is computing how much of each reactant must be measured out. To do this, one needs the molar mass for each reactant. Step-by-step solutions are available for the molecular mass and relative molecular mass in addition to the molar mass . In all cases, a general framework for solving these types of problems is provided via the Plan step. Details of which formula to use and how to gather the necessary information are provided.

Calculate the molar mass of silver sulfate, Ag 2 SO 4 .

In this case, just enter “ molar mass silver sulfate ”.

"molar mass silver sulfate"

Mass Composition

One way to analyze individual chemicals is to compute and compare the mass and atom percentages. The step-by-step solution provides a general framework for solving this class of problem in the Plan step. Details of the relevant equations, as well as how to compute the necessary intermediate values, are provided. Ways in which you can check your work during the calculations are also available via the “Show intermediate steps” buttons.

Antihemophilic factor is a coagulant with the formula C 11794 H 18314 N 3220 O 355 S 83 . What is its percent composition?

For the answer, just enter “ antihemophilic factor elemental composition ”.

"antihemophilic factor elemental composition"

Chemical Conversions

Chemical conversions crop up in nearly every chemistry homework or research problem. As such, step-by-step solutions are available for converting among moles , mass , volume , molecules and atoms . Unit conversions and dimensional analysis details are provided.

How many atoms are in five milliliters of a 1.5 mM magnesium hydroxide solution?

To solve this, just enter “ convert 5 mL of 1.5 mM magnesium hydroxide to atoms ”.

"convert 5 mL of 1.5 mM magnesium hydroxide to atoms"


After running a chemical reaction, one often wants to know how the reaction went by computing the reaction yields . Step-by-step solutions are available for computing the amount of reactants needed and the theoretical yield in addition to the percent yield . The use of stoichiometric factors to generate the desired values is explained in detail.

Upon reaction of 1.274 grams of copper sulfate with excess zinc metal, 0.392 grams of copper metal was obtained according to the following equation: CuSO 4 (aq)+Zn(s)⟶Cu(s)+ZnSO 4 (aq). What is the percent yield?

To find the percent yield, just append the mass values to the corresponding chemical species and ask for the stoichiometry, “ 1.274 g CuSO4 + Zn -> 0.392 g Cu + ZnSO4 stoichiometry ”.

"1.274 g CuSO4 + Zn -> 0.392 g Cu + ZnSO4 stoichiometry"

Challenge Problems

Test your chemical reaction problem-solving skills by using the Wolfram|Alpha tools described to solve these word problems. Answers will be provided in the next blog post in this series.

  • Compute the molecular mass of acetaminophen. Is the element with the largest atom count also the element with the largest mass percent?
  • What is the limiting reactant and theoretical yield when 24.8 grams of white phosphorus and 0.200 moles of oxygen react to form 10.0 grams of phosphorus pentoxide?

And More Chemistry to Come

Whether you’re studying for upcoming final exams, puzzling out homework or just looking for a refresher, chemical reactions are one of many chemistry topics covered by the Wolfram|Alpha knowledgebase. Next week we’ll cover step-by-step solutions for chemical solutions , followed by structure and bonding , and then quantum chemistry . If you have suggestions for other step-by-step content (in chemistry or other subjects), please let us know! You can reach us by leaving a comment below or sending in feedback at the bottom of any Wolfram|Alpha query page.

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    Explore a range of topics through open-ended experiments, where learners can devise their own testing plans

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    A black solid | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    Devise experiments to identify a black solid sample by using chemicals and apparatus in the laboratory.

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    A weak acid | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    Starting from its K a (or pK a ) value, learners calculate as much information as you need to show what is meant by ‘weak’ in weak acid.

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    Aluminium foil | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    React aluminium foil and hydrochloric acid with a range of catalysts to discover which serves the reaction best.

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    Amount of CO2 | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    Use chemicals and apparatus, devise experiments and determine the amount of carbon dioxide that can be obtained from a mixture of two solids

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    Argon | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    How much ‘empty space’ is in a sample of gaseous argon? Students use their knowledge of Avogadro’s number and the concept of atomic size to find out. 

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    Carbon and copper oxide | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    Create tests to identify carbon and copper oxide, using knowledge of acids, redox reactions, and metal oxides.

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    Catalase | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    Using four distinct questions, with open-ended methods, to explore catalysts and enzymes. 

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    Explain two observations related to the production of a jelly-like solid when two detergents were used in combination.

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    Four solutions | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    Allow learner’s the opportunity to devise their own testing protocols to identify chloride ions in four solutions.

