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Referencing multiple authors in Harvard style

Referencing allows you to acknowledge different ideas and materials that you borrow from other authors’ works. Harvard style referencing has two parts:  

  • In-text citation – A citation that’s provided in your work (in-text) that indicates where a stated idea or direct quotation comes from.
  • Reference list – A list of references that correspond to all in-text citations in the text. Each reference is longer than the in-text citation and contains details like the author’s name, publisher name, year published, place of publication, volumes, and other source information.

Below we will cover how to cite multiple authors in both an in-text citation and a reference.

Two authors are provided

When referencing a source that has two authors, the reference should have the names of both the authors.  

For in-text citations, include the surnames of both authors and the year published.

For references, the surname and first-name initial of each author is listed with “and” between them.  

In-text citation structure:

“Quote” or paraphrase (Surname 1 and Surname 2, Year published)

Surname 1 and Surname 2 (Year published)

In-text citation example:

“Ridley noticed that the ornament from Lena’s graduation had already joined her charm collection” (Garcia and Stohl, 2015).

Garcia and Stohl (2015) noticed that…

Example reference structure (book):

Surname 1, Initial(s). and Surname 2, Initial(s). (Year published) Title in Italics . Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Reference example:

Garcia, K. and Stohl, M. (2015) Dangerous creatures. London: Penguin Books.

Three authors are provided

A reference for a source with three authors will have the names of all three authors. List the authors in the order they are presented in the source (not in alphabetical order).  

For in-text citations, include the surnames of all authors and the year published.

For references, the surname and first-name initial of each author is listed. A comma separates the first and second author names; the word “and” separates the second and third author names.  

“Quote” or paraphrase (Surname 1, Surname 2 and Surname 3, Year published)

Surname 1, Surname 2 and Surname 3 (Year published)

“The parts of the brain are the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum, and the brainstem” (Drake, Vogl and Mitchell, 2015).

Surname 1, Initial(s)., Surname 2, Initial(s). and Surname 3, Initial(s). (Year published) Title in Italics . Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Drake, R.L., Vogl, A.W. and Mitchell, A.W.M. (2015) Gray’s anatomy for students . 3 rd rev. edn. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Four or more authors are provided

When referencing a source that has four or more authors, use “ et al.” to shorten your list of authors mentioned.  

For in-text citations, use “ et al.” in italics after the surname of the first author. The meaning of “et al.” is ‘and others’. See this guide on when to use et al. in Harvard style for more details.

References can also use “ et al. ” to shorten the list of authors. However, if your institution prefers to have all names listed in a reference, list all the authors by surname and first-name initial. A comma separates the all author names except for the last two names. The word “and” separates the last two author names.  

“Quote” or paraphrase (Surname 1 et al. , Year published)

Surname 1 et al. (Year published)

“Normal ventricular depolarization proceeds as a rapid, continuous spread of activation wave fronts” (Jameson et al., 2018, p. 1676).

Example reference structures (book):

Surname 1, Initial(s). et al . (Year published) Title in Italics . Place of publication: Publisher.

Surname 1, Initial(s)., Surname 2, Initial(s)., Surname 3, Initial(s)., and Surname 4, Initial(s). (Year published) Title in Italics . Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Example references (book):

Jameson, J.L. et al. (2018) Harrison’s principles of internal medicine . New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Jameson, J.L, Fauci, A.S., Kasper, D.L., Hauser, S.L, Longo, D.L. and Loscalzo J. eds. (2018) Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine . New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Published October 29, 2020.

Harvard Formatting Guide

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Harvard referencing uses in-text citations, in an author-date format. 

Sometimes you might be referencing a source that has more than one author. Or, you might reference several different sources by the same author published in the same year.

This page gives you guidelines and examples for using Harvard in these scenarios. 

Multiple sources with the same author and year

If you are citing more than one source by the same author which are also published in the same year, you will need to differentiate between the sources in your in-text citations. 

You can do this by adding a lower-case letter to the publication date in your in-text citation, and again in your reference list so that the dates and letters match. The first reference should appear as (Author, Yeara), the second as (Author, Yearb) and so on. 

The rest of the reference should follow the usual style for the type of source you are citing.  

In-text citations: 

(Kubler-Ross, 1993a)

(Kubler-Ross, 1993b)

Reference list: 

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a).  AIDS: The ultimate challenge.  New York, NY: Collier Books.

Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b).  Questions and answers on death and dying.  New York, NY. Collier Books.

Sources with two or three authors

If you are citing a source with two or three authors, the surname of all of the authors should be listed in your in-text citation. You should keep the names in the same order as they are in the source.

