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TEACHING TIPS: TWELVE TIPS FOR MAKING CASE PRESENTATIONS MORE INTERESTING *
1. set the stage.
Prepare the audience for what is to come. If the audience is composed of people of mixed expertise, spend a few minutes forming them into small mixed groups of novices and experts. Explain that this is an opportunity for the more junior to learn from the more senior people. Tell them that the case to be presented is extremely interesting, why it is so and what they may learn from it. The primary objective is to analyze the clinical reasoning that was used rather than the knowledge required, although the acquisition of such knowledge is an added benefit of the session. A “well organized case presentation or clinicopathological conference incorporates the logic of the workup implicitly and thus makes the diagnostic process seem almost preordained”.
A psychiatry resident began by introducing the case as an exciting one, explaining the process and dividing the audience into teams mixing people with varied expertise. He urged everyone to think in ‘real time’ rather than jump ahead and to refrain from considering information that is not normally available at the time: for example, a laboratory report that takes 24 hours to obtain be assessed in the initial workup.
2. PROVIDE ONLY INITIAL CUES AT FIRST
Give them the first two to live cues that were picked up in the first minute or two of the patient encounter either verbally, or written on a transparency. For example, age, sex race and reason for seeking medical help. Ask each group to discuss their first diagnostic hypotheses. Experts and novices will learn a great deal from each other at this stage and the discussions will be animated. The initial cues may number only one or two and hypothesis generation occurs very quickly even in the novices. Indeed, the only difference between the hypotheses of novices and those of experts is in the degree of refinement, not in number.
It is Saturday afternoon and you are the psychiatric emergency physician. A 25-year-old male arrives by ambulance and states that he is feeling suicidal. Groups talked for 4 minutes before the resident called for order to commence step three.
3. ASK FOR HYPOTHESES AND WRITE THEM UP ON THE BLACKBOARD
Call for order and ask people to offer their suggested diagnoses and write these up on a board or transparency.
The following hypotheses were suggested by the groups and the resident wrote them on a flip chart: depression, substance abuse, recent social stressors-crisis, adjustment disorder, organic problem, dysthymia, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder. The initial three or four bits of information generated eight hypotheses.
4. ALLOW THE AUDIENCE TO ASK FOR INFORMATION
After all hypotheses have been listed instruct the audience to ask for the information they need to confirm or refute these hypotheses. Do not allow them to ‘jump the gun’ by asking for a test result, for example, that would not have been received within the time frame that is being re-lived. There will be a temptation to move too fast and the exercise is wasted if information is given too soon. Recall that the purpose is to help them go through a thinking process which requires time.
Teachers participating in this exercise will receive much diagnostic information about students’ thinking at this stage. Indeed, an interesting teaching session can be conducted by simply asking students to generate hypotheses without proceeding further. There is evidence to suggest that when a diagnosis is not considered initially it is unlikely to be reached over time, Hence it is worth spending time with students to discuss the hypotheses they generate before they proceed with an enquiry.
Directions to the group were to determine what questions they would like to ask, based on gender, age and probabilities, to support or exclude the listed diagnostic possibilities. A sample of question follow:
- Does he work? No, he's unemployed.
- Does he drink? one to three beers a week.
- Why now? He's been feeling worse and worse for the last 3 weeks.
- Social support? He gives alone. Has no girlfriend.
- Appearance? Looks his age. Not shaved today. No shower in 3 days.
- Cultural background? Refugee from Iraq. Muslim.
- How did he get here? He spent 4 years in a refugee camp after spending 4 months walking to Pakistan from Iraq. He left Iraq to avoid military service.
- Suicide thoughts? Increasing the last 3 weeks. He was admitted in December and has been taking chloral hydrate.
This step took 13 minutes.
5. HAVE THE AUDIENCE RE-FORMULATE THEIR LIST OF HYPOTHESES
After enough information has been gained to proceed, ask them to resume their discussion about the problem and reformulate their diagnostic hypotheses in light of the new information. Instruct them to discuss which pieces of information changed the working diagnosis and why. Call for order again and ask people what they now think.
After allowing the group to talk for a few minutes, the resident asked them if there was enough information to strike off any hypotheses or if new hypotheses should be added to the list. One more possibility was added, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One group's list of priorities was major affective disorder with psychosis, schizophrenia, personality disorder. Another group also placed affective disorder first followed by organic mood disorder.