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    H⁺ ions in water | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

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    Devise experiments to label six numbered solutions correctly using chemicals and apparatus in the laboratory.

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    Devise experiments to label three white solids correctly by using chemicals and apparatus in the laboratory.

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    What compound? | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

     Learners can devise their own testing system to identify the nature of a mystery compound.


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    Carry out certain experiments in a given order

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    Which set of ionic compounds? | Creative problem-solving in chemistry

    Devise a procedure to identify four solids and then use this to carry out the identification.

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    • Research Matters — to the Science Teacher

    Problem Solving in Chemistry

    One of the major difficulties in teaching introductory chemistry courses is helping students become efficient problem solvers. Most beginning chemistry students find this one of the most difficulty aspects of the introductory chemistry course. What does research tell us about problem solving in chemistry? Just why do students have such difficulty in solving chemistry problems? Are some ways of teaching students to solve problems more effective than others? Problem solving in any area is a very complex process. It involves an understanding of the language in which the problem is stated, the interpretation of what is given in the problem and what is sought, an understanding of the science concepts involved in the solution, and the ability to perform mathematical operations if these are involved in the problem. The first requirement for successful problem solving is that the problem solver understand the meaning of the problem. In order to do so there must be an understanding of the vocabulary and its usage in the problem. There are two types of words that occur in problems, ordinary words that science teachers generally assume that students know and more technical terms that require understanding of concepts specific to the discipline. Researchers have found that many students do not know the meaning of common words such as contrast, displace, diversity, factor, fundamental, incident, negligible, relevant, relative, spontaneous and valid. Slight changes in the way a problem is worded may make a difference in whether a students is able to solve it correctly. For example, when "least" is changed to "most" in a problem, the percentage getting the question correct may increase by 25%. Similar improvements occur for changing negative to positive forms, for rewording long and complex questions, and for changing from the passive to the active voice. Although teachers would like students to solve problems in whatever way they are framed they must be cognizant of the fact that these subtle changes will make a difference in students' success in solving problems. From several research studies on problem solving in chemistry, it is clear that the major reason why students are unable to solve problems is that they do not understand the concepts on which the problems are based. Studies that compare the procedures used by students who are inexperienced in solving problems with experts show that experts were able to retrieve relevant concepts more readily from their long term memory. Studies have also shown that experts concepts are linked to one another in a network. Experts spend a considerable period of time planning the strategy that will be used to solve the problem whereas novices jump right in using a formula or trying to apply an algorithm. In the past few years, science educators have been trying to determine which science concepts students understand and which they do not. Because chemistry is concerned with the nature of matter, and matter is defined as anything that has mass and volume, students must understand these concepts to be successful problem solvers in chemistry. Research studies have shown that a surprising number of high school students do not understand the meaning of mass, volume, heat, temperature and changes of state. One reason why students do not understand these concepts is because when they have been taught in the classroom, they have not been presented in a variety of contexts. Often the instruction has been verbal and formal. This will be minimally effective if students have not had the concrete experiences. Hence, misconceptions arise. Although the very word "misconception" has a negative connotation, this information is important for chemistry teachers. They are frameworks by which the students view the world around them. If a teacher understands these frameworks, then instruction can be formulated that builds on student's existing knowledge. It appears that students build conceptual frameworks as they try to make sense out of their surroundings. In addition to the fundamental properties of matter mentioned above, there are other concepts that are critical to chemical calculations. One of these is the mole concept and another is the particulate nature of matter. There is mounting evidence that many students do not understand either of these concepts sufficiently well to use them in problem solving. It appears that if chemistry problem solving skills of students are to improve, chemistry teachers will need to spend a much greater period of time on concept acquisition. One way to do this will be to present concepts in a variety of contexts, using hands-on activities.

    What does this research imply about procedures that are useful for helping students become more successful at problem solving?