The surname and initial(s) of all the authors should appear in the full reference for the source. 

In-text citation:

(Reiss and White, 2013, p.6)

Reference list:

Reiss M.J. and White, J. (2013).  An aims-based curriculum: the significance of human flourishing for schools.  London: IOE Press.

Sources with four to seven authors

If you are citing a source with four, five, six or seven authors, the surname of only the first person attributed as one of the source's authors should be included in your in-text citation, followed by the words 'et al'.

(Rogers et al., 2018)

Rogers, L., Hallam, S., Creech, A. and Preti, C. (2018). ‘Learning about what constitutes effective training from a pilot programme to improve music education in primary schools’,  Music Education Research , 10(4), pp.485-497.

Sources with eight or more authors

If you are citing a source with eight or more authors, the surname of only the first person attributed as one of the source's authors should be included in your in-text citation, followed by the words 'et al'.

The surname and initial(s) of the first eight attributed authors should appear in the full reference for the source, followed by the words 'et al'. If there are more than eight authors, do not include the word 'and' between the seventh and eight author.

(Clark et al., 2020)

Clark, K., Cletheroe, D., Gerard, T., Haller, I., Jozwik, K., Shi, K., Thomsen, B., Williams, H., et al. (2020). ‘Synchronous subnanosecond clock and data recovery for optically switched data centres using clock phase caching’,  Nature Electronics , 3, pp.426-433.

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Reference : First author Last name, Initials, second author Last name, Initials and third author Last name, Initials. (Year) Title . Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example : Shalloway, A., Murphy T. and Trott, J. (2001) Design patterns explained: a new perspective on object-oriented design . 3rd edn. London: Addison Wesley.

In-Text-Citation :

  • First author Last name, second author last name and third author Last name (Year)
  • (First author Last name, second author last name and third author Last name, Year)
  • Shalloway, Murphy and Trott (2001) suggest that…..
  • It has been suggested (Shalloway, Murphy and Trott, 2001)

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check  here . 

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check  here .

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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .

For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .

This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .

Table of contents

In-text citations and full references.

  • Secondary referencing
  • Page numbers
  • Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

Full reference examples

Referencing consists of two elements:

  • in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
  • full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.

To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .

Difference between reference list and bibliography

a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text

a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment

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Examples of in-text citations

You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .

Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.

Online module materials

(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).

When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

OR, if there is no named author:

The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633&section=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:

The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014&section=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941&section=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).

Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

For ebooks that do not contain print publication details

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).

Example with one author:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).

Example with two or three authors:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example with four or more authors:

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.

Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.

Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.

If accessed online:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).

Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).

Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).

Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.

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Harvard Referencing - Doncaster

  • Citing One Author
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Direct Citations - 3 or more authors

Example of a direct citation within the text 3 or more authors - Paraphrasing

 As demonstrated by Morris et al . (2002) leadership should concern everyone within an organisation, not just senior management.

Example of a direct citation within the text 3 or more authors – Direct quote:

 Listening is a skill which all leaders should acquire. Morris et al . (2002) believe that: "showing that you want to listen is one of the things you can do quick to change the way your department feels and to develop strong bond between you and your colleagues" (p. 39).

Indirect Citations - 3 or more authors

 As demonstrated by Morris et al. (2002) leadership should concern everyone within an organisation, not just senior management.

 Listening is a skill which all leaders should acquire. Morris et al. (2002) believe that: "showing that you want to listen is one of the things you can do quick to change the way your department feels and to develop strong bond between you and your colleagues" (p. 39).

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In-text citations

Two or more works cited at one point in the text

If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them:

(Larsen 2000; Malinowski 1999)

The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.

Two or three authors or authoring bodies

When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995) 

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Free Harvard Referencing Generator

Generate accurate Harvard reference lists quickly and for FREE, with MyBib!

🤔 What is a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style.

It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

The generated references can be copied into a reference list or bibliography, and then collectively appended to the end of an academic assignment. This is the standard way to give credit to sources used in the main body of an assignment.

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Harvard Referencing Generator?

Harvard is the main referencing style at colleges and universities in the United Kingdom and Australia. It is also very popular in other English-speaking countries such as South Africa, Hong Kong, and New Zealand. University-level students in these countries are most likely to use a Harvard generator to aid them with their undergraduate assignments (and often post-graduate too).

🙌 Why should I use a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator solves two problems:

  • It provides a way to organise and keep track of the sources referenced in the content of an academic paper.
  • It ensures that references are formatted correctly -- inline with the Harvard referencing style -- and it does so considerably faster than writing them out manually.

A well-formatted and broad bibliography can account for up to 20% of the total grade for an undergraduate-level project, and using a generator tool can contribute significantly towards earning them.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Harvard Referencing Generator?

