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Growth, Resilience, Empathy, Acceptance, Teamwork
T: Telephone 02 6382 1166
E: Email [email protected]
Referencing accurately. It's critical
Citation makers and referencing.
Young High School uses the Harvard system of citation (also called the author/date system), which is mandatory in most local universities, TAFE and other training colleges.
The school teacher-librarian is able to assist students to compile bibliographies, in-text referencing and footnotes. Ensuring that you reference your work correctly is now a critical element of your research and learning. The following sites can help to generate a bibliography when resource details are inserted. For more information on where to find the information and how to insert the details, consult with the teacher-librarian.
Why must I cite my sources?
- I cannot claim the work or ideas of someone else as my own
- Plagiarism is not just when I directly copy words from someone else's work. Plagiarism is also when someone else's work is paraphrased or their ideas are used and claimed as my own
- Referencing has a positive effect and adds credibility to my work
- When I reference correctly, I am demonstrating that (a) I have read widely on the topic and (b) that I am supporting my hypotheses with comments from expert authors and/or reliable sources
- Correct referencing allows the marker/reader to follow-up my references and check the validity of my arguments for themselves.
A bibliography generator can be helpful in accurately pulling together your sources. Some useful bibliography generators include:
- Cite this for me: www.citethisforme.com
- Neil's Toolbox: http://www.neilstoolbox.com/bibliography-creator
- Sydney TAFE: http://www.sydneytafe.edu.au/sites/default/files/custom/bibliographies/index.php
Citing material from the internet/websites
When citing web sites or pages which may change it's important to make a note of the date you accessed the page or retrieved information from the page, and also note the URL of the page.
Websites can sometimes be difficult to cite as you might have to draw information from different areas of the webpage or website to put into your citation. Some information, like authorship or publication date can be hard to find or identify. The brief video tutorial will give you some useful tips on where to look for information to make your citation as complete as possible.
Basic format for citing a book or e-Book
Author(s) family name, initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.
Further explanations on referencing can be obtained from these sites:
address Campbell Street Young NSW, 2594
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We would like to pay our respects and acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land and also pay respect to Elders both past and present.
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How to create a bibliography or reference list
A list of all cited source materials, known as a bibliography or reference list , must be included at the end of your essay.
They are divided into two sections: primary sources and secondary sources . Each of these sections need to be in alphabetical order .
Each bibliographical reference needs:
- the author's last name followed by their first initial(s)
- the year of publication
- the name of the work (in italics)
- the publication details
What is the difference between a bibliography and a reference list?
Depending on the assessment task, you will either be asked to create a bibliography or a reference list. Here are the differences between the two:
- A bibliography lists all of the materials that have been consulted during your research, regardless of whether or not you've quoted from them
- A reference list states only the sources that you've quoted in your assignment
Regardless of which you're required to create, you must follow the formatting shown below.
Correct Format for Different Source Types
These examples use the popular APA (American Psychological Association) referencing style.
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year of Publication). Name of book . City of Publication: Name of Publishing Company.
Academic Journal Articles
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month day OR Season - if known - of publication). Article title. Name of Journal the Article Appeared In , Journal Volume Number (Issue or Part Number), page number(s) of the article.
Newspaper or Magazine Articles
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month day of publication). Article title. Name of Newspaper/Magazine , page number(s) of the article.
Speaker's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month Day Speech was Given). Title of Speech. Institution, City the Speech was Given at/in.
Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year of Publication). Name of webpage. Retrieved from URL.
Ancient Author's Name. Name of Ancient Work. (Name of Modern Translator that You're Using, trans.). Location of Modern Translation's Publisher: Name of Modern Translation's Publishing Company, Year of Modern Translation's Publication.
Referencing a Source Found in Another Source
On some occasions you find a source in the pages of different source. Your first task should be to try and quote the source you have found separately from the book that it is in. Do this, look in the bibliography of the book in order to gain the necessary details.
However, if you cannot find the information necessary to create a separate bibliographical entry, you will need to create a bibliographical entry that acknowledges the book that the source was found in.
To do this you will need:
- as many of the details that you can find of the source you are using. (Anything you don't know is left out).
- the full bibliographical details of the book it was found in, along with the page number in the book where the source was found. This is preceded by the phrase "As found in" and the entire bibliographical reference is placed in brackets.
Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon , Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, pp. 903).