    Chemistry problems can be solved using a variety of techniques. Many chemistry teachers and most introductory chemistry texts illustrate problem solutions using the factor-label method. It has been shown that this is not the best technique for high school students of high mathematics anxiety and low proportional reasoning ability. The use of analogies and schematic diagrams results in higher achievement on problems involving moles, stoichiometry, and molarity. The use of analogs is not profitable for certain types of problems. When problems became complex (such as in dilution problems) students are unable to solve even the analog problems. For these types of problems, using analogs in instruction would be useless unless teachers are willing to spend additional time teaching students how to solve problems using the analog. Many students are unable to match analogs with the chemistry problems even after practice in using analogs. Students need considerable practice if analogs are used in instruction. When teaching chemistry by the lecture method, concept development needed for problem solving may be enhanced by pausing for a two minute interval at about 8 to 12 minute intervals during the lecture. This provides students time to review what has been presented, fill in the gaps, and interpret the information for others, and thus learn it themselves. The use of concept maps may also help students understand concepts and to relate them to one another. Requiring students to use a worksheet with each problem may help them solve them in a more effective way. The worksheet might include a place for them to plan a problem, that is list what is given and what is sought; to describe the problem situation by writing down other concepts they retrieve from memory (the use of a picture may integrate these); to find the mathematical solution; and to appraise their results. Although the research findings are not definitive, the above approaches offer some promise that students' problem solving skills can be improved and that they can learn to solve problems in a meaningful way.

    For further information about this research area, please contact:

    Dr. Dorothy Gabel Education Building 3rd and Jordan Bloomington, Indiana 47405

    Chemistry Problem Solver

    How a Chemistry Problem Solver Online Helps You Do Homework

    At every school and college, students have a comprehensive curriculum. Most likely, you are expected to know physics, math, literature, and philosophy as well as other disciplines at a high level. But there are rather few students who can grasp many subjects at the same time. Don’t get upset if organic chemistry isn’t your strong point. An academic help company can find you a perfect chemistry problem solver online no matter how complex your assignment is.

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    Do you always need a smart friend to take a quick look at your homework when it’s done? You had better ask a writer to take care of your assignments. Then you’ll be 100% sure they are correct.

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    How Much Does It Cost to Solve My Chemistry Problem?

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    • The complexity of your assignment . Chemistry is considered to be a complex academic discipline. Thus, they charge some extra fees based on the complexity of your assignment.
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    What Guarantees to Look for When Looking for Help with Chemistry Assignment

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    Getting a smart problem solver for your chemistry homework is safe, useful, and time-efficient. Now you can save your nerves when getting ready for classes and spare more time for your favorite activities. Just place your order with the right company, and they will help you with your chemistry task fast.

    Is there an app that answers chemistry questions?

    There are several apps available on the web that help students find answers to questions in the Chemistry field. For instance, one popular app is known as Chemistry Helper. It provides students with various features, such as a chemical equation balancer, molecular weight calculator, the periodic table, as well as access to a huge database of information in the niche. All you have to do is to post your question/problem in chemistry and the Chemistry Helper will give you all the relevant explanations and information. More examples of the apps include ChemCalc, Chemistry Quiz & Dictionary, and Chemistry Solver. 

    How can I solve chemistry problems faster?

    To solve problems in the field of Chemistry faster, it is essential to thoroughly understand the underlying concepts/principles related to the problem, organize (and use!) your notes, practice on a regular basis, break down complex issues into bite-size chunks, as well as seek pro help if needed. If you ensure to apply the strategies mentioned above, both your proficiency and speed in solving chemistry issues will improve sooner than you know.

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    The Conversation

    The Conversation

    What is quantum advantage? A quantum computing scientist explains an approaching milestone marking the arrival of extremely powerful computers

    Posted: November 17, 2023 | Last updated: November 17, 2023

    Quantum advantage is the milestone the field of quantum computing is fervently working toward, where a quantum computer can solve problems that are beyond the reach of the most powerful non-quantum, or classical, computers.

    Quantum refers to the scale of atoms and molecules where the laws of physics as we experience them break down and a different, counterintuitive set of laws apply. Quantum computers take advantage of these strange behaviors to solve problems.

    There are some types of problems that are impractical for classical computers to solve , such as cracking state-of-the-art encryption algorithms. Research in recent decades has shown that quantum computers have the potential to solve some of these problems. If a quantum computer can be built that actually does solve one of these problems, it will have demonstrated quantum advantage.

    I am a physicist who studies quantum information processing and the control of quantum systems. I believe that this frontier of scientific and technological innovation not only promises groundbreaking advances in computation but also represents a broader surge in quantum technology, including significant advancements in quantum cryptography and quantum sensing.

    The source of quantum computing’s power

    Central to quantum computing is the quantum bit, or qubit . Unlike classical bits, which can only be in states of 0 or 1, a qubit can be in any state that is some combination of 0 and 1. This state of neither just 1 or just 0 is known as a quantum superposition . With every additional qubit, the number of states that can be represented by the qubits doubles.

    This property is often mistaken for the source of the power of quantum computing. Instead, it comes down to an intricate interplay of superposition, interference and entanglement .