This step took 25 minutes.
6. FACILITATE A DISCUSSION ABOUT REASONING
Alter the original lists of hypotheses on the board in light of the discussion, or allow one member from each group to alter their own lists. By the use of open-ended questions encourage a general discussion about the reasons a group has for preferring one diagnosis over another.
A general discussion ensued about reasons for these priorities. Then the list was altered so that it read: schizophrenia, personality disorder, PTSD, major affective disorder with psychosis, organic mood disorder.
7. ALLOW ANOTHER ROUND OF INFORMATION SEEKING
Continue with another round of information and small-group discussion or else allow the whole group to interact. By giving information only when asked for and only in correct sequence, each person is challenged to think through the problem.
More information was sought, such as: form of speech? eye contact? affect? substance use? After 5 minutes the resident asked if there were only lab tests they would like. The group asked for thyroid stimulating hormone, T4, electrolytes and were given the results. They also asked for the results of the physical examination and were told that the pulse was 110 and the thyroid was enlarged. At this point some hypotheses were removed from the list.
8. ASK GROUPS TO REACH A FINAL DIAGNOSIS
When there is a lull in the search for information, ask the groups to reach consensus on their final diagnosis, given the information they have. Allow discussion within the groups.
9. CALL FOR EACH GROUP'S FINAL DIAGNOSIS
On each group's list of hypothesis, star or underline the final diagnosis.
The group decided that the most likely diagnosis was affective disorder with psychosis, the actual working diagnosis of the patient.
10. ASK FOR MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
If there is enough time, ask them to form small groups again to discuss treatment options, or conduct the discussion as a large group. Again ask for the reasons why one approach is preferred over another. Particularly ask the experts in the room for their reasoning so that the novices can learn from them.
By the time the end is in sight the audience will be so involved that they will not wish to leave. However, 5 minutes before time, call for order and summarize the session. Highlight the key points that have been raised and refer to the objective of the session.
We are now at the end of our time. You have all had the opportunity to use your clinical reasoning skills to generate several hypotheses which are shown on the board. Initially you thought it possible that this man could have any one of a number of diagnoses including depression, substance abuse, adjustment disorder with depressed mood, organic mood disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. With further information the possible diagnosis shifted to include schizophrenia and personality disorder as well as depression with psychotic features. Finally the diagnosis of depression or mood disorder with psychosis was most strongly supported because of the history of consistently depressed mood over several months, along with disturbed sleep, poor appetite, weight loss, decreased energy and diminished interest in most activities. The initially abnormal thyroid test proved to be a red herring so organic mood disorder related to hyper- or hypo-thyroidism was excluded. Additionally absence of vivid dreams involving a traumatic event made a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder unlikely. Although a diagnosis of schizophrenia could not be totally excluded, this seemed less likely given the findings.
12. CLOSE THE SESSION WITH POSITIVE FEEDBACK
In some respects, but only some, teaching is like acting and one should strive to leave them not laughing as you go, but feeling that they have learned something.
The more novice members of the group have learned from the more experienced and all your suggestions have been valid. It has been interesting for me to follow your reasoning and compare it with mine when I actually saw this man. You have given me a different perspective as you thought of things I had not, and I thank you for your participation.
Although case presentation should be a major learning experience for both novice and experienced physicians they are often conducted in a stultifying way that defies thought. We have presented a series of steps which, if followed, guarantee active participation from the audience and ensure that if experts are in the room their expertise is used. Physicians have been moulded to believe that teaching means telling and, as a consequence, adopt a remote listening stance during case presentations. Indeed the back row often use the time to catch up on much needed sleep! Changing the format requires courage. We urge you to try out these steps so that both you and your audience will learn from and enjoy the process.
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Presenting a Clinical Vignette: Deciding What to Present
If you are scheduled to make a presentation of a clinical vignette, reading this article will improve your performance. We describe a set of practical, proven steps that will guide your preparation of the presentation. The process of putting together a stellar presentation takes time and effort, and we assume that you will be willing to put forth the effort to make your presentation successful. This and subsequent articles will focus on planning, preparation, creating visual aids (slides), and presentation skills. The intent of this series of articles is to help you make a favorable impression and reap the rewards, personal and professional, of a job well done.