Here's how to use our reference generator:

  • If citing a book, website, journal, or video: enter the URL or title into the search bar at the top of the page and press the search button.
  • Choose the most relevant results from the list of search results.
  • Our generator will automatically locate the source details and format them in the correct Harvard format. You can make further changes if required.
  • Then either copy the formatted reference directly into your reference list by clicking the 'copy' button, or save it to your MyBib account for later.

MyBib supports the following for Harvard style:

🍏 What other versions of Harvard referencing exist?

There isn't "one true way" to do Harvard referencing, and many universities have their own slightly different guidelines for the style. Our generator can adapt to handle the following list of different Harvard styles:

  • Cite Them Right
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  • University of the West of England (UWE)

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

In-text citation

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Harvard style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people’s work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year. There are two styles of citation, known as author-prominent and information-prominent. Both styles are equally acceptable and you can use both styles within one text.

1. Information prominent

In information prominent citations, you include both the author's surname and the date of publication in parentheses. 

(Author's surname Year)

Connections can be made between current politics and curriculum in schools based on established theories (Green 2018).

2. Author prominent

In author prominent citations, the author's surname is included in the text of the sentence, outside the parentheses, and the year (in parentheses) is included directly after the author's name.

Author's surname (Year)

Green (2018) makes connections between politics and curriculum drawing on preceding theorists.

Quotes and page numbers

(Author's surname Year:page)

Author's surname (Year:page)

'Representation is inherently, inescapably political. Representation and power go hand in hand' (Green 2018:33).

Green (2018:33) states that 'representation is inherently, inescapably political. Representation and power go hand in hand'.

  • You only need to include page numbers in in-text citations when you are directly quoting another person's work. Some unit coordinators may want you to include page numbers in your in-text citations as a general rule.  Check your assignment instructions and ask your unit coordinator if you are unsure. See the Style Manual for more information.
  • The  Style Manual  specifies to use single quotation marks (e.g. 'quote') for direct quotes.  However, text-matching software such as Turnitin does not recognise single quotation marks, it only recognises double quotation marks (e.g. "quote"). If you use single quotation marks for quotes, Turnitin will show these as text matches. If you are unsure what quotation marks to use for your assignment, check with your unit coordinator. 

Examples of in-text citations

Author's surname (Year)

(Jones 2017)

Jones (2017)

Two authors

(Author 1's surname and Author 2's surname Year)

Author 1's surname and Author 2's surname (Year)

(Francis and Black 2019)

Francis and Black (2019)

  • The Style Manual states to always use the term 'and' to separate authors, rather than using symbols such as '&'.

Three or more authors

Use the term et al. (a Latin term meaning 'and others') after the first author's surname in all citations. List all authors in the reference list.

(Author 1's surname et al. Year)

Author 1's surname et al. (Year)

(White et al. 2016)

White et al. (2016)

Organisation as author

(Abbreviation of organisation Year)

Abbreviation of organisation (Year)

(DFAT 2016)

DFAT (2016)

The Style Manual states to use the abbreviation for the organisation's name in all in-text citations. For organisations with no abbreviation, use the full name of the organisation.

In-text citations - no year of publication

(Author's surname n.d.)

(Francis n.d.)

Citing multiple sources at the same time

(Author's surname Year; Author's surname Year; Author's surname Year)

(Jones 2017; Francis and Black 2019; White et al. 2016)

Unknown author

Use the first ten words of the title. Make sure that the name that you use in the reference list matches the name that you use for these citations.

('First ten words of the work...' Year)

. . . the worst election loss in the party's history ('This is the end' 1968).

Citing secondary sources

(Author's surname cited in work Year as cited in Author's surname you have read Year)

(Thomas 1980 as cited in Williams 2015)

  • A secondary citation should only be used when the original source is unavailable.
  • In the reference list, only include the source that you actually read (Williams 2015 in the example above).

Multiple works by the same author in the same year

(Author's surname Yeara) ... Author's surname (Yearb)

(Wright 2015a) ...Wright (2015b)

  • Use a lower case letter after the year for each citation, and use these letters in the reference list as well, so that your readers can identify each source. Use the letter a for the first source you cite, the letter b for the second source, etc.

Personal communications

Personal communications can include emails and conversations. Don't include these sources in your reference list.

(Interviewee/respondent surname, personal communication, Day Month Year)

(Mary Smith, personal communication, 24 October 2020)

Editor in place of an author

(Editor's surname ed Year)

(Fleming and Baldwin eds 2020)

Translated works

For translated works, use the original author’s name in the in-text citation.