    Interference involves manipulating qubits so that their states combine constructively during computations to amplify correct solutions and destructively to suppress the wrong answers. Constructive interference is what happens when the peaks of two waves – like sound waves or ocean waves – combine to create a higher peak. Destructive interference is what happens when a wave peak and a wave trough combine and cancel each other out. Quantum algorithms, which are few and difficult to devise, set up a sequence of interference patterns that yield the correct answer to a problem.

    Entanglement establishes a uniquely quantum correlation between qubits: The state of one cannot be described independently of the others, no matter how far apart the qubits are. This is what Albert Einstein famously dismissed as “spooky action at a distance.” Entanglement’s collective behavior, orchestrated through a quantum computer, enables computational speed-ups that are beyond the reach of classical computers.

    Applications of quantum computing

    Quantum computing has a range of potential uses where it can outperform classical computers. In cryptography, quantum computers pose both an opportunity and a challenge. Most famously, they have the potential to decipher current encryption algorithms , such as the widely used RSA scheme .

    One consequence of this is that today’s encryption protocols need to be reengineered to be resistant to future quantum attacks. This recognition has led to the burgeoning field of post-quantum cryptography . After a long process, the National Institute of Standards and Technology recently selected four quantum-resistant algorithms and has begun the process of readying them so that organizations around the world can use them in their encryption technology.

    In addition, quantum computing can dramatically speed up quantum simulation: the ability to predict the outcome of experiments operating in the quantum realm. Famed physicist Richard Feynman envisioned this possibility more than 40 years ago. Quantum simulation offers the potential for considerable advancements in chemistry and materials science, aiding in areas such as the intricate modeling of molecular structures for drug discovery and enabling the discovery or creation of materials with novel properties.

    Another use of quantum information technology is quantum sensing : detecting and measuring physical properties like electromagnetic energy, gravity, pressure and temperature with greater sensitivity and precision than non-quantum instruments. Quantum sensing has myriad applications in fields such as environmental monitoring , geological exploration , medical imaging and surveillance .

    Initiatives such as the development of a quantum internet that interconnects quantum computers are crucial steps toward bridging the quantum and classical computing worlds. This network could be secured using quantum cryptographic protocols such as quantum key distribution, which enables ultra-secure communication channels that are protected against computational attacks – including those using quantum computers.

    Despite a growing application suite for quantum computing, developing new algorithms that make full use of the quantum advantage – in particular in machine learning – remains a critical area of ongoing research.

    Staying coherent and overcoming errors

    The quantum computing field faces significant hurdles in hardware and software development. Quantum computers are highly sensitive to any unintentional interactions with their environments. This leads to the phenomenon of decoherence, where qubits rapidly degrade to the 0 or 1 states of classical bits.

    Building large-scale quantum computing systems capable of delivering on the promise of quantum speed-ups requires overcoming decoherence. The key is developing effective methods of suppressing and correcting quantum errors, an area my own research is focused on .

    In navigating these challenges, numerous quantum hardware and software startups have emerged alongside well-established technology industry players like Google and IBM. This industry interest, combined with significant investment from governments worldwide, underscores a collective recognition of quantum technology’s transformative potential. These initiatives foster a rich ecosystem where academia and industry collaborate, accelerating progress in the field.

    Quantum advantage coming into view

    Quantum computing may one day be as disruptive as the arrival of generative AI . Currently, the development of quantum computing technology is at a crucial juncture. On the one hand, the field has already shown early signs of having achieved a narrowly specialized quantum advantage. Researchers at Google and later a team of researchers in China demonstrated quantum advantage for generating a list of random numbers with certain properties. My research team demonstrated a quantum speed-up for a random number guessing game .

    On the other hand, there is a tangible risk of entering a “quantum winter,” a period of reduced investment if practical results fail to materialize in the near term.

    While the technology industry is working to deliver quantum advantage in products and services in the near term, academic research remains focused on investigating the fundamental principles underpinning this new science and technology. This ongoing basic research, fueled by enthusiastic cadres of new and bright students of the type I encounter almost every day, ensures that the field will continue to progress.

    This article is republished from The Conversation , >, a nonprofit, independent news organization bringing you facts and analysis to help you make sense of our complex world.

    • Limits to computing: A computer scientist explains why even in the age of AI, some problems are just too difficult
    • Nobel-winning quantum weirdness undergirds an emerging high-tech industry, promising better ways of encrypting communications and imaging your body

    Daniel Lidar receives funding from the NSF, DARPA, ARO, and DOE.