The process begins with the creation of an outline of the topics that might be presented at the meeting. Your outline should follow the typical format and sequence for this type of communication: history, physical examination, investigations, patient course, and discussion. This format is chosen because your audience understands it and uses it every day. If you have already prepared a paper for publication, it can be a rich source of content for the topic outline.
To get you started, we have prepared a generic outline to serve as an example. Look over the generic outline to get a sense of what might be addressed in your presentation. We realize that the generic outline will not precisely fit all of the types of cases; nevertheless, think about the larger principle and ask yourself, "How can I adapt this to my situation?" In order to help you visualize the type of content you might include in the outline, an example of a topic outline for a clinical vignette is presented.
The main purpose of the introduction is to place the case in a clinical context and explain the importance or relevance of the case. Some case reports begin immediately with the description of the case, and this is perfectly acceptable.
1. Describing the clinical context and relevance
i. Ergotism is characterized by intense, generalized vasoconstriction of small and large blood vessels. ii. Ergotism is rare and therefore difficult to diagnose. iii. Failure to diagnose can lead to significant morbidity.
The case report should be chronological and detail the history, physical findings, and investigations followed by the patient's course. At this point, you may wish to include more details than you might have time to present, prioritizing the content later.
i. A 34-year-old female smoker has chronic headaches, dyspnea, and burning leg pain. ii. Clinical diagnosis of mitral valve stenosis is made. iii. She returns in one week because of burning pain in the legs. iv. One month after presentation, cardiac catheterization demonstrates severe mitral valve stenosis. v. Elective mitral valve commisurotomy is scheduled, but the patient is admitted to hospital early because of increased burning pain in her feet and a painful right leg.
2. Physical Examination
i. Normal vital signs. ii. No skin findings. iii. Typical findings of mitral stenosis, no evidence of heart failure. iv. Cool, pulseless right leg. v. Normal neurological examination.
i. Normal laboratory studies. ii. ECG shows left atrial enlargement. iii. Arteriogram of right femoral artery shows subtotal stenosis, collateral filling of the popliteal artery, and pseudoaneurysm formation.
4. Hospital Course
i. Mitral valve commisurotomy is performed, as well as femoral artery thombectomy, balloon dilation, and a patch graft repair. ii. On the fifth postoperative day, the patient experienced a return of burning pain in the right leg. The leg was pale, cool, mottled, and pulseless. iii. The arteriogram of femoral arteries showed smooth segmental narrowing and bilateral vasospasm suggesting large-vessel arteritis complicated by thrombosis. iv. Treatment was initiated with corticosteroids, anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, and oral vasodilators. v. The patient continued to deteriorate with both legs becoming cool and pulseless. vi. Additional history revealed that the patient abused ergotamine preparations for years (headaches). She used 12 tables daily for the past year and continued to receive ergotamine in hospital on days 2, 6, and 7. vii. Ergotamine preparations were stopped, intravenous nitroprusside was begun, and she showed clinical improvement within 2 hours. Nitroprusside was stopped after 24 hours, and the symptoms did not return. viii. The remainder of hospitalization was uneventful.
The main purpose of the discussion section is to articulate the lessons learned from the case. It should describe how a similar case should be approached in the future. It is sometimes appropriate to provide background information to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the patient's presentation, findings, investigations, course, or therapy.
i. The most common cause of ergotism is chronic poisoning found in young females with chronic headaches. ii. Manifestations can include neurological, gastrointestinal, and vascular (list each in a table). iii. Ergotamine poisoning induces intense vasospasm, and venous thrombosis may occur from direct damage to the endothelium. iv. Vasospasm is due primarily to the direct vasoconstrictor effects on the vascular smooth muscle. v. Habitual use of ergotamine can lead to withdrawal headaches leading to a cycle of greater levels of ingestion. vi. In addition to stopping ergotamine, a direct vasodilator is usually prescribed. vii. Lesson 1: Physicians should be alert to the potential of ergotamine toxicity in young women with chronic headaches that present with neurological, gastrointestinal, or ischemic symptoms. viii. Lesson 2: The value of a complete history and checking the medication list.
Creating a topic outline will provide a list of all the topics you might possibly present at the meeting. Since you will have only ten minutes, you will prioritize the topics to determine what to keep and what to cut.