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How to Cite References with Harvard Referencing

This page outlines examples of how to complete various kinds of references using the Harvard Referencing method .

Quotations, paraphrases and summaries

An author who attributes information to another source.

In-text citations

You must acknowledge both sources in your text:

Graham Gibbs, in his 1981 study into student learning wrote that "because students are aware of their tutor's mastery of the subject matter, it is quite common for them to assume that their reader has no needs at all" (Gibbs 1981, p. 39, cited in Bowden & Marton 1998, p. 35).

List of References

Record the book that you actually sourced:

Bowden, J & Marton F 1998, The university of learning,  Kogan Page, London. 

Multiple authors

One to three authors:

Include both names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Gerster & Basset 1987) or:

Gerster and Basset (1987) assert that...

Gerster, R & Basset, J 1991, Seizures of youth: the sixties and Australia,  Hyland House, Melbourne.

More than three authors:

Use the surname of the first author and et al. ('and others') in the text:

Leeder et al. (1996, p. 78) argued ... or :

(Leeder et al. 1996) 

Don't use et al in the list of references. List all the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page.

Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Matthews, PS, Williams DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide.

A work reproduced in a publication—image, poem, painting, etc.

Refer to the work in the text, then include book author, date, and page number:

De Kooning's 1952 painting "Woman and Bicycle" (Hughes 1980, p. 295) is an example of ...'

List the publication containing the image:

Hughes, R 1980, The shock of the new: art and the century of change , British Broadcasting Corporation, London. 

More than one work by the same author

  In-text citations

Arrange citations in chronological order:

(Smith 1981, 1984, 1985)

Each source requires a separate reference list entry. 

Part of a publication contributed by someone other than the main author—a preface, introduction, foreword, etc.

Drabble (in Bronte 1978) suggests...

Provide the details of the publication to which the contribution was made:

Bronte, E 1978, Wuthering Heights and poems , H Osborne (ed.), Orion Publishing Group, London. Introduction by Margaret Drabble.

An author who published more than one work in the same year

Attach an a, b, c, d etc. after the year:

Dawkins (1972a, 1972 b) completed a number of studies on... 

Each source requires a separate reference list entry.

To refer to more than one work

Separate the references either with a semicolon or the word  and

(Entwistle 1977; Haddon 1969) or:

Entwistle (1977) and Haddon (1969) both demonstrated...

To refer to authors with the same family name who have published in the same year

Use their initials to indicate different people:

The theory was first developed early this century (Smith, A K 1979) but later many of its elements were refuted (Smith, J A 1979). 

Finding more information

The material in this guide is based on the 6th edition of the Government Style Manual:

Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 2002, 6th edn, revised by Snooks & Co., AGPS, Canberra.

For more detailed information and examples, we recommend that you consult this source, especially Chapter 12 (pp. 187-232). Copies of this Style Manual are available for loan at UNSW Library . 

Many faculties and schools at UNSW have style guides indicating how referencing for assignments should be done, so if you're not sure, check with them about which method to use.

It is impossible to include every referencing format in this guide. If you need referencing information for a format not listed here, seek further assistance from:

  • your lecturer or tutor
  • a Harvard referencing website (try an internet search)
  • or a style manual. Style manuals for different citation systems are available in the UNSW Library .

How to cite a website and online resources

Harvard referencing

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Leeds Harvard introduction

Common issues when using leeds harvard.

When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you:

Online items

Url web addresses, multiple authors, corporate author(s) or organisation(s), multiple publisher details, editions and reprints, missing details, multiple sources with different authors.

  • Sources written by the same author in the same year
  • Sources with the same author in different years
  • Two authors with the same surname in the same year

The work of one author referred to by another

  • Anonymising sources for confidentiality

You should reference the actual version of the item that you have read. This is especially important for items which are published both online and in print/paper format, as page numbers and other information may be different. The exception to this rule are journal articles, which should not be referenced as online items.

These three pieces of information should be included whenever you reference something you read online (except journal articles):

  • the date you accessed the article.

Example for an online book : Hollensen, S. 2011. Global marketing: a decision oriented approach. [Online]. 5th ed. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. [Accessed 10 September 2018]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/abstract/9780273726272

If you download or read a PDF from a website, you must reference the actual document type, for example a book chapter, a government report or a leaflet, not the file format (PDF).

Ensure that you are using the URL (web address) of the actual source document, and not the URL of the Library search result or other search engine (ie Google). URLs from Library search results have the words "primo.exlibrisgroup" in them.  

If you are using a reference manager such as EndNote or Mendeley, it is important to check the URL on items you have imported from databases or search engines, and amend it to the URL of the source document (rather than the database or search engine) where necessary. 