    IBM's quantum computer got President Joe Biden's attention.

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    Confused Young Woman Scratching HeadPortrait of a young woman on a white background.

    Can you solve it? Are you a lateral thinker?

    Finding creative solutions

    UPDATE: To read the solutions click here

    Sometimes it pays to approach a problem sideways. Each of today’s puzzles requires some lateral thinking, in that the first step of the solution is perhaps not the obvious one.

    1. Three cloves on an orange

    Given three points on the surface of a sphere, what is the probability there is a hemisphere on which they all lie?

    2. A big number

    If you multiply all the prime numbers less than one million together, what is the final digit of your answer?

    [A prime number is a number that is divisible only by itself and 1, such as 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, and so on.]

    3. The three threes

    Can you make 20 using three threes and any mathematical operations you like?

    [i.e you need to find an expression that includes 3, 3 and 3, and no other digits, but may include any other mathematical symbol, such as +, -, x, ÷, (, ), √, ., etc. An example might be 3 √3 /3, although this would be wrong since it does not equal 20.]

    4. Square are you?

    How can you cut this figure into four pieces which can be reassembled to form a square?

    © CRC Press. From Lateral Solutions to Mathematical Problems by Des MacHale

    5. Roamin’ numerals

    Make the equation valid by moving exactly two matchsticks

    © CRC Press. From Lateral Solutions to Mathematical Problems by Des MacHale

    Please NO SPOILERS. I’ll be back at 5pm UK. Instead discuss your favourite examples of lateral-thinking.

    UPDATE: To read the solutions click here.

    All of today’s puzzle come from Des MacHale’s brilliant new book Lateral Solutions to Mathematical Problems , in which he presents more than a 100 problems from across the mathematical landscape whose solutions benefit from out-of-the-box thinking.

    MacHale, emeritus professor at University College, Cork, is well known to readers of this column as an encyclopedia of mathematical humour . Hs latest book replaces the the “haha” with the “aha!”

    (Hopefully, with not too much aaaaaaaargh! )

    I’ve been setting a puzzle here on alternate Mondays since 2015. I’m always on the look-out for great puzzles. If you would like to suggest one, email me .

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    Computer Science > Computation and Language

    Title: structured chemistry reasoning with large language models.

    Abstract: This paper studies the problem of solving complex chemistry problems with large language models (LLMs). Despite the extensive general knowledge in LLMs (such as GPT-4), they struggle with chemistry reasoning that requires faithful grounded reasoning with diverse chemical knowledge and an integrative understanding of chemical interactions. We propose InstructChem, a new structured reasoning approach that substantially boosts the LLMs' chemical reasoning capabilities. InstructChem explicitly decomposes the reasoning into three critical phrases, including chemical formulae generation by LLMs that offers the basis for subsequent grounded reasoning, step-by-step reasoning that makes multi-step derivations with the identified formulae for a preliminary answer, and iterative review-and-refinement that steers LLMs to progressively revise the previous phases for increasing confidence, leading to the final high-confidence answer. We conduct extensive experiments on four different chemistry challenges, including quantum chemistry, quantum mechanics, physical chemistry, and chemistry kinetics. Our approach significantly enhances GPT-4 on chemistry reasoning, yielding an 8% average absolute improvement and a 30% peak improvement. We further use the generated reasoning by GPT-4 to fine-tune smaller LMs (e.g., Vicuna) and observe strong improvement of the smaller LMs. This validates our approach and enables LLMs to generate high-quality reasoning.

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    • Unsolved_problems_in_chemistry

    Organic chemistry problems

    • Solvolysis of the norbornyl cation : Why is the norbornyl cation so stable? Is it symmetrical? This problem has been largely settled for the unsubstituted norbornyl cation, but not for the substituted cation. See Non-classical ion .
    • On-water reactions : Why are some organic reactions accelerated at the water-organic interface? [2] See On-water reactions.
    • What is the origin of the bond rotation barrier in ethane , steric hindrance or hyperconjugation ? See Bond rotation barrier.
    • What is the origin of the alpha effect ?. Nucleophiles with an electronegative atom and one or more lone pairs adjacent to the nucleophilic center are particularly reactive. See: Alpha effect .