How do you decide what to cut? First, identify the basic information in the three major categories that you simply must present. This represents the "must-say" category. If you have done your job well, the content you have retained will answer the following questions:
What happened to the patient? What was the time course of these events? Why did management follow the lines that it did? What was learned?
After you have identified the "must-say" content, identify information that will help the audience better understand the case. Call this the "elaboration" category. Finally, identify the content that you think the audience would like to know, provided there is enough time, and identify this as the "nice-to-know" category.
Preparing a presentation is an iterative process. As you begin to "fit" your talk into the allotted time, certain content you originally thought of as "elaboration" may be dropped to the "nice-to-know" category due to time constraints. Use the following organizational scheme to efficiently prioritize your outline.
Prioritizing Topics in the Topic Outline
1. Use your completed topic outline.
2. Next to each entry in your outline, prioritize the importance of content.
3. Use the following code system to track your prioritization decisions:
A = Must-Say B = Elaboration C = Nice-to-Know
4. Remember, this is an iterative process; your decisions are not final.
5. Review the outline with your mentor or interested colleagues, and listen to their decisions.
Use the Preparing the Clinical Vignette Presentation Checklist to assist you in preparing the topic outline.
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A guide on how to structure a case presentation
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-History of presenting problem
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Presenting patient cases is a key part of everyday clinical practice. A well delivered presentation has the potential to facilitate patient care and improve efficiency on ward rounds, as well as a means of teaching and assessing clinical competence. 1
The purpose of a case presentation is to communicate your diagnostic reasoning to the listener, so that he or she has a clear picture of the patient’s condition and further management can be planned accordingly. 2 To give a high quality presentation you need to take a thorough history. Consultants make decisions about patient care based on information presented to them by junior members of the team, so the importance of accurately presenting your patient cannot be overemphasised.
As a medical student, you are likely to be asked to present in numerous settings. A formal case presentation may take place at a teaching session or even at a conference or scientific meeting. These presentations are usually thorough and have an accompanying PowerPoint presentation or poster. More often, case presentations take place on the wards or over the phone and tend to be brief, using only memory or short, handwritten notes as an aid.
Everyone has their own presenting style, and the context of the presentation will determine how much detail you need to put in. You should anticipate what information your senior colleagues will need to know about the patient’s history and the care he or she has received since admission, to enable them to make further management decisions. In this article, I use a fictitious case to …
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Blog Case Study
How to Present a Case Study like a Pro (With Examples)
By Danesh Ramuthi , Sep 07, 2023
In today’s data-driven world, the influence of a well-presented case study can be monumental, making or breaking decisions in boardrooms and classrooms alike. Whether you’re a high-flying executive pitching a groundbreaking initiative or a student aiming to impress a panel of experts, mastering the art of presenting case studies is crucial.
In this article, I delve deep into the nuances of crafting and presenting powerful case studies. From selecting the right metrics to using persuasive narrative techniques, I will cover every element that transforms a mere report into a compelling case study.
If you are ready to take your case study presentations to the next level then use Venngage’s Case Study Creator to streamline the process or choose from our range of pre-designed case study templates to give your work that professional edge.
Click to jump ahead:
What Is a Case Study presentation?
Purpose of presenting a case study, how to structure a case study presentation, how long should a case study presentation be, 5 case study presentation templates, tips for delivering an effective case study presentation, common mistakes to avoid in a case study presentation, how to present a case study faqs.
A case study presentation involves a comprehensive examination of a specific subject, which could range from an individual, group, location, event, organization or phenomenon. This analysis is meticulously organized and presented interactively, with the goal of actively engaging the audience. Unlike a basic report or whitepaper, the purpose of a case study presentation is to stimulate critical thinking among the viewers.
The primary objective of a case study is to provide an extensive and profound comprehension of the chosen topic. This is achieved through the incorporation of empirical data, expert insights and real-life instances.
Case studies act as a social proof for many. The primary purpose of presenting a case study is to offer a comprehensive, evidence-based argument that informs, persuades and engages your audience. Whether you’re a product manager trying to convince your clients or customers to buy the product or in academia explaining the significance of your research findings, a well-executed case study serves multiple objectives.