You should include all author names in the reference. Where a source has a very long list of authors, eg in the case of some scientific articles, you might wish to consult your tutor on whether to use "et al." in place of some author names.

Two authors

If the source has two authors, you should include both authors in the reference, with their names separated by "and".

Format your reference as Family name, INITIAL(S). and Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference: Ahmed, T. and Meehan, N. 2012. Advanced reservoir management and engineering . 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Gulf Professional Publishing.

In the citation, both names should be given.

Example citation: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Ahmed and Meehan, 2012).

If you have already named the authors in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example citation: Ahmed and Meehan (2012) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

Three or more authors

If the source has three or more authors, you should include "and" before the final author name.

Format your reference as: Family name, INITIAL(S)., Family name, INITIAL(S). and Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title . Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example reference: Clayden, J., Greeves, N. and Warren, S. 2012. Organic chemistry . 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

In the citation, if a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase “et al.”

Example citations:

  • It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011).
  • Jones et al. (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

If you are referencing a book with an editor rather than an author, this should be indicated in the reference.

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of editor). ed. Year. Title . Edition (only if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Crandell, K.A. ed. 1999. The evolution of HIV . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Wexler, P., van der Kolk, J., Mohapatra, A. and Agarwal, R. eds. 2012. Chemicals, environment, health: a global management perspective . Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

For an edited book with chapters written by different authors, see Book chapter (in an edited book) .

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author".

This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of an individual author. This could include government departments, universities and companies. Use them in the citation and reference in the same way as you would an individual author.

When you don't mention the corporate author name in your text, cite the author and the date of publication in brackets, often at the end of the sentence:

Example: According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2011)

If you have already named the author in your text, you only need to include the year in brackets.

Example: According to the Department of Health (2011), flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines.

Abbreviations or acronyms

You can use abbreviations or acronyms if you need to cite a corporate author several times. You might mention the same document a number of times, or refer to documents written in different years by the same corporate author, eg (NHS, 2017) and (NHS, 2016).

The first time you cite the corporate author use the full name followed by the standard abbreviation or acronym in square brackets, but before the year.

In your reference list or bibliography, use the corporate author name in full.

Example: (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 2011). When you cite from the same source again just write the abbreviation. For example: (OECD, 2011).

Example: The National Health Service [NHS] (2017) reported... For later citations, use the abbreviation and year. For example: (NHS, 2017).

If multiple publishers are listed, you should include only the first publisher listed, or the British one if it is a choice between a UK and an overseas publisher, in your reference list or bibliography.

Multiple places of publication

If multiple places of publication are listed, you should use the first place name given when writing your reference list.

If there is a town and county/state on the title page, you should just give the town. However, if there is more than one well-known town of that name you might want to give the state as well to make it clear.

Example: Stern, D.N. 2002. The first relationship: infant and mother . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

You should reference the year your edition was first published. Don't include any subsequent reprint dates, unless the publisher has changed, in which case you should reference the first date of publication of the new publisher's edition.

Example of a book reprinted by a different publisher (see the different editions in the library catalogue ): Achebe, C. 2006. Things fall apart . London: Penguin.

First check whether there is a corporate author . If there is no individual or corporate author, it is acceptable to use “Anon” in your reference.

You should also use “Anon” in your citation.

If you are referencing a book which has only a copyright year, you can use this date preceded with a "c", eg c2008.

If there is no publication date and no copyright date, use [no date].

Example reference: Jones, M. [no date]. Citations and referencing . London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Example citation: Jones (no date) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

Approximate dates

If you are referencing something with an approximate date of publication/creation, use the date preceded by ca.

Example reference: Le Sueur, E. ca. 1648-9. Alexander and his doctor . [Oil on canvas]. At: London: National Gallery. NG6576.

Example citation: Le Sueur (ca. 1648-9) told the story of Alexander the Great in his painting.

No page numbers

Page numbers are only included in your reference list or bibliography for a few types of reference, eg journal articles, newspapers, chapters in edited books. If the source has no page numbers, use [no pagination].

Example: Pajunen, K. 2008. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies . 39 (4), [no pagination].

In the citation, use (no pagination).

Example: "It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 1998, no pagination).

If you are citing specific information from a website that does not have page numbers, you do not need to include anything to indicate this in the in-text citation.

No publisher or place of publication

If you are unable to identify the publisher or the place of publication, use [no publisher] or [no place], as appropriate.

If you need to refer to two or more sources at the same time, these can be listed, separated by semicolons (;). The sources should be ordered by year of publication with the oldest first. If you have a source with no date, put it last.