    Biological Chemistry Problems

    • Better-than perfect enzymes : Why do some enzymes exhibit faster-than-diffusion kinetics? [3] See Enzyme kinetics .
    • What is the origin of homochirality in amino acids and sugars? [4] See Homochirality .
    • Protein folding problem : Is it possible to predict the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of a polypeptide sequence based solely on the sequence and environmental information? Inverse protein-folding problem: Is it possible to design a polypeptide sequence which will adopt a given structure under certain environmental conditions? [4] [5] See Protein folding .
    • What are the chemical origins of life ? How did non-living chemical compounds generate self-replicating, complex life forms? See Origin of life .

    Physical Chemistry Problems

    • What is the electronic structure of the high temperature superconductors at various points on the phase diagram ? Can the transition temperature be brought up to room temperature? See Superconductor .
    • Feynmanium : What are the chemical consequences of having an element, with an atomic number above 137, whose 1s electrons must travel faster than the speed of light? Is " Feynmanium " the last chemical element that can physically exist? The problem actually occurs at Element 139 (eka-actinium/dvi-lanthanum), since complete analysis involving relativity gives a smaller result for the velocity of the 1s electrons, therefore allowing stable 1s orbits in the element 138 (Uto) .
    • How can electromagnetic energy ( photons ) be efficiently converted to chemical energy? (E.g. splitting of water to H 2 and O using solar energy.) [6] [7]
    • What is the nature of bonding in hypervalent molecules ? See Hypervalent molecules .
    • What is the structure of water ? According to Science Magazine in 2005, one of the 100 outstanding unsolved problems in science revolves around the question how water forms hydrogen bonds with its neighbors in bulk water. [4] See: water cluster
    • ^ For relevant citations also see the satellite pages
    • ^ Unique Reactivity of Organic Compounds in Aqueous Suspension Sridhar Narayan, John Muldoon, M. G. Finn, Valery V. Fokin, Hartmuth C. Kolb, K. Barry Sharpless Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 21/ 2005 p 3157 ,
    • ^ Comparison of the DNA association kinetics of the Lac repressor tetramer, its dimeric mutant LacIadi, and the native dimeric Gal repressor Hsieh M, Brenowitz M. Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. The Journal of biological chemistry (J. biol. chem.) ISSN 0021-9258 CODEN JBCHA3
    • ^ a b c So much more to know Science 1 July 2005: Vol. 309. no. 5731, pp. 78 - 102 doi:10.1126/science.309.5731.78b
    • ^ King, Jonathan & Gossard, David, ,
    • ^ Duffie, John A. (2006). Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes . Wiley-Interscience, 928. ISBN 978-0471698678 .  
    • ^ Brabec, Christoph; Vladimir Dyakonov, Jürgen Parisi, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci (2006). Organic Photovoltaics: Concepts and Realization . Springer, 300. ISBN 978-3540004059 .  

    Category : Chemistry lists

    i can solve chemistry problems


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    How Students Can Rethink Problem Solving

    Finding, shaping, and solving problems puts high school students in charge of their learning and bolsters critical-thinking skills.

    Students talking in school hallway

    As an educator for over 20 years, I’ve heard a lot about critical thinking , problem-solving , and inquiry and how they foster student engagement. However, I’ve also seen students draw a blank when they’re given a problem to solve. This happens when the problem is too vast for them to develop a solution or they don’t think the situation is problematic. 

    As I’ve tried, failed, and tried again to engage my students in critical thinking, problem-solving, and inquiry, I’ve experienced greater engagement when I allow them to problem-find, problem-shape, and problem-solve. This shift in perspective has helped my students take direct ownership over their learning.

    Encourage Students to Find the Problem 

    When students ask a question that prompts their curiosity, it motivates them to seek out an answer. This answer often highlights a problem. 

    For example, I gave my grade 11 students a list of topics to explore, and they signed up for a topic that they were interested in. From that, they had to develop a research question. This allowed them to narrow the topic down to what they were specifically curious about. 

    Developing a research question initiated the research process. Students launched into reading information from reliable sources including Britannica , Newsela , and EBSCOhost . Through the reading process, they were able to access information so that they could attempt to find an answer to their question.

    The nature of a good question is that there isn’t an “answer.” Instead, there are a variety of answers. This allowed students to feel safe in sharing their answers because they couldn’t be “wrong.” If they had reliable, peer-reviewed academic research to support their answer, they were “right.”

    Shaping a Problem Makes Overcoming It More Feasible 

    When students identify a problem, they’re compelled to do something about it; however, if the problem is too large, it can be overwhelming for them. When they’re overwhelmed, they might shut down and stop learning. For that reason, it’s important for them to shape the problem by taking on a piece they can handle.