Firstly, it allows you to delve deep into the intricacies of a specific problem, challenge or opportunity, examining it from various angles. This depth of exploration helps in understanding the issue more holistically.
Secondly, it provides a structured platform to showcase your analytical skills and thought process. A case study enables you to demonstrate how you arrive at conclusions, offering transparency in your decision-making process.
Besides, presenting a case study gives you an opportunity to connect data and real-world scenarios in a compelling narrative. It helps to make your argument more relatable and accessible, increasing its impact on your audience.
One of the contexts where case studies can be very helpful is during the job interview. In some job interviews, candidates may be asked to present a case study as part of the selection process.
This allows the candidate to demonstrate their ability to understand complex issues, formulate strategies, and communicate their ideas effectively.
The way you present a case study can make all the difference in how it’s received. A well-structured presentation not only holds the attention of your audience but also ensures that your key points are communicated clearly and effectively.
In this section, we will outline key steps to help you structure your case study presentation for maximum impact.
Let’s get into it.
Open with an introductory overview
Start by introducing the subject of your case study and its relevance. Explain why this case study is important and who would benefit from the insights gained. This is your opportunity to grab your audience’s attention.
Explain the Problem in Question
Dive into the problem or challenge that the case study focuses on. Provide enough background information for the audience to understand the issue. If possible, quantify the problem using data or metrics to show the magnitude or severity.
Detail the Solutions to Solve the Problem
After outlining the problem, describe the steps taken to find a solution. This could include the methodology, any experiments or tests performed, and the options that were considered. Elaborate on why the final solution was chosen over the others.
Key Stakeholders Involved
Talk about the individuals, groups, or organizations that were directly impacted by or involved in the problem and its solution.
Stakeholders may experience a range of outcomes—some may benefit, while others could face setbacks.
For example, in a business transformation case study, employees could face job relocations or changes in work culture, while shareholders might be looking at potential gains or losses.
Discuss the Key Results & Outcomes
Discuss the results of implementing the solution. Use data and metrics to back up your statements. Did the solution meet its objectives? What impact did it have on the stakeholders? Be honest about any setbacks or areas for improvement as well.
Include Visuals to Support Your Analysis
Visual aids can be incredibly effective in helping your audience grasp complex issues. Utilize charts, graphs, images, or video clips to supplement your points. Make sure to explain each visual and how it contributes to your overall argument.
Recommendations and Next Steps
Wrap up by providing recommendations based on the case study findings. Outline the next steps that stakeholders should take to either expand on the success of the project or address any remaining challenges.
Acknowledgments and References
Thank the people who contributed to the case study and helped in the problem-solving process. Cite any external resources, reports, or data sets that contributed to your analysis.
Feedback & Q&A Session
Open the floor for questions and feedback from your audience. This allows for further discussion and can provide additional insights that may not have been considered previously.
Conclude the presentation by summarizing the key points and emphasizing the takeaways. Thank your audience for their time and participation, and express your willingness to engage in further discussions or collaborations on the subject.
Well, the length of a case study presentation can vary depending on the complexity of the topic and the needs of your audience. However, a typical business or academic presentation often lasts between 15 to 30 minutes.
This time frame usually allows for a thorough examination of the case while maintaining audience engagement. Always consider leaving a few minutes at the end for a Q&A session to address any questions or clarify points made during the presentation.
When it comes to presenting a compelling case study, having a well-structured template can be a game-changer.
It helps you organize your thoughts, data and findings in a coherent and visually pleasing manner.
Not all case studies are created equal, and different scenarios require distinct approaches for maximum impact.
To save you time and effort, I have curated a list of 5 versatile case study presentation templates, each designed for specific needs and audiences.
Here are some best case study presentation examples that showcase effective strategies for engaging your audience and conveying complex information clearly.
1) Medical report case study template
Navigating the healthcare landscape requires meticulous attention to detail, especially when it comes to patient care.
A well-structured Medical Report Case Study Template is a vital tool in this regard.
Designed to offer a structured framework for healthcare professionals, this sample template enables you to capture a comprehensive overview of a patient’s medical condition, history and ongoing treatment in an organized, easy-to-understand format.
2) Product Case Study Template
A Product Case Study Template can be an invaluable resource for showcasing how your product has solved a particular problem for your customers.
Structuring this information clearly and concisely helps potential clients understand the value your product can provide.