Example Reference List
Appian. The Civil Wars . (John Carter, trans). New York: Penguin, 1996.
Department of Defence. (1959). Strategic basis of Australian defence policy . Canberra: Department of Defence.
Department of Defence. (1976). Defence White Paper . Canberra: Department of Defence.
Millar, T. (1979). The political-military relationship in Australia . Strategic and Defence Studies Centre Working Paper , 6, p. 12.
Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon , Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, p. 903).
Dibb, P. (2007). The self-reliant defence of Australia: The History of an Idea . (As found in Huisken, R., & Thatcher., M. (eds). History as policy: Framing the debate on the future of Australia’s defence policy . Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, p. 11-26).
Horner, D. (1997). Security objectives . (As found in Mediansky, F. (ed). Australian foreign policy: Into the new millennium . South Melbourne: Macmillan, p. 73-92).
Lawson, E. (2009). The Australian defence environment . Australian Defence Force Journal , 179, p. 70-81.
White, H. (2007). Four decades of the defence of Australia: Reflections on Australian defence policy over the past 40 years . (As found in Huisken, R & Thatcher, M. (eds). History as policy: Framing the debate on the future of Australia’s defence policy . Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, p. 163-187).
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Citing your Sources- Grade 7
When researching, it is important to cite your sources. Doing this helps to increase the credibility of your work, helps other people find more information on the topic and helps you to avoid plagiarism (claiming someone else’s work or ideas as your own).
This post includes information on how to cite your sources in MLA format, and what this should look like at the Grade 7 level. Follow these steps or refer to them as you create a works cited page for your projects.
A GUIDE TO Citing your Sources
What information to give.
Depending on the source, you are required to give different information. I will go through the 3 most common, Books, Websites and Encyclopedias:
NOTE: *with each of these if there is no author listed, skip to the title
Author (Last Name, First Name). Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Date Published.
Example: Jameson, George P. Ellis Island. Icon Press, 2006.
Author (Last Name, First Name.) Title of Article. Title of Website. Date published or last updated. <URL link>. Date accessed. Example: Walker, Gary. “The Effects of Radiation.” Hiroshima Atom Bomb. 15 Mar. 2000. Los Alamos Research Facility. 14 Oct. 2008 <http://www.larf.org/hiro/radeffect.htm> 24 Mar. 2022.
Author (Last Name, First Name.) Title of Article. Name of Encyclopedia. Edition Year. <URL link if online>. Date accessed.
Example: ”Irrigation.” Britannica School , Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Mar. 2022. school.eb.com/levels/middle/article/irrigation/275094. Accessed 28 Mar. 2022.
USED ANOTHER TYPE OF SOURCE?
CLICK HERE TO FIND OUT HOW TO CITE IT!
Click below to download a Bibliography template Bibliography Template- Fillable
Using a citation generator (bibme).
Click here to get started with Bibme
Formatting your works cited page.
For instructions on how to do this, see this video:
- Library Guides
APA 7th Referencing
- Sample Reference List
APA 7th Referencing: Sample Reference List
- In-text referencing
- Compiling a Reference list
- Citing tables and figures
- DOIs and Live hyperlinks
- Secondary sources
- Journal Articles
- Reports & Grey Literature
- Conference Materials
- Datasets, Software & Tests
- Social Media
- Images, tables & figures
- Sound & video
- Legislation & Cases
- Personal Communications
- Standards & Patents
- Course Notes or Course Presentations
- Generative AI
On this page
- What is a reference list in APA?
- APA sample reference list
What is a reference list in APA
Your Reference List should be located on a separate page at the end of your assignment titled: References. It should include the full details of all your in-text references (excluding personal communications), arranged alphabetically A-Z by author surname, see Sample Reference List below. The terms ‘Bibliography’ and ‘Reference List’ are often used interchangeably, however a reference list only includes items you have referenced in your assignment whereas, a bibliography also includes items used to prepare your assignment (check with your lecturer or tutor which they require). Other points to note:
- List works with no author under the first significant word of the title.
- Indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (5-7 spaces).
- Use double spacing.
- Use the centred heading in bold: 'References'.