Example: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Smith et al ., 1998; Roberts, 2005).

If more than one item was published in the same year, they should be listed alphabetically by author surname.

Example: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Andrews et al., 1998; Jones and Baker, 1998; Salmon, 2001).

Sources written in the same year by the same author(s)

If two or more sources have the same author(s) and are from the same year, they should be distinguished by adding a lower-case letter after the year (a, b, c, etc.).

Example: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998a). In a work published later that year, Jones (1998b) proposed that...

If you want to make a single reference to multiple sources from the same year by the same author, you can cite the sources together using the lower-case letters.

Example: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998a; Jones, 1998b).

Each citation should have a matching reference in the reference list.

  • Jones, M. 1998a. How to write academically . Leeds: Academic Press.
  • Jones, M. 1998b. Advanced writing tips . Leeds: Academic Press.

Sources written by the same author(s) in different years

If you need to refer to two or more sources by the same author in different years, there is no need to keep repeating the author's surname in the citation.

Include the surname and the oldest year first, then separate the other years by semicolons (;). The sources should be ordered by year of publication, with the oldest first.

Example: (Smith, 2001; 2005; 2013)

You must include all of the sources separately in your reference list or bibliography.

Sources written by two authors with the same surname in the same year

If two or more sources have authors with the same surname and were written in the same year, they should be distinguished by including the authors' initials in the relevant citations.

Example: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (R.F. Jones, 1998). In a work published later that year, C.B. Jones (1998) proposed that...

You should always try to track down the original work, but if this is not possible and you intend to cite the ideas of one author that you have found in the work of another, your in-text citation must include the author of the ideas you are using, the source in which you found them, and the page number.

Example: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998, cited in Carol, 2001, p.9).

In your reference list or bibliography, you should only give the details of the source in which you found the ideas. In the above example, you would include the work by Carol, 2001.

If the reader wants to find the full reference details of the original work by Jones, they should be available in the list of references in Carol's work.

Anonymising sources for confidentiality 

You should always use the specific template for the format you are using eg report / leaflet / interview etc but sometimes it may be necessary to anonymise sources to maintain confidentiality. For instance, sensitive medical reports, identity of school placements, or legal sources. In some circumstances you could use terms such as ‘Pupil B’ or ‘Placement school’ instead of actual names. The anonymised part of the institution and title should be in square brackets to indicate substitution.

Example reference:

NHS Trust (Name withheld). 2016.  Costs and implications of project beta in intensive care . Unpublished confidential document.

[Placement school]. 2019.  [Placement school] examination criteria for pupils with dyslexia . Leeds: [Placement school].

Example citation:

The records they produced (Placement school, 2019) …

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How to cite authors in Harvard style?

Create a spot-on reference in harvard.

Select a source type:

  • Journal article
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  • All types...
  • Archival document
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  • Complete reference
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This article presents the principles of giving authors' names in bibliographic references. For the rules of giving authors' names in the text of your paper, see the article on in-text citations in accordance with the Harvard style .

How to cite authors in a list of references

General case.

In accordance with the Harvard citation style , the names of all authors should generally be given; the order of the names is to be the same as in the source itself. The details of an author are presented as their last name and initials separated by a comma:

Last Name ,  Initials

Attention: A dot is put after each element of the initials.

If a source has more than one author, the conjunction 'and' is put before the last author's details:

Last Name, Initials of the 1 st author , Last Name, Initials of the 2 nd author and Last Name, Initials of the 3 rd author

Attention: No comma is put before the conjunction 'and'.

Examples in a list of references:

Fitzgerald,   F.   S., (2012). The Great Gatsby . London: Max Bollinger.

Plaza,   J., Dámek,   F., Villena,   I., Innes,   E.   A., Katzer,   F. and Hamilton,   C.   M., (2020). Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in retail meat samples in Scotland. Food and Waterborne Parasitology  [online]. 20 , article no: e00086. [Viewed 20 January 2021]. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00086

Source with a great number of authors

In certain cases, a source may have a great number of authors, up to several thousand. When it is either impossible or impractical to provide the full list of authors in a bibliographic reference, the Harvard citation style allows giving the data of the first author only followed by 'et al.':

Last Name, Initials of the 1 st author et al.

Example in a list of references:

Aaij,   R. et al., (2020). Searches for low-mass dimuon resonances  [online]. [Preprint]. [Viewed 10 January 2021]. Available from: doi: 10.1007/JHEP10(2020)156

Source with a group author (organisation, institution, etc.)

If a source's author is an organisation, an institution, etc., its name is given at the beginning of the reference, there where individuals authors' names are given:

British Standards Institution, (2005). Food safety management systems — Requirements for any organization in the food chain BS EN ISO 22000:2005. London: British Standards Publications.