3) Content marketing case study template
In digital marketing, showcasing your accomplishments is as vital as achieving them.
A well-crafted case study not only acts as a testament to your successes but can also serve as an instructional tool for others.
With Coral Content Marketing Case Study Template —a perfect blend of vibrant design and structured documentation, you can narrate your marketing triumphs effectively.
4) Case study psychology template
Psychological case studies offer invaluable insights into human behavior, cognition and emotion, often serving as foundational pillars in the field of psychology.
Crafting a comprehensive and impactful psychological case study, however, is a nuanced task that requires meticulous attention to detail, structure and presentation.
Case Study Psychology Template is here to facilitate this intricate process, allowing you to focus more on content while we handle the formatting and design aspects.
5) Lead generation case study template
Lead generation remains one of the cornerstones for driving business revenue and increasing sales.
Showcasing your expertise and successful sales tactics through a compelling business case study can serve as a strong validation of your business acumen and methodology.
Lead Generation Case Study Template is specifically designed to help you create a captivating, data-driven narrative that not only highlights your sales successes but also provides actionable insights for improving future sales strategies.
Related: 15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]
So, you’ve spent hours crafting the perfect case study and are now tasked with presenting it. Crafting the case study is only half the battle; delivering it effectively is equally important.
Whether you’re facing a room of executives, academics or potential clients, how you present your findings can make a significant difference in how your work is received.
Below, I offer essential tips to ensure that your case study presentation is not just informative but also engaging and persuasive.
- Know your audience : Tailor your presentation to the knowledge level and interests of your audience. Use language and examples that resonate with them.
- Rehearse : Rehearsing your case study presentation is essential for a smooth delivery and for ensuring that you stay within the allotted time. Practice helps you fine-tune your pacing, hone your speaking skills with good word pronunciations and become comfortable with the material, leading to a more confident, conversational and effective presentation.
- Start strong : Open with a compelling introduction that grabs your audience’s attention. You might use an interesting statistic, a provocative question or a brief story that sets the stage for your case study.
- Be clear and concise : Avoid jargon and overly complex sentences. Get to the point quickly and stay focused on your objectives.
- Use visual aids : Incorporate slides with graphics, charts or videos to supplement your verbal presentation. Make sure they are easy to read and understand.
- Tell a story : Use storytelling techniques to make the case study more engaging. A well-told narrative can help you make complex data more relatable and easier to digest.
With Venngage, you can engage your customers by showcasing your company’s problem-solving approaches, and gain essential knowledge to refine your business plan through Venngage’s case study templates .
Crafting and presenting a case study is a skillful task that requires careful planning and execution. While a well-prepared case study can be a powerful tool for showcasing your successes, educating your audience or encouraging discussion, there are several pitfalls you should avoid to make your presentation as effective as possible. Here are some common mistakes to watch out for:
Overloading with information
A case study is not an encyclopedia. Overloading your presentation with excessive data, text or jargon can make it cumbersome and difficult for the audience to digest the key points. Stick to what’s essential and impactful.
Lack of structure
Jumping haphazardly between points or topics can confuse your audience. A well-structured presentation, with a logical flow from introduction to conclusion, is crucial for effective communication.
Ignoring the audience
Different audiences have different needs and levels of understanding. Failing to adapt your presentation to your audience can result in a disconnect and a less impactful presentation.
Poor visual elements
While content is king, poor design or lack of visual elements can make your case study dull or hard to follow. Make sure you use high-quality images, graphs and other visual aids to support your narrative.
Not focusing on results
A case study aims to showcase a problem and its solution, but what most people care about are the results. Failing to highlight or adequately explain the outcomes can make your presentation fall flat.
How to start a case study presentation?
Starting a case study presentation effectively involves a few key steps:
- Grab attention : Open with a hook—an intriguing statistic, a provocative question or a compelling visual—to engage your audience from the get-go.
- Set the stage : Briefly introduce the subject, context and relevance of the case study to give your audience an idea of what to expect.
- Outline objectives : Clearly state what the case study aims to achieve. Are you solving a problem, proving a point or showcasing a success?
- Agenda : Give a quick outline of the key sections or topics you’ll cover to help the audience follow along.
- Set expectations : Let your audience know what you want them to take away from the presentation, whether it’s knowledge, inspiration or a call to action.