APA Sample Reference List
Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2018, February 14). Smarty plants [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab . WNYC. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/smarty-plants
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Childhood education and care (No.4402.0). https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Lookup/4402.0Main+Features1June%202017?OpenDocument
Blakey, N., Guinea, S., & Saghafi, F. (2017). Transforming undergraduate nursing curriculum by aligning models of clinical reasoning through simulation. In R. Walker & S. Bedford (Eds.), Research and Development in Higher Education: Vol. 40. Curriculum Transformation (pp. 25-37). Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. http://www.herdsa.org.au/research-and-development-higher-education-vol-40-25
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2017). Understanding the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and girls: A joint project with the Australian Human Rights Commission . Australian Government. https://pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/factsheet-supporting-indigenous-women-girls.pdf
Egan, D. (Writer), & Weyr, T. N. (Director). (2019, October 14). Take my hand (Season 3, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), The good doctor . ABC Studios; Sony Pictures Television.
Fletcher, D. P. (2018). Disrupters: Success strategies from women who break the mold . Entrepreneur Press.
Hernández-Romero, L. (2017). Re-evaluating creativity: The individual, society, and education . Palgrave Macmillan.
Haile, L., Gallagher, M., & Robertson, R. J. (2015). Perceived exertion laboratory manual: From standard practice to contemporary application . Springer. https://doi-org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1917-8
Idato, M. (2018, May 10). Art of cutting humanity down to size. The Age: Green Guide , 20.
Ireland, P. (Director). (2016). Pawno [Film]. Toothless Pictures.
Johnson, A. (2018, May 24). “It doesn’t need to be this way”: The promise of specialised early intervention in psychosis services . IEPA. https://iepa.org.au/network-news/it-doesnt-need-to-be-this-way-the-promise-of-specialised-early-intervention-in-psychosis-services/
Marion, T., Reese, V., & Wagner, R. F. (2018). Dermatologic features in good film characters who turn evil: The transformation. Dermatology Online Journal , 24(9), Article 4. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1666h4z5
markps2. (2017, May 31). For researchers to study… when people stop taking “Antipsychotics also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers” they can have withdrawal. [Comment on the article "What triggers that feeling of being watched?"]. Mind Hacks . https://mindhacks.com/2017/05/26/what-triggers-that-feeling-of-being-watched/#comments
Moran, A., & Toner, J. (2017). A critical introduction to sport psychology (3 rd ed.). Routledge.
Mosek, E. (2017). Team flow: The missing piece in performance [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]. Victoria University Research Repository. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/35038/
Ooi, Daniel. (2018, October 31). Session 3 presentation: AEB1804 Young People in a Global Community [Course presentation]. First Year College, Victoria University. https://login.vu.edu.au/cas/login?service=http://vucollaborate.vu.edu.au&forceAuthentication=form
Overton, P. (Executive Producer). (2018, July 17). The truth about getting fit [TV documentary]. BBC TV.
Pearson, J. (2018, September 27-30). Fat talk and its effects on state-based body image in women [Poster presentation]. Australian Psychological Society Congress, Sydney, NSW, Australia. http://bit.ly/2XGSThP
Perry, S. M. (Ed.). (2018). Maximizing social science research through publicly accessible data sets . IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-3616-1
Power, J. (2011). Movement, knowledge, emotion: Gay activism and HIV/AIDS in Australia . ANU E Press. https://www.doabooks.org/doab?func=search&query=rid:15033
Ruxton, C. (2016). Tea: Hydration and other health benefits. Primary Health Care , 26 (8), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.7748/phc.2016.e1162
Shah, T. H. (2018). Big data analytics in higher education. In S. M. Perry (Ed.), Maximizing social science research through publicly accessible data sets (pp. 38-61). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-3616-1
Standards Australia, & Standards New Zealand. (2018). Interior and workspace lighting part 2.5: Hospital and medical tasks (AS/NZS 1680.2.5-2018). SAI Global. https://www.saiglobal.com/
Western Health. (2019). 2018-19 annual report . http://www.westernhealth.org.au/AboutUs/CorporatePublications/Documents/AnnualReport/WH_Annual_Report_%202018-19.pdf
Woodman, D. (2018, May 16). Internships have much to offer but provisions are necessary to ensure the young truly benefit. The Australian , 29.