    To help guide students, provide a list of topics and allow them to choose one. In my experience, choosing their own topic prompts students’ curiosity—which drives them to persevere through a challenging task. Additionally, I have students maintain their scope at a school, regional, or national level. Keeping the focus away from an international scope allows them to filter down the number of results when they begin researching. Shaping the problem this way allowed students to address it in a manageable way.

    Students Can Problem-Solve with Purpose

    Once students identified a slice of a larger problem that they could manage, they started to read and think about it, collaborate together, and figure out how to solve it. To further support them in taking on a manageable piece of the problem, the parameters of the solution were that it had to be something they could implement immediately. For example, raising $3 million to build a shelter for those experiencing homelessness in the community isn’t something that students can do tomorrow. Focusing on a solution that could be implemented immediately made it easier for them to come up with viable options. 

    With the problem shaped down to a manageable piece, students were better able to come up with a solution that would have a big impact. This problem-solving process also invites ingenuity and innovation because it allows teens to critically look at their day-to-day lives and experiences to consider what actions they could take to make a difference in the world. It prompts them to look at their world through a different lens.

    When the conditions for inquiry are created by allowing students to problem-find, problem-shape and problem-solve, it allows students to do the following:

    • Critically examine their world to identify problems that exist
    • Feel empowered because they realize that they can be part of a solution
    • Innovate by developing new solutions to old problems

    Put it All Together to Promote Change

    Here are two examples of what my grade 11 students came up with when tasked with examining the national news to problem-find, problem-shape, and problem-solve.

    Topic: Indigenous Issues in Canada

    Question: How are Indigenous peoples impacted by racism?

    Problem-find: The continued racism against Indigenous peoples has led to the families of murdered women not attaining justice, Indigenous peoples not being able to gain employment, and Indigenous communities not being able to access basic necessities like healthcare and clean water.

    Problem-shape: A lot of the issues that Indigenous peoples face require government intervention. What can high school teens do to combat these issues?

    Problem-solve: Teens need to stop supporting professional sports teams that tokenize Indigenous peoples, and if they see a peer wearing something from such a sports team, we need to educate them about how the team’s logo perpetuates racism.

    Topic: People With Disabilities in Canada

    Question: What leads students with a hearing impairment to feel excluded?

    Problem-find: Students with a hearing impairment struggle to engage with course texts like films and videos.

    Problem-shape: A lot of the issues that students with a hearing impairment face in schools require teachers to take action. What can high school teens do to help their hearing-impaired peers feel included?

    Problem-solve: When teens share a video on social media, they should turn the closed-captioning on, so that all students can consume the media being shared.

    Once my students came up with solutions, they wanted to do something about it and use their voices to engage in global citizenship. This led them to create TikTok and Snapchat videos and Instagram posts that they shared and re-shared among their peer group. 

    The learning that students engaged in led to their wanting to teach others—which allowed a greater number of students to learn. This whole process engendered conversations about our world and helped them realize that they aren’t powerless; they can do things to initiate change in areas that they’re interested in and passionate about. It allowed them to use their voices to educate others and promote change.

    November 7, 2023

    Understanding Consciousness Goes Beyond Exploring Brain Chemistry

    We can account for the evolution of consciousness only if we crack the philosophy, as well as the physics, of the brain

    By Philip Goff

    3-Dimensional illustrated image of an anonymous person's facial profile on the lefthand side, leading to an illustrated concept evoking spirituality, mind, science, consciousness, expansiveness, personal experience

    Pobytov/Getty Images

    The science of consciousness has not lived up to expectations.

    Over the summer, the neuroscientist Christof Koch conceded defeat on his 25-year bet with the philosopher David Chalmers, a lost wager that the science of consciousness would be all wrapped up by now. In September, over 100 consciousness researchers signed a public letter condemning one of the most popular theories of consciousness —the integrated information theory—as pseudoscience. This in turn prompted strong  responses from other researchers in the field. Despite decades of research, there’s little sign of consensus on consciousness, with several rival theories still in contention.

    Your consciousness is what it’s like to be you. It’s your experiences of color and sound and smell; your feelings of pain, joy, excitement or tiredness. It’s what makes you a thinking, sentient being rather than an unfeeling mechanism.

    In my new book, entitled Why? The Purpose of the Universe , I take head-on the question of why it’s so hard to make progress on consciousness. The core difficulty is that consciousness defies observation. You can’t look inside someone’s brain and see their feelings and experiences. Science does deal with things that can’t be observed, such as fundamental particles, quantum wave functions, maybe even other universes. But consciousness poses an important difference: In all of these other cases, we theorize about things we can’t observe in order to explain what we can observe. Uniquely with consciousness, the thing we are trying to explain cannot be publicly observed.