How to present a case study on PowerPoint and on Google slides?
Presenting a case study on PowerPoint and Google Slides involves a structured approach for clarity and impact using presentation slides:
- Title slide : Start with a title slide that includes the name of the case study, your name and any relevant institutional affiliations.
- Introduction : Follow with a slide that outlines the problem or situation your case study addresses. Include a hook to engage the audience.
- Objectives : Clearly state the goals of the case study in a dedicated slide.
- Findings : Use charts, graphs and bullet points to present your findings succinctly.
- Analysis : Discuss what the findings mean, drawing on supporting data or secondary research as necessary.
- Conclusion : Summarize key takeaways and results.
- Q&A : End with a slide inviting questions from the audience.
What’s the role of analysis in a case study presentation?
The role of analysis in a case study presentation is to interpret the data and findings, providing context and meaning to them.
It helps the audience understand the implications of the case study, connects the dots between the problem and the solution and may offer recommendations for future action.
Is it important to include real data and results in the presentation?
Yes, including real data and results in a case study presentation is crucial to show experience, credibility and impact. Authentic data lends weight to your findings and conclusions, enabling the audience to trust your analysis and take your recommendations more seriously
How do I conclude a case study presentation effectively?
To conclude a case study presentation effectively, summarize the key findings, insights and recommendations in a clear and concise manner.
End with a strong call-to-action or a thought-provoking question to leave a lasting impression on your audience.
What’s the best way to showcase data in a case study presentation ?
The best way to showcase data in a case study presentation is through visual aids like charts, graphs and infographics which make complex information easily digestible, engaging and creative.
Choose the type of visual that best represents the data you’re showing; for example, use bar charts for comparisons or pie charts for parts of a whole.
Ensure that the visuals are high-quality and clearly labeled, so the audience can quickly grasp the key points.
Keep the design consistent and simple, avoiding clutter or overly complex visuals that could distract from the message.
Choose a template that perfectly suits your case study where you can utilize different visual aids for maximum impact.
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How to make an oral case presentation to healthcare colleagues
The content and delivery of a patient case for education and evidence-based care discussions in clinical practice.
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A case presentation is a detailed narrative describing a specific problem experienced by one or more patients. Pharmacists usually focus on the medicines aspect , for example, where there is potential harm to a patient or proven benefit to the patient from medication, or where a medication error has occurred. Case presentations can be used as a pedagogical tool, as a method of appraising the presenter’s knowledge and as an opportunity for presenters to reflect on their clinical practice  .
The aim of an oral presentation is to disseminate information about a patient for the purpose of education, to update other members of the healthcare team on a patient’s progress, and to ensure the best, evidence-based care is being considered for their management.
Within a hospital, pharmacists are likely to present patients on a teaching or daily ward round or to a senior pharmacist or colleague for the purpose of asking advice on, for example, treatment options or complex drug-drug interactions, or for referral.
Content of a case presentation
As a general structure, an oral case presentation may be divided into three phases  :
- Reporting important patient information and clinical data;
- Analysing and synthesising identified issues (this is likely to include producing a list of these issues, generally termed a problem list);
- Managing the case by developing a therapeutic plan.
Specifically, the following information should be included  :
Patient and complaint details
Patient details: name, sex, age, ethnicity.
Presenting complaint: the reason the patient presented to the hospital (symptom/event).
History of presenting complaint: highlighting relevant events in chronological order, often presented as how many days ago they occurred. This should include prior admission to hospital for the same complaint.
Review of organ systems: listing positive or negative findings found from the doctor’s assessment that are relevant to the presenting complaint.
Past medical and surgical history
Social history: including occupation, exposures, smoking and alcohol history, and any recreational drug use.
Medication history, including any drug allergies: this should include any prescribed medicines, medicines purchased over-the-counter, any topical preparations used (including eye drops, nose drops, inhalers and nasal sprays) and any herbal or traditional remedies taken.
Sexual history: if this is relevant to the presenting complaint.
Details from a physical examination: this includes any relevant findings to the presenting complaint and should include relevant observations.
Laboratory investigation and imaging results: abnormal findings are presented.
Assessment: including differential diagnosis.
Plan: including any pharmaceutical care issues raised and how these should be resolved, ongoing management and discharge planning.