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- Subject guides
- Referencing and Citation Styles
Referencing and Citation Styles: APA 7th
- Chicago 17th A
Official APA 7th referencing manual
The official published manual for APA 7th is:
- Publication manual of the American Psychological Association : the official guide to APA style. (7th ed.). (2020). American Psychological Association Available in print
Alternative guides when the published manual is not available:
- Academic Writer (Learn section)
- APA Style Blog Useful source of FAQs and up to date information on referencing websites from APA
References in the body of your essay
The APA in text reference is in the format (author, date) . When directly quoting from a text you must include a page number in the citation as given in the examples below. Including page numbers in all other circumstances is not required however, it is best practice to do so when referring to part of a work (e.g. a paragraph or chapter in a book). When referring to an entire work that covers a single topic (e.g. a journal article) it is not required.
Referencing an idea
- Anxiety and depression have been identified as more commonly in children and adolescents with long-term physical conditions (Dantzer, 2003; Pinquart & Shen, 2011).
- Dantzer (2003), Pinquart and Shen (2011) all state that anxiety and d epression has been identified as more commonly in children and adolescents with long-term physical conditions.
Referencing a quotation
- Indeed, one researcher commented that “technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients” (Lumby, 2001, p. 44).
Citing a source within a source
Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:
- (Halliday, 1987, as cited in Unsworth, 2004, p. 15)
Only Unsworth will appear in the Reference list at the end of your assignment
Your reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication. The APA 7th style requires the references to be indented as illustrated below in the examples.
For instances of multiple articles with the same authors and years of publication, please check the APA publication manual or Academic Writer. If you have the DOI for the journal article, you should include it in the reference, otherwise, it is not nec essary.
- De Vaus, D. A. (2014). Surveys in social research. Allen & Unwin.
- McKenzie, H., Boughton, M., Hayes, L., & Forsyth, S. (2008). Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. In I. Morley & M. Crouch (Eds.), Knowledge as value: Illumination through critical prisms (pp. 209-224). Rodopi.
- Cheung, J. M. Y., Bartlett, D. J., Armour, C. L., Laba, T. L., & Saini, B. (2018). To drug or not to drug: A qualitative study of patients’ decision-making processes for managing insomnia. Behavioral Sleep Medicine , 16 (1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2016.1163702
Note: Remove library ezproxy link from the URL of any references you've sourced via the library i.e. .ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au
Webpage with an author and no exact date of publication
World Health Organization. (2018). Climate change and health . https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health
Webpage with no author, and with an exact date of publication
Webpage with organisational author and content that changes frequently, newspaper article.
Johanson, S. (2019, November 13). World’s most sustainable shopping centre takes roots. The Sydney Morning Herald . https://www.smh.com.au/business/companies/world-s-most-sustainable-shopping-centre-takes-root-in-the-suburbs-20191112-p539rf.html
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2019). Hospitals at a glance 2017-18 . https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/hospitals/hospitals-at-a-glance-2017-18/report-editions
Company and Industry Reports
Vuong, B. (2018, November). Coffee shops in Australia: IBISWorld industry report (OD5381). IBISWorld. http://www.ibisworld.com
- University of Sydney Supplementary Guide to APA 7th Style We have compiled a brief guide to introduce you to the basics of APA referencing and provides examples of common reference types.
- APA Style: Style and Grammar Guidelines Overview from APA regarding the use of APA Style.
- APA Clinical Practice Reference Examples APA blog also provides guidance on common references for clinical tools & publications such as UpToDate, Cochrane reviews, mobile apps & more.
Best of Academic Writer
Academic Writer is APA's tool fully integrated with Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
Learn - see quick guides and video tutorials which help you master academic writing in APA Style.
Learn -- Sample References - find examples of references such as, books, book chapters, journal articles, technical or research reports, conference proceedings, audiovisual materials, web resources, etc.
FAQs answered on Academic Writer
- How to cite a secondary source (tutorial)
- How to cite references in text such as one work by 3 authors or more (click Formatting In-Text Citations)
- How to reference different authors with the same surname
- How to reference multiple authors and group authors (e.g. NHMRC) (click Group Authors)
- How to reference website or webpage (tutorial)
- How to reference audio visual materials ie image, photograph, YouTube video, podcast etc (tutorial)
- How to reference audio visual materials ie image, photograph, YouTube video, podcast etc An excerpt of the guidance in the style manual
Architecture, Design & Planning (ADP) Students
You will find detailed videos on how to use and properly acknowledge images, as well as coding & 3D models in your Academic Skills Portal
- ADP Academic Skills Portal Canvas site for ADP students only
- University of Queensland APA 7th Guide
- University of Newcastle APA 7th Guide
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