Source without a credited author

If the author of a source is unknown, the title of the work is given instead of the author's name at the beginning of the reference:

An easy vanilla cake recipe [online], (2021). House & Garden . [Viewed 11 January 2021]. Available from: https://www.houseandgarden.co.uk/recipe/simple-vanilla-cake-recipe

Editors, translators, and other contributors

If a source has not only a credited author but also an editor, a compiler, etc., the respective contributor's full name is given in the reference together with their role:

Shakespeare,   W., (2007). Complete works . Edited by Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen. New York, NY: Modern Library.

For an edited source without a credited author, the editor's name is given instead of the author's data, as well in the inverted form (initials after last name), with the role abbreviation 'ed. / eds.' added:

Chandler,   D. and Sisk,   T.   D., eds., (2013). Routledge handbook of international statebuilding . Abingdon: Routledge.

If you are referencing a part of an edited source, the names of the editors are indicated with the initials before the last name:

Le   Pelley,   M.   E., Griffiths,   O. and Beesley,   T., (2017). Associative accounts of casual cognition. In: M.   R.   Waldmann, ed. The Oxford handbook of casual reasoning . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–28.

For a translated source, the translator's  full name is given in the reference, together with the language of the original work (if available):

Knausgård,   K.   O., (2014). Boyhood island . Translated from Norwegian by Don Bartlett. London: Harvill Secker.

Other citation styles:

  • What is APA Style (7th ed.)?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in APA (7th ed.)
  • APA 7 vs APA 6: key differences
  • How to cite authors?
  • How to format the references page with APA (7th ed.)?
  • In-text citations
  • Dictionary/encyclopedia/dictionary entry/encyclopedia article
  • Dissertation (thesis)
  • Software / mobile app
  • Video game / computer game
  • What is MLA Style (8th ed.)?
  • Examples of references in works cited in MLA (8th ed.)
  • How to format the works cited page in MLA (8th ed.)?
  • What is Chicago Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – notes and bibliography (17th ed.)
  • How to format the bibliography page?
  • Notes and in-text citations
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – author-date (17th ed.)
  • What is Harvard referencing style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Harvard style
  • Online video
  • What is IEEE Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in IEEE Style
  • How to format the references pages in IEEE Style?
  • What is Vancouver Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Vancouver Style

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  • Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples

Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples

Published on 20 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.

In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name(s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears.

If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available.

Scribbr’s free Harvard reference generator can instantly create accurate references for a wide variety of source types:

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Table of contents

Online-only journal articles, articles with multiple authors, referencing a whole issue of a journal, referencing a preprint journal article, frequently asked questions about referencing journal articles in harvard style.

To reference an online journal article with no print version, always include the DOI if available. No access date is necessary with a DOI. Note that a page range may not be available for online-only articles; in this case, simply leave it out, as in this example.

Online-only article with no DOI

When you need to reference an online-only article which doesn’t have a DOI, use a URL instead – preferably the stable URL often listed with the article. In this case, you do need to include an access date.

Note that if an online article has no DOI but does have a print equivalent, you don’t need to include a URL. The details of the print journal should be enough for the reader to locate the article.

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cite 3 authors harvard

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Journal articles often have multiple authors. In both your in-text citations and reference list, list up to three authors in full. Use the first author’s name followed by ‘ et al. ’ when there are four or more.

When you want to reference an entire issue of a journal instead of an individual article, you list the issue editor(s) in the author position and give the title of the issue (if available) rather than of an individual article.

When you reference an article that’s been accepted for publication but not yet published, the format changes to acknowledge this.

If it’s unknown where or whether the article will be published, omit this information:

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 15 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-journal-article-reference/

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cite 3 authors harvard

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COMMENTS

  1. Referencing multiple authors in Harvard style

    When referencing a source that has four or more authors, use " et al." to shorten your list of authors mentioned. For in-text citations, use " et al." in italics after the surname of the first author. The meaning of "et al." is 'and others'. See this guide on when to use et al. in Harvard style for more details.

  2. How do I cite a source with multiple authors in Harvard style?

    How do I cite a source with multiple authors in Harvard style? In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ' et al. '. Smith, T. (2014) …. Smith, T. and Jones, F. (2014) ….

  3. Citing authors with Harvard

    The surname and initial(s) of all the authors should appear in the full reference for the source. The rest of the reference should follow the usual style for the type of source you are citing. In-text citation: (Rogers et al., 2018) Reference list: Rogers, L., Hallam, S., Creech, A. and Preti, C. (2018).