Any discrepancies between the current management of the patient’s conditions and evidence-based recommendations should be highlighted and reasons given for not adhering to evidence-based medicine ( see ‘Locating the evidence’ ).
Locating the evidence
The evidence base for the therapeutic options available should always be considered. There may be local guidance available within the hospital trust directing the management of the patient’s presenting condition. Pharmacists often contribute to the development of such guidelines, especially if medication is involved. If no local guidelines are available, the next step is to refer to national guidance. This is developed by a steering group of experts, for example, the British HIV Association or the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence . If the presenting condition is unusual or rare, for example, acute porphyria, and there are no local or national guidelines available, a literature search may help locate articles or case studies similar to the case.
Giving a case presentation
Currently, there are no available acknowledged guidelines or systematic descriptions of the structure, language and function of the oral case presentation  and therefore there is no standard on how the skills required to prepare or present a case are taught. Most individuals are introduced to this concept at undergraduate level and then build on their skills through practice-based learning.
A case presentation is a narrative of a patient’s care, so it is vital the presenter has familiarity with the patient, the case and its progression. The preparation for the presentation will depend on what information is to be included.
Generally, oral case presentations are brief and should be limited to 5–10 minutes. This may be extended if the case is being presented as part of an assessment compared with routine everyday working ( see ‘Case-based discussion’ ). The audience should be interested in what is being said so the presenter should maintain this engagement through eye contact, clear speech and enthusiasm for the case.
It is important to stick to the facts by presenting the case as a factual timeline and not describing how things should have happened instead. Importantly, the case should always be concluded and should include an outcome of the patient’s care  .
An example of an oral case presentation, given by a pharmacist to a doctor, is available here .
A successful oral case presentation allows the audience to garner the right amount of patient information in the most efficient way, enabling a clinically appropriate plan to be developed. The challenge lies with the fact that the content and delivery of this will vary depending on the service, and clinical and audience setting  . A practitioner with less experience may find understanding the balance between sufficient information and efficiency of communication difficult, but regular use of the oral case presentation tool will improve this skill.
Tailoring case presentations to your audience
Most case presentations are not tailored to a specific audience because the same type of information will usually need to be conveyed in each case.
However, case presentations can be adapted to meet the identified learning needs of the target audience, if required for training purposes. This method involves varying the content of the presentation or choosing specific cases to present that will help achieve a set of objectives  . For example, if a requirement to learn about the management of acute myocardial infarction has been identified by the target audience, then the presenter may identify a case from the cardiology ward to present to the group, as opposed to presenting a patient reviewed by that person during their normal working practice.
Alternatively, a presenter could focus on a particular condition within a case, which will dictate what information is included. For example, if a case on asthma is being presented, the focus may be on recent use of bronchodilator therapy, respiratory function tests (including peak expiratory flow rate), symptoms related to exacerbation of airways disease, anxiety levels, ability to talk in full sentences, triggers to worsening of symptoms, and recent exposure to allergens. These may not be considered relevant if presenting the case on an unrelated condition that the same patient has, for example, if this patient was admitted with a hip fracture and their asthma was well controlled.
The oral case presentation may also act as the basis of workplace-based assessment in the form of a case-based discussion. In the UK, this forms part of many healthcare professional bodies’ assessment of clinical practice, for example, medical professional colleges.
For pharmacists, a case-based discussion forms part of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS) Foundation and Advanced Practice assessments . Mastery of the oral case presentation skill could provide useful preparation for this assessment process.
A case-based discussion would include a pharmaceutical needs assessment, which involves identifying and prioritising pharmaceutical problems for a particular patient. Evidence-based guidelines relevant to the specific medical condition should be used to make treatment recommendations, and a plan to monitor the patient once therapy has started should be developed. Professionalism is an important aspect of case-based discussion — issues must be prioritised appropriately and ethical and legal frameworks must be referred to  . A case-based discussion would include broadly similar content to the oral case presentation, but would involve further questioning of the presenter by the assessor to determine the extent of the presenter’s knowledge of the specific case, condition and therapeutic strategies. The criteria used for assessment would depend on the level of practice of the presenter but, for pharmacists, this may include assessment against the RPS Foundation or Pharmacy Frameworks .
With thanks to Aamer Safdar for providing the script for the audio case presentation.
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