    How then can we investigate consciousness? Although consciousness can’t be directly observed, if you’re dealing with another human being, you can ask them what they’re feeling, or look for external indications of consciousness. And if you scan their brain at the same time, you can try to match up the brain activity, which you can observe, with the invisible consciousness, which you can’t. The trouble is there are inevitably multiple ways of interpreting such data. This leads to wildly different theories as to where consciousness resides in the brain. Believe it or not, the debates we are currently having in the science of consciousness closely resemble debates that were raging in the 19th century.

    There may be a way forward. I argue that we can account for the evolution of consciousness only if we reject reductionism about consciousness. Most consciousness researchers employ a reductionist view of the universe, where physics is running the show. Thus insofar as there are some future possibilities left open by the arrangements of particles in our brains, they are settled by nothing more than the random chanciness implicit in quantum mechanics.

    Some challenges have lately emerged to this reductionist paradigm. The neuroscientist Kevin Mitchell has argued that the free will of conscious organisms plays a role in determining what will happen in the brain, over and above what is settled by the laws of physics. And the assembly theory of chemist Lee Cronin and physicist Sara Walker decisively rejects reduction to microscopic-level equations, arguing for a kind of memory inherent in nature that guides the construction of complex molecules.

    Evolution offers one of the strongest challenges to reductionist approaches to consciousness. Natural selection only cares about behavior, as it’s only behavior that matters for survival. Rapid progress in AI and robotics has made it clear, however, that extremely complex behaviour can exist in a system that entirely lacks conscious experience. Natural selection could have constructed survival mechanisms : complex biological robots able to track features of their environment and initiate survival-conducive behavioral responses, without having any kind of inner life. For any adaptive behaviour associated with consciousness, there could be a nonconscious mechanism that instigates the same behaviour. Given all this, it is a deep mystery why consciousness evolved at all.

    Or rather, the evolution of consciousness is a deep mystery under the reductionist paradigm, according to which the behavior is determined at the micro level, making it irrelevant whether or not consciousness pops up at higher levels. But suppose instead that the emergence of biological consciousness brings into existence radically new forms of behavior, over and above what physics alone could produce. Perhaps organisms that have conscious awareness of the world around them, and thereby freely respond based on that awareness, behave very differently than mere mechanisms. Consequently, they survive much better. With these assumptions in place, we can make sense of natural selection’s preference for conscious organisms.

    If consciousness does defy reduction, this could revolutionize the science of consciousness. What it would essentially provide is a new empirical marker of consciousness. If the neural processes that correspond to consciousness have a novel causal profile, one that could not be predicted—even in principle—from underlying chemistry and physics, then this would amount to a giant “HERE IT IS!” in the brain.

    Would we not have noticed already if there were processes in the brain that didn’t reduce to underlying chemistry and physics? The truth is we know very little about how the brain works . We know a lot about the basic chemistry: how neurons fire, how chemical signals are transmitted. And we know a fair bit about the large functions of various brain regions. But we know almost nothing about how these large-scale functions are realized at the cellular level. To an extent, abstract theorizing has stood in for detailed neurophysiological investigation of what is actually going on in the brain.

    As a philosopher, I’m not opposed to abstract theorizing. However, it’s crucial to distinguish the scientific questions of consciousness from the philosophical questions. The scientific task is to work out which kinds of brain activity correspond to consciousness, and it’s this task that detailed neurophysiological investigations—equipped to catch the HERE IT IS marker of consciousness—will help us make progress on. But what we ultimately want from a theory of consciousness is an explanation of why brain activity—of whatever form—is correlated with consciousness in the first place. Because consciousness is not an observable phenomenon, the “why” question is not one we can make progress on with experiments. In Why? I develop a radical form of panpsychism—the view that consciousness goes right down to the fundamental building blocks of reality—aimed at addressing the philosophical challenges of consciousness, as well as providing a framework for scientists to make progress on the scientific issues.

    We’re still not at first base in dealing with consciousness. It requires working on many fronts, exploiting many different areas of expertise. We need to let the philosophers do the philosophy and the scientists study the brain. Each provides a different piece of the puzzle. It is a pincer movement of science and philosophy that will, ultimately, crack the mystery of consciousness.

    This is an opinion and analysis article, and the views expressed by the author or authors are not necessarily those of  Scientific American.


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