  4. Harvard In-Text Citation

    Up to three authors are included in Harvard in-text citations. If there are four or more authors, the citation is shortened with et al. Harvard in-text citation examples; 1 author (Smith, 2014) 2 authors (Smith and Jones, 2014) 3 authors (Smith, Jones and Davies, 2014) 4+ authors

  5. LibGuides: Harvard Referencing: Books with 3 or more authors

    Books with 3 or more authors - points to note. The reference should contain all the authors' names - you do not put et al. in a reference, it is purely for citation purposes (within the text) Again, the order of the authors' surnames should be retained. When referring to the book within the text (citing), et al. is used.

  6. LibGuides: Harvard Style Guide: Book with two or three authors

    Place of publication: Publisher. Example: Shalloway, A., Murphy T. and Trott, J. (2001) Design patterns explained: a new perspective on object-oriented design. 3rd edn. London: Addison Wesley. In-Text-Citation: First author Last name, second author last name and third author Last name (Year) (First author Last name, second author last name and ...

  7. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  8. Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

    There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database. For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library's ...

  9. Harvard referencing style with multiple authors

    Updated August 15, 2021. This guide looks in-depth at referencing sources with multiple authors in the Harvard referencing style. It covers sources with two or three authors and sources with four or more authors. Since Harvard style often varies by institution, this guide follows the standards used in the 11th edition of Cite them right by ...

  10. LibGuides: Harvard Referencing: Citing three or more authors

    Example of a direct citation within the text 3 or more authors - Paraphrasing. As demonstrated by Morris et al. (2002) leadership should concern everyone within an organisation, not just senior management. Example of a direct citation within the text 3 or more authors - Direct quote: Listening is a skill which all leaders should acquire.

  11. Harvard Citation Style: All Examples

    The authors should be listed in alphabetical order. Two or three authors or authoring bodies. When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page: (Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995)

  12. How to Cite Sources in Harvard Citation Format

    The full reference of in-text citations appears in the reference list. In Harvard referencing, in-text citations contain the author (s)'s or editor (s)'s surname, year of publication and page number (s). Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form: Mitchell (2017, p. 189) states.. Or (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

  13. How to Cite Sources in Harvard Citation Format

    The full reference of in-text citations appears in the reference list. In Harvard referencing, in-text citations contain the author (s)'s or editor (s)'s surname, year of publication and page number (s). Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form: Mitchell (2017, p. 189) states.. Or (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

  14. In-Text Citations

    If a work has three or more authors, you should only include the first author's name followed by et al. (Et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia, which means "and others."). The implementation of postpartum contraceptive programs is both costly and time consuming (Ling et al., 2020). Attributing a point to more than one source

  15. Free Harvard Referencing Generator [Updated for 2024]

    A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style. It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

  16. PDF Chicago

    Harvard Guide to Using Sources Harvard College Writing Program One Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 1 ... Citing a source with two or three authors If you are citing a source with two or three authors, list their names in your note in the order they appear in the original source. In the bibliography, invert only the name of the first author

  17. In-text citation

    In-text citation. Harvard style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people's work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year. There are two styles of citation, known as author-prominent and information-prominent. Both styles are equally acceptable and you can use both styles within one ...

  18. How to Cite References with Harvard Referencing

    Reproduce the text word-for-word and place quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. The author, date and page number must be included. "Australia is a settler society" (Hudson and Bolton 1997, p. 9). To cite a paraphrase or a short summary of an author's words or ideas. Restate the original words/ideas in your own words.

  19. How to Cite a Book in Harvard Style

    When citing a book with three authors, follow the first author's initial (s) with a period and a comma, then after the second author's initial (s) place a period followed by "and" before the final author's surname and initial (s). For example: White, K., Williams, B. and Willig, L. (2016) The Forgotten Room. New York: Berkley Publishing.

  20. Harvard Style Bibliography

    Formatting a Harvard style bibliography. Sources are alphabetised by author last name. The heading 'Reference list' or 'Bibliography' appears at the top. Each new source appears on a new line, and when an entry for a single source extends onto a second line, a hanging indent is used: Harvard bibliography example.

  21. Leeds Harvard introduction

    In the citation, if a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase "et al." Example citations: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011). Jones et al. (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent. Editor(s)

  22. How to cite authors in Harvard style?

    In accordance with the Harvard citation style, the names of all authors should generally be given; the order of the names is to be the same as in the source itself. The details of an author are presented as their last name and initials separated by a comma: Last Name , Initials. Attention: A dot is put after each element of the initials.

  23. Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles

    In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name (s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears. If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available. In-text citation example. (Poggiolesi, 2016)